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The AII amacrine cell connectome: a dense network hub.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  25237297     Owner:  NLM     Status:  In-Data-Review    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
The mammalian AII retinal amacrine cell is a narrow-field, multistratified glycinergic neuron best known for its role in collecting scotopic signals from rod bipolar cells and distributing them to ON and OFF cone pathways in a crossover network via a combination of inhibitory synapses and heterocellular AII::ON cone bipolar cell gap junctions. Long considered a simple cell, a full connectomics analysis shows that AII cells possess the most complex interaction repertoire of any known vertebrate neuron, contacting at least 28 different cell classes, including every class of retinal bipolar cell. Beyond its basic role in distributing rod signals to cone pathways, the AII cell may also mediate narrow-field feedback and feedforward inhibition for the photopic OFF channel, photopic ON-OFF inhibitory crossover signaling, and serves as a nexus for a collection of inhibitory networks arising from cone pathways that likely negotiate fast switching between cone and rod vision. Further analysis of the complete synaptic counts for five AII cells shows that (1) synaptic sampling is normalized for anatomic target encounter rates; (2) qualitative targeting is specific and apparently errorless; and (3) that AII cells strongly differentiate partner cohorts by synaptic and/or coupling weights. The AII network is a dense hub connecting all primary retinal excitatory channels via precisely weighted drive and specific polarities. Homologs of AII amacrine cells have yet to be identified in non-mammalians, but we propose that such homologs should be narrow-field glycinergic amacrine cells driving photopic ON-OFF crossover via heterocellular coupling with ON cone bipolar cells and glycinergic synapses on OFF cone bipolar cells. The specific evolutionary event creating the mammalian AII scotopic-photopic hub would then simply be the emergence of large numbers of pure rod bipolar cells.
Authors:
Robert E Marc; James R Anderson; Bryan W Jones; Crystal L Sigulinsky; James S Lauritzen
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article     Date:  2014-09-04
Journal Detail:
Title:  Frontiers in neural circuits     Volume:  8     ISSN:  1662-5110     ISO Abbreviation:  Front Neural Circuits     Publication Date:  2014  
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2014-09-19     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101477940     Medline TA:  Front Neural Circuits     Country:  Switzerland    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  104     Citation Subset:  IM    
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