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Gaffin, Douglas - - 2010
Primary chemosensory afferents within each peg sensillum on scorpion pectines contain a dense plexus of synaptic contacts of unknown importance to informational processing within this simple sensory structure. These connections probably contribute to the processing of chemical signals from the substrate to the encoded pattern of spike activity ascending the ...
Pekar, Stano - - 2009
Zodariellum asiaticum (Tyschchenko 1970) is an ant-eating spider from Central Asia. Using five syntopically occurring ant species, namely Cataglyphis aenescens, Formica cunicularia (both Formicinae), Messor aralocaspius, Tetramorium caespitum (both Myrmicinae), and Tapinoma erraticum (Dolichoderinae) in a laboratory study of preycapture behavior, I evaluated capture frequency, attack latency, number of attacks, ...
Duma, Ioan - - 2009
I describe the female and redescribe the male of Theridion italiense Wunderlich 1995 from live and alcoholpreserved material and provide notes on the ecology, distribution, and affiliations with the very similar Theridion uhligi Martin 1974 and Theridion petraeum L. Koch, 1872.
Knowlton, Elizabeth - - 2009
All scorpions possess jointed, ventral appendages called pectines. These organs have chemosensory, peg-shaped sensilla that detect substrate-borne chemicals. Previous physiological studies show that neurons within peg sensilla respond to an assortment of volatile organic chemical stimulants blown across the sensillar opening. We developed an improved method of chemical stimulant delivery ...
Ramirez, Martin - - 2009
In the green lynx spider Peucetia viridans (Hentz 1832), the two openings of a mated female's epigynum are often sealed by copulatory plugs, sometimes with the two-pronged distal portion of the paracybium of a male palpus inserted in each opening and embedded in the plugs. The presence of copulatory plugs ...
Zonstein, Sergei - - 2009
Microfilistata ovchinnikovi new species (Araneae: Filistatidae), the second member of this formerly monotypic Central Asian genus, is described from Kyzyl-Dzhar Ravine, Southern Turkmenistan. The genus is redescribed and referred to the Filistatidae insertae sedis.
Mondragon, Demetria - - 2009
Reports of scorpions on epiphytic bromeliads in temperate forests are scarce. Here we present some ecological aspects of this animal-plant interaction in three different types of temperate forests (pine, pine-oak and oak forest) in Oaxaca, Mexico. From 2005 to 2007, we collected 373 bromeliads belonging to 10 species, and each ...
Kloock, Carl - - 2009
A simple technique is presented for reducing the fluorescence of living scorpions by prolonged exposure to UV light. Scorpion's fluorescence peak can be eliminated by a 1-mo exposure to low intensity UV light. Although the fluorescence peak returns within 1 wk after removal from UV light exposure, the magnitude remains ...
Jacobucci, Giuliano - - 2009
Several spider species use plants as shelter and foraging sites, but the relationships among these organisms are still poorly known. Lynx spiders of the genus Peucetia do not build webs, and many species live strictly in plants bearing glandular trichomes. Peucetia flava Keyserling 1877 inhabits Solanum thomasiifolium in southeastern Brazil ...
Tahir, Hafiz - - 2009
We conducted a field study in September 2007 and 2008 to analyze the foraging activity, natural diets, and predatory efficacy of Tetragnatha javana (Thorell 1890) (Araneae: Tetragnathidae) and Neoscona theis (Walckenaer 1842) (Araneae: Araneidae) on selected prey. The relationship between body measurements (carapace width, leg length, total body length, and ...
Ojanguren-Affilastro, Andres - - 2009
New data on the distribution and systematics of Patagonian species of the scorpion genus Urophonius Pocock 1893 are provided. A species of this genus from Peninsula Valdes in central eastern Argentinean Patagonia, Urophonius martinezi new species, is described. The surface activity period of most of the species of the genus ...
Zarate-Galvez, Kaleb - - 2009
Plesiochactas mitchelli Soleglad 1976 was originally described from a juvenile female collected in "Guatemala" before 1902. The species is redescribed on the basis of an adult female from a specific locality in the state of Chiapas; it is the first record of this species from Mexico.
Rodriguez-Gil, Sergio - - 2009
Meiotic studies on three phylogenetically distant species of the genus Brachistosternus Pocock from Argentina were conducted. One species is from the subgenus Ministernus Francke 1985, B. ferrugineus Thorell 1876, and two species are from the subgenus Brachistosternus Pocock 1893, B. montanus Roig-Alsina 1977 (Andean species group), and morphologically different populations ...
Carlson, B. - - 2009
Temperature can profoundly affect many physiological processes, including muscle performance. Many ectotherms appear sensitive to this relationship, choosing times and locations of activity permitting high body temperatures and, thus, quick escape from predators. High body temperatures, however, can lead to dehydration, which in turn affects muscle performance. Striped bark scorpions ...
McCoy, Victoria - - 2009
The ability to distinguish fossil arthropod carcasses from their molts is necessary for a more complete understanding of the arthropod fossil record and for more accurately assessing the role of fossil arthropods in paleoecosystems. Taphonomic characteristics, e.g., recurrent patterns of disarticulation of exoskeletal elements, are the primary data that have ...
Madrigal-Brenes, Ruth - - 2009
In this paper, we describe the construction and function of the double sheet and tangle web of Tidarren sisyphoides (Walckenaer 1842). Web construction includes several stages: construction of the scaffolding that serves to support the rest of the web; filling in the dome-shaped and horizontal sheets; and construction of the ...
