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Bawadi, Hiba - - 2012
Food insecurity--not having sufficient quantities of good-quality foods--is inversely related to physical and mental health and directly related to poor dietary intake. The objectives of this research were to (a) measure the prevalence of food insecurity among women in northern Jordan, (b) study the socioeconomic factors associated with an increased ...
Viswanathan, Rajlakshmi - - 2012
Although sepsis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among newborns in resource-poor countries, little data are available from rural areas on culture-proven sepsis. The aim of the present study was to provide information in this regard. The study reports results on the incidence and aetiology of neonatal sepsis ...
Whaling, Melissa - - 2012
Recently, the food and malnutrition issues have taken centre stage within the arena of HIV/AIDS epidemic, with several calls being made for context-specific health and nutrition interventions to deal with the emerging food insecurity and malnutrition issues in settings with high burdens of HIV/AIDS. The use of probiotics as nutritional ...
Hasan, Md. - - 2012
Internalized stigma among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) is prevalent in Bangladesh. A better understanding of the effects of stigma on PLHA is required to reduce this and to minimize its harmful effects. This study employed a quantitative approach by conducting a survey with an aim to know the prevalence ...
Sudha, V.B. - - 2012
Microbially-unsafe water is still a major concern in most developing countries. Although many water-purification methods exist, these are expensive and beyond the reach of many people, especially in rural areas. Ayurveda recommends the use of copper for storing drinking-water. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect ...
Mandal, Jharna - - 2012
The antimicrobial susceptibility patterns are on constant change with the recent emergence of multidrug-resistant strains of most bacteria. Results of recent studies in India showed that most isolates of Vibrio cholerae O1 were resistant to the commonly-used antibiotics. The study was conducted to determine the antibiotic susceptibility patterns of V. ...
Ahmed, Tahmeed - - 2012
Although child and maternal malnutrition has been reduced in Bangladesh, the prevalence of underweight (weight-for-age z-score <-2) among children aged less than five years is still high (41%). Nearly one-third of women are undernourished with body mass index of <18.5 kg/[m.sup.2]. The prevalence of anaemia among young infants, adolescent girls, ...
Feizi, Awat - - 2011
The present study was aimed at investigating the awareness level about warning signs of cancer and its determinants in an Iranian general population. This cross-sectional interview-based survey investigated 2,500 people aged 18 years and over, as a representative sample of Tehran population. Latent class regression was applied for analyzing data. ...
Kose, Sukran - - 2011
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of the public-health issues worldwide. Approximately two billion people are infected with HBV, and about 350 million people are chronic carriers globally. About 3% of the world population is infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Oncology patients receiving packed red blood cell suspensions and ...
Milner, S.M. - - 2011
According to the practice guidelines of the American Burn Association on burn shock resuscitation, intravenous (IV) fluid therapy is the standard of care for the replacement of fluid and electrolyte losses in burn injury of [greater than or equal to] 20% of the total body surface area. However, in mass ...
Olusanya, Bolajoko - - 2011
Compared to singletons, multiple births are associated with a substantially-higher risk of maternal and perinatal mortality worldwide. However, little evidence exists on the perinatal profile and risk of neurodevelopmental disabilities among the survivors, especially in developing countries. This cross-sectional study, therefore, set out to determine the adverse perinatal outcomes that ...
Mohan, Pavitra - - 2011
At the current rate of decline in infant mortality, India is unlikely to achieve the Millennium Development Goal on child survival. Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness (IMNCI), adapted from the global Integrated Management of Childhood Illness to enhance the focus on newborns and on community health workers, is ...
Osamor, Pauline - - 2011
Hypertension is an important condition among adults, affecting nearly one billion people worldwide. Treatment with appropriate medication is a key factor in the control of hypertension and reduction in associated risk of complications. However, compliance with treatment is often sub-optimal, especially in developing countries. The present study investigated the factors ...
Johansson, Magdalena - - 2011
In developing countries, malnutrition among children is a major public-health issue. The aim of the study was to describe perceptions of Malawian nurses about nursing interventions for malnourished children and their parents. A qualitative method was used. Data were collected and analyzed according to the phenomenographic research approach. Twelve interviews ...
Xavier, Arun - - 2011
The balance between free radical production and antioxidant defenses in the body has important systemic and oral health implications. There is convincing evidence that breastmilk containing antioxidants is important in the prevention of diseases in infancy. This study compared the total antioxidant concentration of human breastmilk expressed at different stages ...
Siegel, Emily - - 2011
Despite concerns over the neurocognitive effects of micronutrient deficiencies in infancy, few studies have examined the effects of micronutrient supplementation on specific cognitive indicators. This study investigated, in 2002, the effects of iron-folic acid and/or zinc supplementation on the results of Fagan Test of Infant Intelligence (FTII) and the A-not-B ...
