Document Detail

Acute toxicity and acetylcholinesterase inhibition in grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) and oysters (Crassostrea virginica) exposed to the organophosphate dichlorvos: laboratory and field studies.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  17171303     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
The use of various organophosphates to control mosquito populations is a common practice across the globe. We review the literature (LC50s) on dichlorvos, the primary breakdown product of Dibrom, and use laboratory and field experiments to determine the lethal and sublethal (bioassays) effects of dichlorvos on two widely distributed and ecologically important estuarine invertebrate species, the marsh grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio and the Eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica. Laboratory results based on LC50s and sublethal acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition activity bioassays indicate that adult grass shrimp are more sensitive (approximately 500 x ) to dichlorvos than juvenile oysters. Although potentially an important factor for intertidal or shallow-dwelling estuarine organisms, the toxicity of dichlorvos was not enhanced in the presence of simulated sunlight for adult P. pugio. The most notable decreases in AChE activity were for grass shrimp and oysters exposed to dichlorvos concentrations above those considered ecologically relevant. In field experiments, both species were deployed in cages in unsprayed (n = 2) and sprayed (n = 3) sites and water samples collected pre- and post-spraying. Quantifiable dichlorvos levels were measured at the two narrowest creek treatment sites following mosquito spraying, suggesting that overspray can occur and there was evidence of a sublethal AChE response at these same sites. However, experiments at the widest creek revealed no measurable dichlorvos or sublethal responses. Results from this research suggest that adult grass shrimp are more sensitive to dichlorvos than juvenile oysters. Spraying near small tidal creeks may have measurable impacts on resident species, while larger (wider) creeks appear to be capable of buffering organisms from transient fluxes of mosquito control agents that may enter the system.
Majbritt Bolton-Warberg; Loren D Coen; John E Weinstein
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Archives of environmental contamination and toxicology     Volume:  52     ISSN:  0090-4341     ISO Abbreviation:  Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.     Publication Date:  2007 Feb 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2007-01-09     Completed Date:  2007-02-27     Revised Date:  2007-07-17    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0357245     Medline TA:  Arch Environ Contam Toxicol     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  207-16     Citation Subset:  IM    
Grice Marine Laboratory, College of Charleston, 205 Fort Johnson Road, Charleston, SC 29412, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Acute Toxicity Tests
Age Factors
Analysis of Variance
Cholinesterase Inhibitors / analysis,  toxicity*
Dichlorvos / analysis,  toxicity*
Environmental Pollutants / analysis,  toxicity*
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Lethal Dose 50
Mosquito Control
Ostreidae / drug effects*
Palaemonidae / drug effects*
South Carolina
Species Specificity
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Cholinesterase Inhibitors; 0/Environmental Pollutants; 62-73-7/Dichlorvos

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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