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Accidental Intravenous Infusion of Air: A Concise Review.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23132089     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
The unintended intravenous infusion of small volumes of air is common in clinical practice. International Electrotechnical Commission guidelines for infusion pumps permit infusion of up to 1 mL in 15 minutes and discount bubbles smaller than 50 μL. A review of the literature, however, suggests that these limits may be too generous. Neonates and patients with right-to-left cardiac shunts (eg, patent foramen ovale [PFO]) are at risk from lower volumes. Because PFO is prevalent in 20% to 27% of healthy adults and generally asymptomatic, all patients are at risk from small air bubbles, although clinically significant air embolism from intravenous infusion is rare. Attention to good clinical practice and use of an inline air filter should be considered to reduce any risk.
Authors:
Robert G Wilkins; Martin Unverdorben
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of infusion nursing : the official publication of the Infusion Nurses Society     Volume:  35     ISSN:  1539-0667     ISO Abbreviation:  J Infus Nurs     Publication Date:  2012 Nov 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-11-7     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101124170     Medline TA:  J Infus Nurs     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  404-408     Citation Subset:  -    
Affiliation:
B. Braun Medical Inc. (Dr Wilkins); B. Braun of America, Inc. (Dr Unverdorben). Robert Wilkins, MBChB, FRCA, is a former anesthesiologist and critical care physician with more than 20 years' experience in the medical device industry. He has a consulting practice focused on medical device development. Dr Wilkins is a paid consultant to B. Braun Medical Inc. Martin Unverdorben, MD, PhD, is a tenured professor of medicine at the Medical School at the University of Frankfurt/Main, Germany and a board-certified internist and cardiologist (Germany). He previously worked as a practicing physician for more than 20 years and has more than 2 decades of clinical and nonclinical research experience. He served B. Braun of America, Inc. as the chief medical officer and senior vice president of medical scientific affairs.
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