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Lebrun, C. - - 2010
Local skin reactions to subcutaneous injections of interferon beta (IFNB) or glatiramer acetate (GA) in multiple sclerosis (MS) are frequent, while severe cutaneous toxicity is rare. Both IFNB and GA are immunomodulatory drugs that have excellent safety profiles and are currently used for treatment of MS. They are administered by ...
Arnason, B.G.W. - - 2010
At its final meeting, the MS Forum Executive Committee reviewed highlights of where things stood prior to the immunomodulatory era, and how things have evolved subsequently. What the future might hold was discussed in a second session. Prior to 1990: Genetic predisposition to multiple sclerosis (MS), as determined by human ...
Vitali, S.A. - - 2010
The ability to cope emotionally and experience quality of life (QoL) do not appear to be correlated with severity of disease or disability amongst people with multiple sclerosis (MS). An exploration of the health-related literature (trauma, chronic illness, disability, loss) from a resiliency perspective identifies a constellation of variables: personality ...
Das, T. - - 2010
Since multiple sclerosis (MS) has its onset at a young age, it is valuable to know how it affects life plans and future perspectives of patients. Through two narratives, this aspect is discussed in this article. The first is the autobiographical journal: The Journal of a Disappointed Man by WNP ...
Willoughby, Ernest - - 2010
The American Academy of Neurology (AAN) Annual Meeting was held in Toronto, Canada from 10-17 April, 2010. As usual, multiple sclerosis (MS) featured prominently with about 450 poster and platform presentations on various aspects. Highlights were presentations on the controversial theory of venous obstruction as a cause of MS and ...
Arnold, D.L. - - 2010
Although the diagnostic value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in multiple sclerosis (MS) is widely accepted, the clinical usefulness of routine MRI for monitoring the evolution of patients with MS is less widely accepted. It is not uncommon for clinicians to say that they 'treat the patient, not the MRI'. ...
Giovannoni, G. - - 2010
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, particularly symptomatic infection, is closely associated with multiple sclerosis (MS). The strength of this association, the interaction of EBV infection with genetic risk factors and emerging immunological data have resulted in some investigators arguing that this association may be causative. Causation, however, is a complex science ...
Arnason, B.G.W. - - 2010
Lenercept, a tumour necrosis factor (TNF) capture molecule, was tested in a double- blind, placebo-controlled Phase II trial in multiple sclerosis (MS). Most patients had relapsing-remitting disease. The code was broken once all patients had been treated for at least 24 weeks. Patients on the drug experienced one and a ...
Murray, T.J. - - 2010
In 1930 there were many conflicting views on the cause, incidence, precipitating factors, inheritance and treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). A young, London neurologist summarized the state of understanding of the disease with his personal view of many of the uncertain areas, and clarified the thinking for the neurological community ...
Aggarwal, A. - - 2010
Psychiatric disorders have been commonly recognized to be associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) during the course of the illness or as a result of the side effects of the drugs used for its management. There have been reports of MS patirents, presenting initially with pure psychiatric symptoms. Amongst these, atypical ...
Penner, I.K. - - 2010
The majority of patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) experience fatigue and for many subjects concerned it is the most disabling symptom. Fatigue is most prominent in the afternoon and may be aggravated by heat. It has a tremendous negative impact on quality of life and is often one of the ...
Fredrikson, S. - - 2010
The importance of analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), especially oligoclonal IgG bands, in the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) and its predictive value in patients with clinically isolated syndromes has recently been evaluated and confirmed in several studies. Despite the focus on magnetic imaging techniques in modern MS diagnostic criteria, ...
Elkhalifa, A.S. - - 2010
Immunosuppression and immunotherapy have developed as the primary mode of therapy for multiple sclerosis (MS) and are most effective in active, relapsing stages of the disease. Cyclophosphamide has been used in the treatment of MS for over 40 years. The effectiveness of cyclophosphamide and its ability to stabilize MS patients ...
Hoogs, M. - - 2010
In addition to physical disability, multiple sclerosis (MS) is increasingly recognized for its association with neuropsychological (NP) impairment, including cognitive deficits and disorders of mood and affect. NP impairment can occur as early as the first demyelinating episode. Often insidious in nature, NP impairment has a significant impact on a ...
- - 2009
Jones, J.L. - - 2009
Alemtuzumab, formally known as Campath-1H, is a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against CD52, a protein on the surface of lymphocytes and monocytes with unknown function. A single dose of alemtuzumab leads to a rapid, profound and prolonged lymphopenia. A Phase II trial has shown that alemtuzumab reduces the risk of ...
Murray, T.J. - - 2009
The first illustration of multiple sclerosis (MS) was by a young Scottish physician and artist, Dr Robert Carswell. Recognized as a talented illustrator by his teachers, he was encouraged to create an anatomy and pathology atlas. He spent years in the hospitals and mortuaries of Paris and Lyon painting watercolours ...
Trojano, M. - - 2009
The randomized controlled trial (RCT) is considered to be the 'gold standard' for providing evidence on drug efficacy. However, particularly for answering long-term questions in chronic diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS), RCTs are often not feasible because of their size, duration, ethical constraints and costs. Data derived from observational ...
