Document Detail

Acute effect of smoking on gallbladder emptying and refilling in chronic smokers and nonsmokers: a sonographic study.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  17006996     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
AIM: To ultrasonographically evaluate the acute effects of smoking on gallbladder contraction and refilling in chronic smokers and nonsmokers.
METHODS: Fifteen chronic smokers (21-30 years old) and fifteen nonsmokers (21-35 years old) participated in this study. Chronic smokers were selected among the volunteers who had been smoking for at least 5 years and 10 cigarettes per day (mean 17.5/d). Examinations were performed in two separate days. In the first day, basal gallbladder (GB) volumes of volunteers were measured after 8-h fasting. After the examinations, participants had a meal containing at least 30-40 gram fat. Gallbladder volume was assessed at 5, 15, 30, 60, 120 and 180 min after the meal. In the second day, participants smoked 2 cigarettes after 8-h fasting. Then, they had the same meal, and gallbladder measurements were repeated at the same time points. Same procedures were applied to both groups.
RESULTS: The mean starving GB volumes were 23.3 +/- 3.3 mL in the first day, 21.9 +/- 3.0 mL in the second day in nonsmoker group and 18.3 +/- 3.0 mL in the first day, 19.5 +/- 2.8 mL in second day in smoker group. There was no significant difference between starving GB volumes. We did not find any significant difference between the GB volumes measured at 5, 15, 30, 60, 120 and 180 min in the first and second days in nonsmoker group. In smokers, post cigarette GB volume was found significantly higher at 5, 15 and 30 min which corresponded to GB contraction phase (P < 0.05). Control GB volume measurements were not significantly different between the two groups. Post-smoking GB volumes were also not significantly different between the two groups.
CONCLUSION: Smoking prolongs the maximal GB emptying time both in smokers and in nonsmokers though it is not significant. It delays GB contraction in chronic smokers and causes a significant decrease in GB emptying volume. Smoking causes no significant delay in GB refilling in both smokers and nonsmokers. These effects of smoking observed in acute phase result in bile stasis in GB. Bile stasis is the underlying cause of most GB disorders in chronic process.
Bumin Degirmenci; Ramazan Albayrak; Alpay Haktanir; Murat Acar; Aylin Yucel
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Evaluation Studies; Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  World journal of gastroenterology : WJG     Volume:  12     ISSN:  1007-9327     ISO Abbreviation:  World J. Gastroenterol.     Publication Date:  2006 Sep 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2006-09-28     Completed Date:  2006-11-03     Revised Date:  2014-09-08    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  100883448     Medline TA:  World J Gastroenterol     Country:  China    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  5540-3     Citation Subset:  IM    
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MeSH Terms
Bile / metabolism
Cholecystokinin / metabolism
Gallbladder / anatomy & histology,  physiology*,  ultrasonography*
Gallbladder Emptying / physiology*
Muscle Contraction / physiology
Muscle, Smooth / physiology
Organ Size
Postprandial Period / physiology*
Smoking* / adverse effects
Time Factors
Reg. No./Substance:

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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