Document Detail


ADHD after fetal exposure to maternal smoking.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  20176681     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
INTRODUCTION: Smoking during pregnancy has been reported to be associated with a twofold to fourfold increased risk of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the offspring. Genetic and socioeconomic confounders may contribute to this association. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between fetal exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy and ADHD, taking such potential confounders into consideration. METHODS: A register study in a population of 982,856 children, 6-19 years of age, born at term, and residents in Sweden in 2006 was conducted. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) of maternal smoking habits during pregnancy on ADHD medication in the 927,007 study subjects where maternal smoking habits were available from the Medical Birth Register in the presence of socioeconomic and parental psychiatric morbidity confounders. To adjust the analysis also for genetic confounding, we used a within-mother between-pregnancy approach in offspring of 26,292 mothers with inconsistent smoking habits (smoking/non-smoking) between pregnancies. RESULTS: The OR for ADHD medication in offspring of mothers who smoked >or=10 cigarettes/day was 2.86 (2.66-3.07) in the entire study population after adjustment for sex and age, while this same exposure yielded an OR of only 1.26 (0.95-1.58) when two pregnancies of the same mother were analyzed in a within-subjects design. DISCUSSION: Smoking during pregnancy has a strong association with ADHD in the offspring in the general Swedish population, but this risk is primarily explained by genetic and socioeconomic confounding.
Authors:
Frank Lindblad; Anders Hjern
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't     Date:  2010-02-22
Journal Detail:
Title:  Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco     Volume:  12     ISSN:  1469-994X     ISO Abbreviation:  Nicotine Tob. Res.     Publication Date:  2010 Apr 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2010-03-30     Completed Date:  2010-06-24     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9815751     Medline TA:  Nicotine Tob Res     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  408-15     Citation Subset:  IM    
Affiliation:
Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Uppsala University, SE-751 85 Uppsala, Sweden. frank.lindblad@neuro.uu.se
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Adolescent
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity / epidemiology*,  etiology*
Child
Female
Humans
Male
Pregnancy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects / epidemiology*
Smoking / adverse effects*
Young Adult

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine


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