Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 757
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Savarimuthu, Xavier - - 2006
This study was conducted to monitor the changes in arsenic concentration during different seasons in a one-year period during 2002-2003 in selected tubewells in an arsenic-affected area in the district of South 24 Parganas in West Bengal, India, and to map the location of the wells. Seasonal variations in concentrations ...
Howard, Guy - - 2006
The provision of alternative water sources is the principal arsenic mitigation strategy in Bangladesh, but can lead to risk substitution. A study of arsenic mitigation options was undertaken to assess water quality and sanitary condition and to estimate the burden of disease associated with each technology in disability-adjusted life years ...
Sancha, Ana - - 2006
Coagulation technology has been used since 1970 in northern Chile for removing arsenic from drinking-water. This experience suggests that coagulation is an effective technology for the removal of arsenic. It is currently possible to reduce arsenic from 400 [micro]g/L to 10 [micro]g/L at a rate of 500 L/sec, assuming pH, ...
Josyula, Arun - - 2006
The study was conducted to measure the effectiveness of providing bottled water in reducing arsenic exposure. Urine, tap-water and toenail samples were collected from non-smoking adults residing in Ajo (n=40) and Tucson (n=33), Arizona, USA. The Ajo subjects were provided bottled water for 12 months prior to re-sampling. The mean ...
Joya, Sakila - - 2006
Arsenic contamination in drinking-water in Bangladesh is a major catastrophe, the consequences of which exceed most other man-made disasters. The national policy encourages the use of surface water as much as possible without encountering the problems of sanitation that led to the use of groundwater in the first place. This ...
Aziz, Sonia - - 2006
Widespread contamination of arsenic in Bangladesh has been jeopardizing the health of millions of people. Residents of Matlab, Bangladesh, are among the millions at risk. Using bivariate models in the analysis of survey data, knowledge of health risks and avoidance of arsenic exposure in response to widespread contamination of arsenic ...
Islam, Mohammad - - 2006
A simple flow-through system has been developed which makes use of wasted heat generated in traditional clay ovens (chullis) to pasteurize surface water. A hollow aluminium coil is built into the clay chulli, and water is passed through the coil during normal cooking events. By adjusting the flow rate, effluent ...
Li, Dasheng - - 2006
Arsenic exposure from burning coal with high arsenic contents occurs in southwest Guizhou, China. Coal in this region contains extremely high concentrations of inorganic arsenic. Arsenic exposure from coal-burning is much higher than exposure from arsenic-contaminated water in other areas of China. The current status and prevention strategies for arsenic ...
Huq, S.M. - - 2006
Arsenic contamination in groundwater in Bangladesh has become an additional concern vis-a-vis its use for irrigation purposes. Even if arsenic-safe drinking-water is assured, the question of irrigating soils with arsenic-laden groundwater will continue for years to come. Immediate attention should be given to assess the possibility of accumulating arsenic in ...
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Caldwell, Bruce - - 2006
The discovery of arsenic contamination in groundwater has challenged efforts to provide safe drinking-water to households in rural Bangladesh. Two nationally-representative surveys in 2000 and 2002 investigated water-usage patterns, water-testing, knowledge of arsenic poisoning, and behavioural responses to arsenic contamination. Knowledge of arsenicosis rose between the two surveys among women ...
Anstiss, Richard - - 2006
A conceptual model that can be applied to improve community-based drinking-water in crisis-type situations has been developed from the original general science and technology/development bridging concept and from a case study in Northwest Bangladesh. The main feature of this model is the strengthened role of communities in identifying and implementing ...
Maharjan, Makhan - - 2006
This paper summarizes the findings of surveys on arsenicosis cases conducted during 2001-2004 in terai, Nepal, by governmental and non-governmental organizations in their respective project areas and by some national and international institutes. Studies were conducted in six arsenic-contaminated districts of terai, namely Nawalparasi, Bara, Parsa, Rautahat, Rupandehi, and Kapilvastu. ...
McDonald, Corbett - - 2006
A survey was carried out to provide a representative assessment of prevalence and risk of arsenic-related skin lesions in relation to geographical distribution of arsenic in wells of rural Bangladesh as a necessary background for research into effects in pregnancy and cancer risks. A systematic random sample of 53 villages ...
