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Results 201 - 250 of 2109
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de Villiers, Francis - - 2012
Background. Rotavirus is the most important aetiological agent causing severe gastroenteritis in children <2 years of age in South Africa and worldwide. Most endemic neonatal nursery strains are thought to be asymptomatic. However, serious conditions have been reported to be associated with rotavirus infection, such as necrotising enterocolitis (NEC), diffuse ...
Blumenthal, Ryan - - 2012
South Africa has a rich history of lightning research; however, research on the clinical and pathological effects and features of lightning-related injury (keraunomedicine or lightning medicine) remains neglected locally. By providing an overview of keraunomedicine and focussing on South African perspectives, we hope to raise awareness and propose that a ...
Ramsoomar, Leane - - 2012
Objectives. To understand alcohol use trends and alcohol-related harm among youth in South Africa (SA) between 1998 and 2008, and discuss implications for the current alcohol policy process.
Parry, Charles - - 2012
Evidence from burden of disease and economic costing studies amply indicate that the public health burden from hazardous and harmful use of alcohol in South Africa warrants drastic action. Evidence that banning alcohol advertising is likely to be an effective intervention is reflected in WHO strategy documents on non-communicable diseases ...
Seggie, Janet - - 2012
Cheong, J.Y. - - 2012
Objectives. The incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections in intensive care units in Malaysia is significant. Invasive MRSA infections are commonly treated with vancomycin. In clinical practice, the serum vancomycin trough concentration is used as a surrogate marker of vancomycin efficacy. A low concentration of vancomycin may result in ...
Brink, Adrian - - 2012
New, effective antibiotics are only likely to become available in 15-20 years. To prevent deaths from untreatable Gram-negative infections in South Africa, the rights of any doctor, whether in general or in hospital practice, to indiscriminately prescribe whatever antibiotic they wish, and in whatever fashion, must be challenged. Furthermore, although ...
Phulukdaree, Alisa - - 2012
Background. Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) detoxify environmental agents which influence the onset and progression of disease. Dysfunctional detoxification enzymes are responsible for prolonged exposure to reactive molecules and can contribute to endothelial damage, an underlying factor in coronary artery disease (CAD).
Dandara, Collet - - 2012
Objective. Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a rare genetic condition in which progressive ossification of fibrous tissue, tendons and ligaments leads to severe physical handicap. Most affected individuals who have been studied have a recurrent 617G>A mutation in the ACVR1/ALK2 gene that codes for activin A type 1 receptor/activin-like kinase ...
Stefan, Daniela - - 2012
The South African Children's Tumour Registry was established 25 years ago as it was essential to collect data on malignant disease in the paediatric population that can be used for statistical research in an efficient and sustainable way. The Registry is a useful and significant repository of specific paediatric data, ...
Berg, Astrid - - 2012
Background. Access to infant and child psychiatric care in South Africa is limited. With focus on maternal and infant mental health, early identification and management of developmental, behavioural and psychosocial parent-child problems can be initiated.
Lorenzo, Theresa - - 2012
Purpose. This study compared access to 5 livelihood assets among disabled and non-disabled youth, to inform health professionals on inequities related to disability and to monitor the transformation agenda aimed at creating an inclusive society.
Perez, A.M. - - 2012
Objective. Reflecting on its role during apartheid, the Faculty of Health Sciences of the University of Cape Town (UCT) undertook a study to explore the experiences of black alumni who trained in the period 1945-1994.
Mark, Daniella - - 2012
Background. Traditional circumcision is practised among some indigenous tribes in South Africa (SA) such as the Xhosa. Recent experimental evidence has demonstrated the benefits of male circumcision for the prevention of HIV infection in heterosexual men. The acceptability of circumcision as a biomedical intervention mirroring an ingrained cultural practice, as ...
Morris, Alan - - 2012
Background. Antemortem and perimortem fractures in skeletons recovered from Later Stone Age burials in southern Africa demonstrate that people were, on occasion, the victims of severe trauma attributable to interpersonal violence.
Lamont, Kim - - 2012
Background. Many epidemiological, clinical and laboratory studies suggest that chronic and moderate consumption of red wine benefits cardiovascular health, because of the alcoholic content or the polyphenols/flavonoids.
