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Layng, Zachary - - 2012
Behaviorally-designed educational programs are often based on a research tradition that is not widely understood by potential users of the programs. Though the data may be sound and the prediction of outcomes for individual learners quite good, those advocating adoption of behaviorally-designed educational programs may need to do more in ...
Johnson, Kent - - 2012
Morningside Academy is a third-level scientifically driven service organization (Johnston, 1996) consisting of a laboratory school and outreach to schools and agencies throughout the United States and Canada through its partnership with Morningside Teachers' Academy. The approach blends together a number of empirically validated practices to assist students in achieving ...
Phelps, Brady - - 2012
While discussions and demonstrations of classical conditioning are widely used in psychology courses, the details of habituation receive less attention. To illustrate the process of habituation of an unconditioned reflex, a demonstration was arranged in which a loud noise was presented repeatedly to elicit a startle reflex, to the point ...
Williams, W. - - 2012
Guided notes were employed in two undergraduate Psychology courses involving 71 students. The study design utilized an alternating treatments format to compare Traditional Lectures with Guided Notes lectures. In one of the two courses, tests were administered after each class lecture, whereas the same type of test was administered at ...
Cipani, Ennio - - 2012
This paper presents the empirical basis for the phenomena known as stimulus overselectivity. Stimulus overselectivity involves responding on the basis of a restricted range of elements or features that are discriminative for reinforcement. The manner in which such a response pattern impedes the skill acquisition in children is identified. A ...
Robbins, Joanne - - 2011
Problem solving, reasoning, and analytical thinking are defined and described as teachable repertoires. This paper describes work performed at a school serving special needs children, Morningside Academy, that has resulted in specific procedures developed over the past 15 years. These procedures include modifying "Think Aloud Pair Problem Solving"(after Whimbey & ...
Svenningsen, Louis - - 2011
Two experiments were conducted to assess an online version of Keller's personalized system of instruction, called computer-aided personalized system of instruction (CAPSI), as part of a blended learning design with regard to course knowledge and critical thinking development. In Experiment 1, two lecture sections of an Introduction to University course ...
Leon, Marta - - 2011
Reading comprehension can be considered a complex human performance involving two integrated repertoires: a verbal repertoire and an investigative (generative) repertoire. The analytical and reasoning skills necessary to demonstrate reading comprehension can be systematically taught by analyzing the verbal and investigative repertoires involved and then arranging instructional contingencies designed to ...
Sota, Melinda - - 2011
Reading comprehension can be considered a complex human performance involving two integrated repertoires: a verbal repertoire and an investigative (generative) repertoire. This paper describes an analysis of these repertoires in terms which can ultimately inform the design of programs to teach them, using the analysis and design of Headsprout[R] Reading ...
Layng, T.V. - - 2011
Reading comprehension can be considered a complex human performance involving two integrated repertoires: a verbal repertoire and an investigative (generative) repertoire. This paper describes the theoretical framework that formed the guiding foundation for the development of Headsprout[R] Reading Comprehension and to our approach to understanding and teaching thinking.
Singer-Dudek, Jessica - - 2010
The Comprehensive Application of Behavior Analysis to Schooling or CABAS[R] model is characterized by an organizational system of teacher training and mentoring by those with more expertise in the science of behavior analytic teaching. At the center of the system are the students, whose data drive the system. Decades of ...
Weiss, Mary - - 2010
Many learners with autism exhibit fluency deficits that manifest in several ways including laborious motor responses, long response durations and long latencies in responding. Such deficits can result in poor learning and social outcomes. This article discusses the application of rate-building instruction and key fluency concepts to remediate such deficits ...
Moors, Alison - - 2010
The American government set new standards mandating States to demonstrate adequate yearly progress for all students with the inception of the No Child Left Behind Act. To be eligible for the more recent Race to the Top funds, states must show, in part, a commitment to "building data systems that ...
Binder, Carl - - 2010
Precision teaching emerged from O.R. Lindsley's pristine application of Skinner's natural science of behavior, with a focus on response rate measurement and free operant procedures. When applied with human learners in instructional settings, these first principles led to a series of developments framed in this paper as four kinds of ...
