Document Detail

A2-agonists in sheep: a review.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  16475998     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
OBJECTIVE: To review the use and adverse effects of alpha(2)-agonists in sheep. STUDY DESIGN: Literature review. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 'Pubmed' of the United States National Library of Medicine and 'Veterinary Science' of CAB International were searched for references relating sheep to alpha(2)-agonists. The bibliographies of retrieved articles were further scrutinized for pertinent references, and relevant articles were selected manually. RESULTS: Reports on the use of clonidine, xylazine, detomidine, romifidine, medetomidine and dexmedetomidine, MPV-2426 and ST-91 in sheep were found in the literature. Most of the studies described xylazine followed by medetomidine and clonidine. The literature on detomidine and romifidine in sheep was sparse. Reports included pharmacokinetic studies, evaluation of sedative, analgesic, and anaesthetic techniques with or without cardiovascular effects, and experimental investigations of adverse effects (mainly hypoxaemia) including the mechanisms of pulmonary oedema and impaired oxygenation after alpha(2)-agonist administration. CONCLUSIONS: A(2)-agonists are potent and effective analgesics in sheep. In combination with ketamine, they are frequently used for the induction and maintenance of anaesthesia, in this case analgesia is satisfactory. The degree of hypoxaemia which occurs with all commercially available alpha(2)-agonists is highly variable and depends on individual or breed-related factors; the most severe reactions occur after intravenous (IV) injection and during general anaesthesia. Clinical relevance Subclinical respiratory disease is common in sheep. Rapid IV injection of alpha(2)-agonists without supplementary oxygen should be avoided whenever hypoxaemia may be critical.
Sabine B R Kästner
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Veterinary anaesthesia and analgesia     Volume:  33     ISSN:  1467-2987     ISO Abbreviation:  Vet Anaesth Analg     Publication Date:  2006 Mar 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2006-02-14     Completed Date:  2006-06-14     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  100956422     Medline TA:  Vet Anaesth Analg     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  79-96     Citation Subset:  IM    
Equine Clinic, Section of Veterinary Anaesthesia, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
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MeSH Terms
Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists / adverse effects*,  pharmacology*
Analgesics / adverse effects,  pharmacology
Anti-Anxiety Agents / adverse effects,  pharmacology
Hypnotics and Sedatives / adverse effects,  pharmacology
Sheep Diseases / chemically induced
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists; 0/Analgesics; 0/Anti-Anxiety Agents; 0/Hypnotics and Sedatives

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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