Gupta, Anamika - - 2011
Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public-health problem in India, having the highest number of incident and multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB cases. The study was carried out to appraise the prevalence of first-line anti-TB drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and its patterns among different types of TB patients from different settings ...
Kim, Soon - - 2011
Pneumonia and influenza are leading causes of morbidity and mortality across the globe. Korea has established the national health-insurance system to cover the entire Korean population since 1989. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiologic trends in pneumonia and influenza-associated hospitalizations and deaths using the Korean National ...
Sharmin, Sifat - - 2011
The detection of unusual patterns in the occurrence of diseases is an important challenge to health workers interested in early identification of epidemics. The objective of this study was to provide an early signal of infectious disease epidemics by analyzing the disease dynamics. A two-stage monitoring system was applied, which ...
Nkere, Chukwuemeka - - 2011
Bacterial count in prepared food or water is a key factor in assessing the quality and safety of food. It also reveals the level of hygiene adopted by food handlers in the course of preparation of such foods. This comparative study evaluated the bacteriological quality of food and water consumed ...
Pacheco, Gonzalo - - 2011
Field studies often use caregiver-reported diarrhoea and related symptoms to measure child morbidity. There are various vernacular terms to define diarrhoea that vary across the local cultural contexts. The relationship between vernacular definitions of diarrhoea and symptoms-based definitions is not well-documented. This paper describes the association of the vernacular Quechua ...
Laffan, Alison - - 2011
Antibiotic-associated diarrhoea (AAD) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality. Older individuals in long-term care facilities are particularly vulnerable due to multisystem illnesses and the prevailing conditions for nosocomial infections. Lactoferrin, an antimicrobial protein in human breastmilk, was tested to determine whether it would prevent or reduce AAD, including ...
Oluwafemi, F. - - 2011
Five million children aged less than five years die annually due to diarrhoea. The aim of the study was to identify some possible contributing factors for persistent diarrhoea. Seven weaning foods, including a locally-made food, were evaluated by estimating the microbial load using the most probable number method and aflatoxin ...
Khanam, Masuma - - 2011
Data on multimorbidity among the elderly people in Bangladesh are lacking. This paper reports the prevalence and distribution patterns of multimorbidity among the elderly people in rural Bangladesh. This cross-sectional study was conducted among persons aged >60 years in Matlab, Bangladesh. Information on their demographics and literacy was collected through ...
Gipson, Jessica - - 2011
Bangladesh has experienced a rapid decline in fertility in the past several decades, facilitated by proactive population policies, provision of contraceptives, and broader societal shifts, encouraging smaller families and use of contraceptive to achieve revised childbearing norms. This paper presents 18 years of data from the Sample Registration System, a ...
Gupta, Shivam - - 2011
Due to an urgent need for information on the coverage of health service for women and children after the fall of Taliban regime in Afghanistan, a multiple indicator cluster survey (MICS) was conducted in 2003 using the outdated 1979 census as the sampling frame. When 2004 pre-census data became available, ...
Sharkey, Alyssa - - 2011
To examine how health caregivers in under-resourced South African settings select from among the healthcare alternatives available to them during the final illness of their infants. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 39 caregivers of deceased infants in a rural community and an urban township. Nineteen local health providers and community ...
Dhakal, Sulochana - - 2011
In Nepal, most births take place at home, and many, particularly in rural areas, are not attended by a skilled birth attendant. The main objectives of the study were to assess the use of skilled delivery care and barriers to access such care in a rural community and to assess ...
Senbanjo, Idowu - - 2011
Stunting adversely affects the physical and mental outcome of children. The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalence of and risk factors associated with stunting among urban school children and adolescents in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Five hundred and seventy children aged 5-19 years were selected using the multi-stage random-sampling ...
Olack, Beatrice - - 2011
Malnutrition in sub-Saharan Africa contributes to high rates of childhood morbidity and mortality. However, little information on the nutritional status of children is available from informal settlements. During the period of post-election violence in Kenya during December 2007-March 2008, food shortages were widespread within informal settlements in Nairobi. To investigate ...
Khatoon, Tahmina - - 2011
Integration of infant- and child-feeding index (ICFI) addressing the multidimensional child-feeding practices into one age-specific summary index is gaining importance. This cross-sectional study was aimed at understanding the association between the ICFI and the nutritional status of 259 children, aged 6-23 months, who attended the paediatric outpatient department of the ...
Kamiya, Yusuke - - 2011
The prevalence of undernutrition among Lao children is among the highest in the region. However, the determinants of childhood undernutrition in Laos have not been fully analyzed. This paper, using the dataset of the Lao Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 3, which is a nationally-representative sample in Laos, investigated the effects ...
Venkaiah, K. - - 2011
The prevalence of chronic energy deficiency (CED) among one-third of the Indian population is attributed to inadequacy of consumption of nutrients. However, considering the complexity of diets among Indians, the relationship between a particular dietary pattern and the nutritional status of the population has not been established so far. A ...