Xiaojuan, Guo - - 2006
The most common health effects from drinking-water containing dissolved arsenic are skin abnormalities and lesions that are typically diagnosed as keratosis and pigment disorder. It was previously reported that the prevalence of cutaneous lesions was about 44% in arsenic-affected villages. However, there has been little research on the relationship between ...
Akhtar, Sk. - - 2006
This study was carried out among arsenic-exposed and non-exposed people of Bangladesh to assess and compare their cardiac status based on electrocardiographic (ECG) findings. For the purpose of the study, participants were included in three groups: arsenic-exposed persons with arsenicosis (arsenicosis group), arsenic-exposed persons without arsenicosis (non-arsenicosis group), and persons ...
Guifan, Sun - - 2006
Chronic arsenicosis is a newly-emerged public-health issue in China and many other Asian countries. Over 200 million people are estimated to be at the risk of high arsenic exposure from drinking-water in the Asian region. To protect people from the hazards of chronic arsenic poisoning, the Chinese Government has been ...
Knobeloch, Lynda - - 2006
During July 2000 January 2002, the Wisconsin Division of Public Health conducted a study in 19 rural townships. A high percentage of private drinking-water wells in these townships contained traces of arsenic. Residents were asked to collect well-water samples and complete a questionnaire regarding residential history, consumption of drinking-water, and ...
Tseng, Hung-Pin - - 2006
The association between chronic exposure to arsenic and peripheral neuropathy has been controversial in previous studies, which may be due to the influence of factors, such as age, gender, chronic diseases, occupational injuries, and arsenic exposure. To clarify the question of this association, a cross-sectional study was designed. In total, ...
Kwok, Richard - - 2006
This study examined 2,006 pregnant women chronically exposed to a range of naturally-occurring concentrations of arsenic in drinking-water in three upazilas in Bangladesh to find out relationships between arsenic exposure and selected reproductive health outcomes. While there was a small but statistically significant association between arsenic exposure and birth-defects (odds ...
Chen, Yu - - 2006
Epidemiological studies have linked high levels (>200 [micro]g/L) of chronic exposure to arsenic in drinking-water with elevated risks of several vascular diseases. In this pilot study, the association between low-level arsenic exposure and carotid artery intimal-medial thickness (IMT) was evaluated among 66 healthy, normotensive, relatively young individuals (mean age 35 ...
Ferreccio, Catterina - - 2006
The problem of arsenic in Chile was reviewed. In Chile, the population is exposed to arsenic naturally via drinking-water and by air pollution resulted from mining activities. The sources of arsenic were identified to estimate the exposure of population to arsenic through air, water, and food. Health effects, particularly early ...
Vahter, Marie - - 2006
This study assessed the exposure of pregnant women to arsenic in Matlab, Bangladesh, an area with highly-elevated concentrations of arsenic in tubewells, by measuring concentrations of arsenic in urine. In a defined administrative area, all new pregnancies were identified by urine test in gestational week 6-8, and women were asked ...
Mukherjee, Amitava - - 2006
The incidence of high concentrations of arsenic in drinking-water has emerged as a major public-health problem. With newer-affected sites discovered during the last decade, a significant change has been observed in the global scenario of arsenic contamination, especially in Asian countries. This communication presents an overview of the current scenario ...
Ahamed, Sad - - 2006
Based on several surveys during 1997-2005 and visits of a medical team to Eruani village, Laksham upazila, Comilla district, Bangladesh, the arsenic contamination situation and consequent clinical manifestations of arsenicosis among the villagers, including dermatology, neuropathy, and obstetric outcome, are reported here. Analysis of biological samples from patients and non-patients ...
Tofail, Fahmida - - 2006
Supplementation of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in infancy improves neuro-developmental outcomes, but there is limited information about the impact of supplementing pregnant mothers with DHA on the development of their infants. In a follow-up of a randomized, double-blind controlled trial with 400 pregnant mothers, the effects of supplementation of fish-oil or ...
Fonseca-Becker, Fannie - - 2006
This study tested whether the prediction of health-related knowledge (correct breastfeeding practices in this case) could be improved by including information about the composition of an individual's personal network above and beyond that predicted by his/her socioeconomic or demographic characteristics. Few studies have tested the predictive value of social networks, ...