Vaughan, Christopher - - 2012
Background. In an ancient papyrus, dating back to 2500 BC, an Egyptian named Imhotep, thought to be the first physician and engineer in history, offers a glimpse into the earliest recorded case of breast cancer. Treatment has evolved over the years, from radical mastectomy to radiation by X-rays, and from ...
Robertson, B. - - 2012
Objectives. Chemoradiation is the treatment of choice for squamous carcinoma of the anal canal, resulting in the same local control rates as surgery but with the advantage of organ function preservation. We aimed to review all cases of anal canal carcinoma treated at Groote Schuur Hospital between 2000 and 2004 ...
Krige, J.E.J. - - 2012
Background. Variceal bleeding (VB) is the leading cause of death in cirrhotic patients with oesophageal varices. We evaluated the efficacy of emergency endoscopic intervention in controlling acute variceal bleeding and preventing rebleeding and death during the index hospital admission in a large cohort of consecutively treated alcoholic cirrhotic patients after ...
Stuart-Clark, H. - - 2012
Objectives. Hospitalisation for medical illness has ongoing impact on individuals, healthcare services and society beyond discharge. This study's objective was to determine the 12-month mortality and functional outcomes of patients admitted to the acute medical service at Groote Schuur Hospital (GSH).
Rouillard, Susan - - 2012
Objectives. To determine activity limitations, participation restrictions, health-related quality of life and caregiver strain in community-dwelling stroke survivors discharged from an intensive inpatient rehabilitation programme at 6 months post stroke.
Wasserman, Sean - - 2012
Background. Stroke is an important cause of death and disability in sub-Saharan Africa. Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) thrombolysis is effective in treating acute ischaemic stroke, but may not be a viable option in developing countries.
Cook, Colin - - 2012
Objectives. To compare the results of phaco-emulsification cataract surgery and manual small-incision cataract surgery.
Heckmann, J.M. - - 2012
Objectives. To report the characteristics of juvenile-onset (<20 years) myasthenia gravis (MG) in Africa.
Pandie, Mishal - - 2012
Background. The greatest burden of disease in South Africa (SA) comes from infectious diseases (ID), with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) dominating the health landscape. However, other infections including community-acquired and imported infections and the rise in hospital-acquired infections pose a considerable threat to public health.
Owen, E.P. - - 2012
Background. Invasive meningococcal disease (MD), caused by Neisseria meningitidis infection, is endemic in South Africa, with a seasonal peak in winter and spring. There were 2 432 laboratory-confirmed cases between 2006 and 2010. Human deficiency of the fifth complement component (C5D) or complete absence of the sixth component (C6Q0) leads ...
Epstein, D. - - 2012
Background. Intestinal tuberculosis occurs mainly in the terminal ileum and caecum, where the concentration of bile acids is lowest, and rarely in the upper digestive tract.
Zar, Heather - - 2012
Childhood tuberculosis (TB) is common in high TB burden countries, contributing a substantial proportion to the TB caseload. The HIV epidemic has had a large impact on the incidence, diagnosis and management of childhood TB.
Wilkinson, Katalin - - 2012
Background. Tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) is an early complication of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Two forms are recognised: (i) paradoxical--recurrent or new TB symptoms develop after cART initiation in patients receiving TB treatment prior to cART; and (ii) unmasking TB-IRIS--active TB presents within 3 months of cART in ...
Schutz, Charlotte - - 2012
Background. G F Jooste Hospital (GFJH) is a secondary-level referral hospital in a high HIV and tuberculosis (TB) co-infection setting.
Morrow, Carl - - 2012
Aims. We describe a monitoring system at population level of patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) using centrally collected laboratory data. We demonstrate an analogous process of remote sensing using a large set of laboratory results and illustrate the tremendous density of information stored. We moved from an individual to a ...
Farrant, Lindsay - - 2012
Background. Since the advent of antiretrovirals, HIV disease has largely come to be considered a chronic disease for those able to access treatment. As such, the concept of 'living well' with HIV is important. Increasing evidence suggests a high symptom burden in HIV that persists in the presence of treatment.
