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Activation of p21-Dependent G1/G2 Arrest in the Absence of DNA Damage as an Antiapoptotic Response to Metabolic Stress.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22593801     Owner:  NLM     Status:  PubMed-not-MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
The folate enzyme, FDH (10-formyltetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase, ALDH1L1), a metabolic regulator of proliferation, activates p53-dependent G1 arrest and apoptosis in A549 cells. In the present study, we have demonstrated that FDH-induced apoptosis is abrogated upon siRNA knockdown of the p53 downstream target PUMA. Conversely, siRNA knockdown of p21 eliminated FDH-dependent G1 arrest and resulted in an early apoptosis onset. The acceleration of FDH-dependent apoptosis was even more profound in another cell line, HCT116, in which the p21 gene was silenced through homologous recombination (p21(-/-) cells). In contrast to A549 cells, FDH caused G2 instead of G1 arrest in HCT116 p21(+/+) cells; such an arrest was not seen in p21-deficient (HCT116 p21(-/-)) cells. In agreement with the cell cycle regulatory function of p21, its strong accumulation in nuclei was seen upon FDH expression. Interestingly, our study did not reveal DNA damage upon FDH elevation in either cell line, as judged by comet assay and the evaluation of histone H2AX phosphorylation. In both A549 and HCT116 cell lines, FDH induced a strong decrease in the intracellular ATP pool (2-fold and 30-fold, respectively), an indication of a decrease in de novo purine biosynthesis as we previously reported. The underlying mechanism for the drop in ATP was the strong decrease in intracellular 10-formyltetrahydrofolate, a substrate in two reactions of the de novo purine pathway. Overall, we have demonstrated that p21 can activate G1 or G2 arrest in the absence of DNA damage as a response to metabolite deprivation. In the case of FDH-related metabolic alterations, this response delays apoptosis but is not sufficient to prevent cell death.
Authors:
L Alexis Hoeferlin; Natalia V Oleinik; Natalia I Krupenko; Sergey A Krupenko
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Genes & cancer     Volume:  2     ISSN:  1947-6027     ISO Abbreviation:  Genes Cancer     Publication Date:  2011 Sep 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-05-17     Completed Date:  2012-08-23     Revised Date:  2013-05-29    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101516546     Medline TA:  Genes Cancer     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  889-99     Citation Subset:  -    
Affiliation:
Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA.
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