Zane, Thomas - - 2010
The scientific method is the method of choice for studying phenomena that results in the highest level of objective believability. Without a basic understanding and appreciation of the tents of science and scientific inquiry, one is at risk for believing in cause and effect relationships that really don't exist and ...
Emurian, Henry - - 2010
A three-person team performance task (TPT) is described, and evaluative results are presented under conditions of individual fixed ratios required to complete a work component and a team fixed ratio required to complete a work component. After an initial team performed the task over four successive days, a member was ...
Arntzen, Erik - - 2010
Interteaching is a dyadic activity or a type of peer learning. In the last ten years this teaching pedagogy has been described in the behavior analytic literature (e.g., Boyce & Hineline, 2002). In the current study, we wanted compare the effect of interteaching with traditional lectures in a group of ...
- - 2010
Lanner, Traci - - 2010
In order to maximize the learning of skills, it is crucial that the most powerful reinforcement be used. Research describes several different methods of reinforcement preference assessments, including forced choice, free-operant, and multiple stimulus array procedures. Researchers have also tested many variables to determine their potential impact on reinforcer identification ...
Davis, Cheryl - - 2010
Determining effective reinforcers for individuals with disabilities is imperative for skill acquisition and behavior reduction. Various methodologies exist to determine reinforcer preference, and past research has shown that results vary across different techniques. The purpose of the current study was to assess which presentation methods were most efficient both in ...
Weiss, Mary - - 2010
In recent years, there has been a great deal of controversy regarding the definition and independence of Positive Behavioral Supports (PBS) within the context of behavioral intervention. Specifically, behavior analysts have argued over whether PBS is subsumed within Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) or whether it can be considered a separate ...
Ma, Hsen-Hsing - - 2010
The purpose of the present study was to apply the percentage of data points exceeding the median of baseline phase (PEM) approach for a meta-analysis of single-case experiments to compare the relative effectiveness of different kinds of reinforcers used in behavior modification. Altogether 153 studies were located, which produced 1091 ...
Derenne, Adam - - 2010
This paper describes materials designed for classroom projects on stimulus generalization and peak shift. A computer program (originally written in QuickBASIC) is used for data collection and a Microsoft Excel file with macros organizes the raw data on a spreadsheet and creates generalization gradients. The program is designed for use ...
Messling, Paul A., - - 2010
In an upper-division, college course with a lecture component and two laboratory sections, we experimentally evaluated a treatment package that included this contingency: "only if students attended lecture and submitted notes for each day's reading assignment could they use their notes during a later test," and instructions about the contingency. ...
Marr, Arthur - - 2010
A truism in psychology is that the activity of the striated musculature is maintained or reinforced by its consequences, and represents operant behavior. Yet, the striated musculature is divided into two main types that are different physiologically and are activated separately and not necessarily simultaneously. The question is whether they ...
Bloh, Christopher - - 2010
This study examined the use of a progressive delay procedure with and without a concurrent activity to teach self-control to children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Three participants were initially required to wait progressively longer periods of time for access to preferred edible reinforcers. After demonstrating this self-control, they were ...
Azulay, Richard - - 2010
The process of scheduling classroom observations--either for staff or for student performance data collection--is often done haphazardly or out of simple convenience. However, slapdash approaches to scheduling are rich with possible confounds to the validity of the data being collected. Due to the possibility of detrimental outcomes such as reactivity ...
Weatherly, Jeffrey - - 2010
Research suggests that individuals prefer self-determined reinforcers over experimenter-determined ones. The present study had 518 college students complete a delay-discounting task in which the commodity was cigarettes, a grocery store gift card, casino tokens, cash, or the choice of the four. The least amount of delay discounting was observed for ...
Kane, Meghan - - 2010
Research and services continue to expand to community-based programs serving individuals diagnosed with autism. A focus of great interest in those efforts is that of language acquisition and functional usage. For the purpose of this evaluation, language acquisition interventions are grouped into two broad categories, contrived and naturalistic. Contrived interventions ...
Olson, Ryan - - 2010
The current paper describes an approach for talking with safety professionals or other practitioners about the behavioral foundations of common health and safety problems. Four kinds of Motivational Traps for bad habits are reviewed (Pay-Off, Rare Events, Effort, and Sneaky Traps). This practical taxonomy lives in the introductory slides of ...
