Document Detail

Acid-Catalyzed Transformation of Ionophore Veterinary Antibiotics: Reaction Mechanism and Product Implications.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23373828     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Ionophore antibiotics (IPAs) are polyether antimicrobials widely used in livestock industry and may enter the environment via land application of animal waste and agricultural runoff. Information is scarce regarding potential transformation of IPAs under environmental conditions. This study is among the first to identify the propensity of IPAs to undergo acid-catalyzed transformation in mildly acidic aquatic systems and characterize the reactions in depth. The study focused on the most widely used monensin (MON) and salinomycin (SAL), and also included narasin (NAR) in the investigation. All three IPAs are susceptible to acid-catalyzed transformation. MON reacts much more slowly than SAL and NAR and exhibits a different kinetic behavior that is further evaluated by a reversible reaction kinetic model. Extensive product characterization identifies that the spiro-ketal group of IPAs is the reactive site for the acid-catalyzed hydrolytic transformation, yielding predominantly isomeric and other products. Toxicity evaluation of the transformation products shows that the products retain some antimicrobial properties. The occurrence of IPAs and isomeric transformation products is also observed in poultry litter and agricultural runoff samples. Considering the common presence of mildly acidic environments (pH 4 - 7) in soils and waters, the acid-catalyzed transformation identified in this study likely plays an important role in the environmental fate of IPAs.
Peizhe Sun; Hong Yao; Daisuke Minakata; John C Crittenden; Spyros G Pavlostathis; Ching-Hua Huang
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2013-2-4
Journal Detail:
Title:  Environmental science & technology     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1520-5851     ISO Abbreviation:  Environ. Sci. Technol.     Publication Date:  2013 Feb 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2013-2-4     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0213155     Medline TA:  Environ Sci Technol     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
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