Schmidt, Wolf-Peter - - 2011
There is an ongoing interest in studying the effect of common recurrent infections and conditions, such as diarrhoea, respiratory infections, and fever, on the nutritional status of children at risk of malnutrition. Epidemiological studies exploring this association need to measure infections with sufficient accuracy to minimize bias in the effect ...
Oluwasola, A. - - 2011
In Africa, epidemiological data on the effect of the HIV epidemic on the occurrence of lymphomas are scanty. The 1990s witnessed the alarming rates of HIV/AIDS in Nigeria. The prevalence of HIV/AIDS in Nigeria increased from 1.8% in 1991 to 4.4% in 2005. The aim of this study was to ...
Nwobegahay, Julius - - 2011
Data on antiretroviral drug resistance among drug-naive persons are important in developing sentinel and surveillance policies. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of antiretroviral drug resistance mutations among drug-naive HIV-infected individuals attending a voluntary testing and counselling centre at the Mankweng Hospital in northeastern South Africa. In total, ...
Alam, Nur - - 2011
Cholera involves stimulation of intestinal secretory process in response to cholera toxin leading to profuse watery diarrhoea that might cause death due to dehydration unless timely rehydration therapy is initiated. Efforts to identify and test potential antisecretory agents are ongoing. Antisecretory factor (AF) is a naturally-occurring protein produced in the ...
Cangiano, M. - - 2011
A 60-year old Muslim man was admitted to the Dhaka Hospital of ICDDR,B with an exacerbation of his chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Incidental hyperpigmented skin lesions were noticed overlying the dorsum of his ankles, knees, and elbows. Such asymptomatic areas of thickened, lichenified and hyperpigmented skin are called 'prayer marks' ...
Alves, Joao - - 2011
High-energy diet and sedentary lifestyle fail to completely explain the epidemic of obesity in developing countries. In this cross-sectional survey, the prevalence and patterns of overweight/obesity were assessed among women in a slum in Brazil. Using anthropometric measurements, shorter form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), and a 24-hour ...
Oyediran, Kolawole - - 2011
This study examined the factors that influence condom-use among young never-married males in Nigeria. Such information can help improve the design of a prevention programme for young never-married, especially, males to reduce their vulnerability to sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV/AIDS transmission. Data were derived from the 2003 Nigeria Demographic ...
Patel, Mayur - - 2011
The aim of this observational study was to describe the profile of subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus from Gujarat, India. The study was performed with newly-diagnosed 622 type 2 diabetic subjects who attended the Department of Diabetology, All India Institute of Diabetes and Research and Yash Diabetes Specialties Centre ...
Khanal, Sudhir - - 2011
The mortality rates of infants and children aged less than five years are declining globally and in Nepal but less among neonates. Most deliveries occur at home without skilled attendants, and most neonates may not receive appropriate care through the existing medical systems. So, a community-based pilot programme--Morang Innovative Neonatal ...
Koski, Alissa - - 2011
The role of physical violence during pregnancy on receipt of prenatal care is poorly understood, particularly for South Asian countries that have high levels of both fertility and domestic violence. Data from the 1998/1999 Indian National Family Health Survey and a 2002/2003 follow-up survey that re-interviewed women in four states ...
Shaikh, Saijuddin - - 2011
Properties of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) reflect body-composition and may serve as stand-alone indicators of maternal health. Despite these potential roles, BIA properties during pregnancy and lactation in rural South Asian women have not been described previously, although pregnancy and infant health outcomes are often compromised. This paper reports the ...
Roy, S.K. - - 2011
This case-control study was conducted in the Dhaka Hospital of ICDDR,B to identify the risk factors of mortality in severely-malnourished children hospitalized with diarrhoea. One hundred and three severely-malnourished children (weight-for-age <60% of median of the National Center for Health Statistics standard) who died during hospitalization were compared with another ...
Liabsuetrakul, Tippawan - - 2011
An observational study was conducted in the four southernmost provinces of Thailand aiming at determining the effect of international or Asian criteria-based body mass index (BMI) in predicting maternal anaemia, low birthweight (LBW), and preterm births among pregnant Thai women and the change in haemoglobin (Hb) level during pregnancy. Maternal ...
Wang, Wenjuan - - 2011
The World Health Organization and the United Nations Children's Fund recommend using a new oral rehydration solution (ORS) plus zinc supplementation for 10-14 days for the treatment of diarrhoea in children aged less than five years. The Social Marketing Plus for Diarrhoeal Disease Control: Point of Use Water Disinfection and ...
Gebresilassie, Frehywot - - 2011
Promoting self-financing healthcare helps restore efficiency and equity to national health systems. This study was conducted in malaria-endemic areas of southern Ethiopia to assess the bednet possession of the community, determine the people's willingness-to-pay for insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs), and identify what factors influence it. The study provided relevant information for ...
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