Rondal, Jean - - 2010
Structural linguistic and psycholinguistic approaches to morphosyntax are plagued with a major logicalempirical caveat that prevents the definition of a plausible explanatory theory. An alternative approach is presented viewing morphosyntactic regulations as operating on line according to sequential and associative principles learned implicitly.
Kostewicz, Douglas - - 2010
Researchers and practitioners often employ timeout procedures to manage inappropriate classroom behavior. When implemented inappropriately, however, timeout can result in dangerous situations and have received increased scrutiny (i.e., seclusion). The timeout ribbon procedure can prevent some of the dangerous situations associated with other forms of the punishment procedure. This review ...
Gaisford, Kristen - - 2010
The purpose of this study was to assess the extent of a generalized matching repertoire. Three children, ranging from two to four years of age, were selected from an early childhood developmental delay classroom. They were taught identical matching with six objects. After the children mastered those six objects, they ...
Falcomata, Terry - - 2010
We evaluated the effects of different schedules of prompting (dense and lean) and different concurrent schedules of reinforcement on response allocation among multiple mand topographies (microswitch activation, card touches, and vocal requests) during functional communication training (FCT) with an individual diagnosed with autism and mental retardation. Results suggested that specific ...
Hansford, Amy - - 2010
The importance of linking assessment to treatment for maladaptive behavior is well documented in the literature. Logically, it follows that once the motivating factors underlying problematic conduct are identified, practitioners are better prepared to address it. However, correctly identifying the function of the behavior unfortunately does not ensure effective implementation ...
Gadaire, Dana - - 2010
Applied behavior analysis (ABA) has clearly and undoubtedly aligned itself with other natural sciences by integrating basic and applied research for the mutual benefit of both fields (Mace, 1994). ABA has produced countless examples of effective technologies for behavior change, largely because of its connections with basic research. However, the ...
Manente, Christopher - - 2010
As individuals with autism age out of the educational system, families and practitioners are faced with a number of challenges, including placement concerns and limited behavioral support. Among the most significant concerns is the assessment and treatment of challenging behavior in this population. While assessment and treatment strategies have been ...
Sloman, Kimberly - - 2010
Descriptive analyses involve direct observation of behavior and environmental events in naturalistic contexts. Research in descriptive analysis has focused on a variety of areas including descriptions of naturalistic observations of behavior and environmental events, integration of descriptive and functional analyses, comparisons of outcomes from descriptive and functional analysis, and quantitative ...
Delfs, Caitlin - - 2010
Methods and outcomes from functional behavioral assessment have been researched widely over the past twenty-five years. However, several important research questions have yet to be examined sufficiently. This quantitative review of developmental disability research aims to make comparisons of different functional behavioral assessment methodologies, both across and within diagnostic categories. ...
Neuringer, Allen - - 2009
Reinforcers contingent on response variability exert powerful and precise control over levels of variability, from stereotypy to stochasticity. This paper reviews how variability-contingent reinforcers interact with non-contingent, eliciting events to influence the variability of operant responses. Relationships to stimulus control, choice, acquisition of new responses, voluntary action, autism, and ADHD ...
Dixon, Mark - - 2009
The present paper describes 3 experiments which sought to further investigate if arbitrary stimuli may enter into relations with terrorist and non-terrorist stimuli via a transformation of stimulus functions. Experiment 1 used a rating scale to measure perceptions of North American and Middle Eastern males appearing as "Terrorists" before and ...
Francisco, Monica - - 2009
Behavioral economics is the merger of microeconomic principles with the procedures and principles of the experimental analysis of behavior. This review describes two branches of behavioral economic research: variables affecting decision making and consumer demand. Each branch is discussed with an eye toward identifying behavioral economic principles that will be ...
Vollmer, Timothy - - 2009
For nearly a decade we ran studies in an operant (rat) laboratory. The purpose of these studies was to address phenomena that were pertinent to the application of behavioral principles and to better understand the nature of behavior. In this paper we will summarize the preliminary findings of two recent ...
Lattal, Kennon - - 2009
Resurgence describes a procedure, a particular behavioral effect (increases in previously reinforced responding during the extinction of another response), and a behavioral process. There are three phases in a resurgence procedure: reinforcement of a target response, reinforcement of an alternative response, and extinction of both responses. This review examines independent ...
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