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Activation of Electrophilicity of Stable Y-Delocalized Carbamate Cations in Intramolecular Aromatic Substitution Reaction. Evidence for Formation of Diprotonated Carbamates Leading to Generation of Isocyanates.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23025848     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Although cations with three heteroatoms, such as monoprotonated guanidine and urea, are stabilized by Y-shaped conjugation and such Y-conjugated cations are sufficiently basic to be further protonated (or protosolvated) to dications in strongly acid media, only O-monoprotonated species have been detected in the case of carbamates even in magic acid. We found that the trifluoromethanesulfonic acid-catalyzed cyclization of arylethylcarbamates proceeds to afford dihydroisoquinolones in high yield. In strong acids, methyl carbamates are fully O-monoprotonated, and these monocations do not undergo cyclization even under heating. But, as the acidity of the reaction medium is further increased, the cyclization reaction of methyl phenethylcarbamates starts to proceed as a first-order reaction, with a linear relationship between rate and acidity. The sign and magnitude of the entropy of activation DeltaS++ were found to be similar to those of other AAc1 reactions. These results strongly support the idea that further protonation of the O-protonated carbamates is involved in the cyclization, but the concentration of the dications is very low, and suggest that the rate-determining step is dissociation of methanol from the diprotonated carbamate to generate protonated isocyanate, which reacts with the aromatic ring. Therefore, O-protonated carbamates are weak bases in sharp contrast to other Y-shaped monocations.
Hiroaki Kurouchi; Kyoko Kawamoto; Hiromichi Sugimoto; Satoshi Nakamura; Yuko Otani; Tomohiko Ohwada
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2012-10-1
Journal Detail:
Title:  The Journal of organic chemistry     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1520-6904     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Org. Chem.     Publication Date:  2012 Oct 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-10-2     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  2985193R     Medline TA:  J Org Chem     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
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