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78 Cases Of Methemoglobinemia Induced By Vegetable Intake In Infants In North Spain. A Case-Control Study.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23287806     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
ABSTRACT: Acquired methemoglobinemia (MHb) induced in infants by intake of vegetables is a condition uncommonly reported in the literature. The purpose of this study was to study new vegetables involved and other epidemiological risk factors. METHODS: Seventy eight cases of diet-induced MHb seen in Pamplona from 1987 to 2010 are reported. Infant characteristics were collected, and a case-control study was conducted using as controls 78 age- and sex-matched infants selected at the same geographic area. Bivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to detect factors involved in MHb occurrence. SPSS 17 statistical software was used. Nitrate levels were tested in natural vegetables used to prepare purées. RESULTS: A clear relationship was found between MHb and use of borage (Borago officinalis) (O = 5.2; 95%CI = 1.1-24.6) and maybe chard (Beta vulgaris var. cicla) (OR = 2.0; 95%CI = 0.4-8.7), time from preparation to use (OR = 17.4, 95%CI = 3.5-86.3 if the purée had been prepared 24-48 hours before and OR = 24.9, 95%CI = 3.3-187.6 if prepared more than 48 hours before), and breastfeeding (OR = 10.4; 95%CI = 1.9-57.2). Tests confirmed that vegetables with the highest nitrate levels were borage (n = 15), with mean nitrate levels of 3968 mg/kg, and chard (n = 17), with mean levels of 2811 mg/kg. CONCLUSION: The main associated factors were shown to be time from purée preparation to use (>24 hours), use of certain vegetables (borage and chard), and breastfeeding. Nitrate levels in both vegetables implicated as etiological factors in acquired MHb are very high.
A Martinez; F Sanchez-Valverde; F Gil; N Clerigué; E Aznal; V Etayo; I Vitoria; M Oscoz
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2013-1-1
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1536-4801     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr.     Publication Date:  2013 Jan 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2013-1-4     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8211545     Medline TA:  J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
*Section of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition †Section of Pediatric Emergencies of the Department of Pediatrics. Hospital Virgen del Camino. Pamplona ‡Unit of Nutrition and Metabolism. Hospital Infantil Valencia §Food Analysis Laboratory. Institute of Public Health. Department of Health. Government of Navarre.
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