Muller, Elmi - - 2012
HIV infection was previously an absolute contraindication to renal transplantation. However, with the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), renal transplantation using HIV-negative donor kidneys has successfully been employed for HIV-infected patients with end-stage renal failure. In resource-limited countries, places on dialysis programmes are severely restricted; HIV-infected patients, like ...
Sales, Kurt - - 2012
Cervical cancer is the leading gynaecological malignancy in southern Africa. The main causal factor for development of the disease is infection of the cervix with human papillomavirus. It is a multi-step disease with several contributing co-factors including multiple sexual partners, a compromised immune system and cervical inflammation caused by infections ...
Opie, Lionel - - 2012
Starting millions of years ago, the heart developed metabolic and molecular cardioprotective paths. The concept of metabolic protection includes the recent successful early provision of glucose-insulin-potassium (GIK) to patients with acute coronary syndromes in the ambulance to inhibit high harmful free-fatty acid levels. Molecular cardioprotective pathways also developed in primeval ...
McIntyre, Diane - - 2012
The national health insurance proposed for South Africa aims to achieve a universal health system. The best way to identify the financing mechanism that is best suited to achieving this goal is to consider international evidence on funding in universal health systems. The evidence from Organisation for Economic Cooperation and ...
Rother, Hanna-Andrea - - 2012
An effective surveillance system is required to reduce pesticide exposures and poisonings, especially from street pesticides (illegal, unlabelled, and decanted agricultural pesticides used predominately for urban household purposes). Poisoning from any pesticide class, not only organophosphates, constitutes a medically notifiable condition in South Africa. Current practice, however, is to report ...
Watson, Lauren - - 2012
Polyglutamine diseases are inherited neurodegenerative conditions arising from expanded trinucleotide CAG repeats in the disease-causing gene, which are translated into polyglutamine tracts in the resultant protein. Although these diseases share a common type of mutation, emerging evidence suggests that pathogenesis is complex, involving disruption of key cellular pathways, and varying ...
Hartman, N. - - 2012
Undergraduate education and training in the Faculty of Health Sciences at the University of Cape Town has become socially responsive. A story of transformation that is consonant with wider societal developments since the 1994 democratic elections, outlining the changes in undergraduate curricula across the Faculty, is presented.
Stanley, Alan - - 2012
We present a case and discuss stroke related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and the difficulties of reaching a firm diagnosis of the cause of the aneurysmal vasculopathy. In the absence of a clear aetiology we suggest looking for varicella zoster virus (VZV) replication in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) ...
du Toit, - - 2012
A 24-year-old black female (HIV-positive) was referred to our clinic with a 4-week history of an ulcerative lesion of the right upper and lower eyelids. She was on treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis and had been admitted to a secondary level hospital. She had no other ocular symptoms or signs. A ...
Pascoe, Michelle - - 2012
IsiXhosa is the second most spoken language in South Africa and one of its official languages. Spoken mainly in the Eastern and Western Cape regions it is fitting that much of the research focusing on children's isiXhosa speech and language acquisition has been carried out at the University of Cape ...
Opie, Jessica - - 2012
South Africa is in the midst of the world's largest human immune deficiency virus (HIV) epidemic with an estimated 5.6 million people infected. Haematological manifestations of HIV are common and diverse, occurring at all stages of infection. Haematological emergencies occurring in this setting include the high-grade lymphomas, particularly Burkitt lymphoma, ...
Ehlers, Mario - - 2012
A number of membrane proteins are enzymatically cleaved or 'shed' from the cell surface, resulting in the modulation of biological events and opening novel pharmaceutical approaches to diverse diseases by targeting shedding. Our focus has been on understanding the shedding of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), an enzyme that plays a pivotal ...
Warner, Digby - - 2012
Tuberculosis (TB) disproportionately affects a few high-burden countries including South Africa. In these regions, basic TB research is rare, endemic countries being valued primarily as sites for drug trials and clinical studies. Our basic mycobacterial research focuses on current approaches to drug target identification and validation within the context of ...
Douglas, Tania - - 2012
The biomedical engineering programme at the University of Cape Town has the potential to address some of South Africa's unique public health challenges and to contribute to growth of the local medical device industry, directly and indirectly, through research activities and postgraduate education. Full realisation of this potential requires engagement ...
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