Hieu, Nguyen - - 2006
A shortened version of the Dubowitz newborn neurological examination, recently re-assessed in rural Thailand, was applied to a group of 58 Vietnamese newborns. The aim was to establish the neurological status of newborns in this population for use in further studies and to compare with groups previously studied. Compared to ...
Wahed, M.A. - - 2006
The high prevalence of elevated levels of arsenic in drinking-water in many countries, including Bangladesh, has necessitated the development of reliable and rapid methods for the determination of a wide range of arsenic concentrations in water. A simple hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS) method for the determination of arsenic in ...
Wright, James - - 2006
The study was conducted to assess the effect of definition of episode on diarrhoeal morbidity and to develop a means of adjusting estimates of morbidity for the definition of episode used. This paper reports on a cohort study of 374 children, aged 9-32 months, in three African countries, which recorded ...
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Lee, Andy - - 2006
This study investigated whether under-nutrition affected time to hospitalization for recurrence of gastroenteritis in Australian children. Linked hospitalization records of all infants, born in 1995 and 1996 in Western Australia, who were admitted for gastroenteritis during their first year of life (n=1,001), were retrieved. A survival frailty model was used ...
Pulungsih, Sri - - 2006
The study compared the safety and efficacy of an oral rehydration salts (ORS) solution, containing 75 mmol/L of sodium and glucose each, with the standard World Health Organization (WHO)-ORS solution in the management of ongoing fluid losses, after initial intravenous rehydration to correct dehydration. The study was conducted among patients ...
Chatterjee, Nilesh - - 2006
Heterosexual transmission accounts for the majority of cases in India, an epicentre of the HIV/AIDS pandemic, with increasing rates of infection in married women contracting HIV from an infected spouse. Cultural roles and position of married women in Indian society render targeted risk-reduction programmes difficult. To investigate HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, perceptions, ...
Laverack, Glenn - - 2006
This paper reviews the literature on how empowerment can lead to an improvement in the health status of an individual, group, or community. There is a broad body of literature on empowerment, and this review has been designed to identify material, particularly case studies, that can be included within the ...
Roy, S.K. - - 2006
The effect of zinc deficiency on the function of the intestine to absorb water and electrolytes was studied in animal models, stimulated by Vibrio cholerae enterotoxin. Sprague-Dawley rats, used in the study, were divided into four groups: Zinc-deficient, ad libitum zinc-fed control, zinc weight-matched control, and zinc-deficient acutely-repleted. [sup.14]C-labelled polyethylene ...
Hong, Rathavuth - - 2006
The problems of food insecurity and under-nutrition remain particularly severe in countries recovering from recent wars or civil unrest, where improvements in economic conditions have tended to benefit the advantaged groups and resulted in widespread inequalities in health. Using information on 3,235 children aged 0-59 month(s) included in the 2000 ...
Stephenson, Rob - - 2006
This paper examined the influence of religion on the adoption of female sterilization, using data from the 1992/93 Indian National Family Health Survey. The influence of religion at both individual and district levels was examined, and a multi-level modelling methodology was used for assessing community variations in the influence of ...
Shortt, Rebecca - - 2006
Four different water sources (irrigation canals, small reservoirs, shallow wells, and tubewells), used for domestic purposes, in an irrigated area in southern Sri Lanka, were tested for Giardia spp. cysts and Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts. Identification of these parasites in water sources is important as these are increasingly recognized as causative ...
Hasan, Khundkar - - 2006
The incidence of aetiology-specific diarrhoea and the pathogenicity of infectious agents in a birth cohort (n=252) in rural Bangladesh were determined. Stool specimens or rectal swabs were collected from diarrhoeal cases over two years and routinely on a monthly basis. Stool samples from children with diarrhoea were compared with stool ...
Patel, Monica - - 2005
The study was a controlled, comparative clinical effectiveness trial of two supplementary feeding regimens in children at risk of malnutrition from seven centres in rural Malawi. Being at risk of malnutrition was defined as weight-for-height <85%, but >80% of the international standard. A stepped-wedge design with systematic allocation was used ...
Dancheck, Barbara - - 2005
This prospective study was carried out during February 2000--April 2003 to characterize the relationship between the status of carotenoids, vitamin E, and retinol and anthropometric status in apparently healthy infants and their mothers in Blantyre, Malawi. Anthropometric status of infants and concentrations of carotenoids ([alpha]-carotene, [beta]-carotene, [beta]-cryptoxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, and ...
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