Shams, P.N. - - 2009
Acute demyelinating optic neuritis (ON) is the initial presentation in approximately 20% of cases of multiple sclerosis (MS) and is characterized by unilateral, subacute, painful visual loss without systemic or neurological symptoms. The Optic Neuritis Treatment Trial (ONTT) has provided valuable insights into both the natural history and clinical course ...
Larner, A.J. - - 2009
Although cognitive problems in multiple sclerosis (MS) are increasingly recognized, acute amnesia in MS appears to be very rare. Hence, this presentation should always prompt consideration of other diagnoses. Nonetheless, as illustrated by the following case report, acute onset of demyelinating disease with the clinical phenotype of amnesia may on ...
Bates, D. - - 2009
Clanet, M. - - 2009
Sixteen years ago, there were no licensed treatments for multiple sclerosis (MS). Today, there are six Food and Drug Administration-approved therapies, with more on the horizon. Over the past few years a significant number of these new therapies have failed to fulfil their promise, but unanticipated developments have come to ...
Willoughby, E. - - 2009
Multiple sclerosis (MS) and related disorders again featured prominently at the Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) in Seattle, Washington, USA, with over 300 posters and platform presentations and eight educational courses on all aspects of the disease. There was extensive involvement throughout the meeting by registrants ...
Barnett, M.H. - - 2009
Neuropathological studies of early multiple sclerosis (MS) tissue have shaped prevailing views of the pathogenesis of the disease. The hallmark of the acute MS lesion, inflammatory demyelination, has been largely accepted as evidence of a macrophage-mediated attack on normal myelin, driven by perivascular and parenchymal autoreactive CD4+ Th1 cells primed ...
Labauge, P. - - 2009
White matter diseases are a frequent diagnosis problem in adult patients. They are divided into leucodystrophy, defined by abnormal white matter from the beginning, and leucoencephalopathy, with an initial normal white matter. In addition, two different natures have to be considered: vascular and non-vascular. Vascular diseases are mainly acquired and ...
Sibley, W.A. - - 2009
Forty-five years ago the first large multicentre, randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial of a potential therapy for multiple sclerosis (MS) was completed--testing corticotrophin versus placebo. It demonstrated the feasibility of such a trial in an illness which is as variable, from patient to patient, as MS. Adrenocorticotrophic hormone was soon replaced ...
Esiri, M.M. - - 2009
Understanding the molecular pathology of multiple sclerosis (MS) is crucial to interpretation of magnetic resonance imaging appearances in the disease and to developing new therapies. The pathology of MS has always been recognized to be heterogeneous, with the basis of this heterogeneity being hitherto largely attributed to differences in the ...
Pelletier, J. - - 2009
One of the main characteristics of multiple sclerosis (MS) is the existence of a 'clinico-radiological paradox'. The discrepancies observed between the clinical and radiological findings might be partly attributable to lack of specificity of the imaging measures, but also to functional reorganization mechanisms occurring at both the brain and spinal ...
Hofstetter, H.H. - - 2009
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is regarded as a T-cell-mediated autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS).
Dalgas, U. - - 2009
The use of physical exercise programmes in the rehabilitation of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) has been a controversial issue for many years. During the last decade, however, evidence from a number of studies has suggested that exercise is a safe and efficient way to induce improvements in a number ...
Mallam, E. - - 2009
Diagnosing multiple sclerosis (MS) is not always straightforward. The very nature of this disease means that it can manifest in multiple varied clinical presentations. Diagnosis is further confounded by the lack of a single diagnostic test and a gargantuan list of differential diagnoses. Traditionally the diagnosis of MS is a ...
Ebers, G.C. - - 2009
Waters, P. - - 2008
Background: Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a severe inflammatory demyelinating disease that predominantly affects the optic nerve and spinal cord. Since the discovery of a specific serum marker for NMO in 2004, and its subsequent identification as an antibody to aquaporin-4 (AQP-4), various methods have been developed to test for the ...
Schippling, Sven - - 2008
Monoclonal antibodies are a promising new class of therapeutic agents that can be employed to target specific molecules of the immune system or any tissue. They are currently being tested in a number of clinical trials in autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). One of these, the humanized monoclonal ...
Stutzer, P. - - 2008
The name of Wilhelm Uhthoff is associated with several aspects of progress in neurology in the 19th and 20th Century but is best known for his contribution to the pathophysiology of transient visual disturbance. Uhthoff was born on 31 July 1853 in Klein Warin, Germany and died on 21 March ...
Kleinschnitz, Christoph - - 2008
The development programme for novel therapies in multiple sclerosis (MS) has an impressive track record which is unique in the field of neurology, and has led to the approval of several drugs during the past decade. However, therapeutic prosperities face numerous trials that either failed to show efficacy or that ...
Tallantyre, E. - - 2008
Currently, licensed disease-modifying agents for multiple sclerosis (MS) all share the need for parenteral administration. Oral therapies would carry the advantage of convenience and greater acceptability. Teriflunomide is one of several oral agents currently undergoing Phase III investigation. This article describes the mode of action of teriflunomide which largely depends ...
Clanet, M. - - 2008
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