Nieto-Castaneda, Irma - - 2009
When species with similar morphological and ecological characteristics occupy the same habitat, selection should minimize resource competition and promote coexistence by means of spatial partitioning. Competing species might exploit resources at different times or specialize in distinct resources. From July 2005 through May 2006 we examined the niche axes of ...
Foelix, Rainer - - 2009
The tarantula genus Ephebopus is exceptional with respect to its urticating hairs: they are located on the palps rather than on the abdomen, as is the rule for other Neotropical tarantulas. These urticating hairs occupy a small field of 1-2 [mm.sup.2] on the medial side of the palpal femora. Each ...
St'ahlavsky, Frantisek - - 2009
The karyotypes and course of meiosis of two pseudoscorpions, Semeiochernes armiger (Balzan 1892) and Cordylochernes scorpioides (Linnaeus 1758) (Pseudoscorpiones: Chernetidae), are described for the first time. The diploid chromosome number of the male is 69 in S. armiger and 47 in C. scorpioides. As in most pseudoscorpions studied to date, ...
Gonzalez, Alda - - 2009
This study analyzes predation by adult females of Misumenops pallidus (Keyserling 1880) on pairs of prey items representing non-pest insects and potential pests. The phenology of the potential pests was such that each insect guild peaked sequentially, while non-pest herbivorous and insectivorous insects were present during the entire period. Field ...
Wang, Xin-Ping - - 2009
Eight spider species of the genus Coelotes from Central Asia and the Near East currently assigned to the charitonovi species group are described. Four species, Coelotes charitonovi Spassky 1939, C. juglandicola Ovtchinnikov 1984, C. nenilini Ovtchinnikov 1999, and C. turkestanicus Ovtchinnikov 1999 are previously known from both sexes, and four ...
Kuntner, Matjaz - - 2009
Plugging of female genitals via male sexual mutilation is a common sexual repertoire in some nephilid spiders (Herennia, Nephila, Nephilengys), but the behavioral pathways leading to emasculation are poorly understood. Recent work suggests that copulating Herennia males damage their reproductive organs during copulation and then voluntarily, and stereotypically, remove their ...
Slowik, Jozef - - 2009
Geolycosa grandis (Banks 1894) (Araneae, Lycosidae) is redescribed, and illustrations are provided for the first time. We propose that Geolycosa grandis be transferred to the genus Hogna Simon 1885. Hogna permunda (Chamberlin 1904) is synonymized with H. grandis. Notes are given on distinguishing H. grandis from similar species including H. ...
Harari, Ally - - 2009
We used experimental manipulations to test adaptive explanations for the courtship display of the male widow spider, Latrodectus pallidas O. Pickard-Cambridge 1872. Two hypotheses have been suggested to explain a long and complex male display: a) Cooperation of males and females in the effort to physically stimulate the female. As ...
Galvez, Dumas - - 2009
There is controversy about the function of silk stabilimenta, also called silk decorations, on spiders' webs. Most of the proposed hypotheses have been tested using indirect methods. Protection against predators, advertisement for vertebrates to avoid web damage, and increasing prey attraction are the most popular hypotheses. In this study, I ...
Polotow, Daniele - - 2009
Toca new genus is proposed to include two new species: the type species T. bossanova new species from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and T. samba new species from Parana and Minas Gerais, Brazil. Toca may be related to Caloctenus Keyserling and Gephyroctenus Mello-Leitao, with which it shares the scales on ...
Larrivee, Maxim - - 2009
Acrocerid flies are endoparasitoids of spiders. New host associations are reported for Ogcodes melampus Loew 1872, O. eugonatus Loew 1872, and Acrocera sp. (Group IV; sensu Sabrosky 1944) from reared individuals of two Salticidae species, Pelegrina proterva (Walckenaer 1837) (both Ogcodes species), and Eris militaris (Hentz 1845) (the Acrocera sp.) ...
Shultz, Jeffrey - - 2009
The harvestmen Caddo agilis Banks 1892 and C. pepperella Shear 1975 (Caddidae, Caddinae) share a disjunct distribution in eastern Asia and eastern North America that has been attributed to either recent (Pleistocene) evolution of a C. pepperella morph from C. agilis in each region or to a pre-glacial separation within ...
Taylor, Robin - - 2009
We predicted that because plant nectar is high in energy, it is likely to provide multiple benefits to spiders that spend a substantial amount of energy foraging. In three laboratory experiments, we tested the effects of dietary extrafloral nectar on the survival, molting, and activity of two foliage wanderers, Cheiracanthium ...
Framenau, Volker - - 2009
The wolf spider genus Zoica Simon 1898 is currently known only from the Indo-Australasian region, including India in the west to northern Western Australia and Papua New Guinea in the east. Here we extend the known distribution of the genus into the Pacific region by describing two new species, Z. ...
Prendini, Lorenzo - - 2009
Rhopalurus abudi Armas & Marcano Fondeur 1987 was originally described on the basis of a single female specimen from Isla Saona, La Romana Province, off the southeast coast of the Dominican Republic. The species is redescribed here based on a series of new specimens including 19 adult males and 14 ...
Harms, Danilo - - 2009
A new pirate spider (family Mimetidae) is described as Australomimetus mendax new species from Tasmania, Australia. In this context, all mimetid species currently known from the island have been reviewed and re-illustrated. Five species are recorded and they all belong to the genus Australomimetus Heimer 1986. Re-illustrated here are Australomimetus ...
Siliwal, Manju - - 2009
The genus Diplothele O. Pickard-Cambridge 1890 of the brush-footed spider family Barychelidae is represented in India by a single species, D. walshi O. Pickard-Cambridge 1890. In this paper, we describe two new species: Diplothele gravelyi from Angul and Diplothele tenebrosus from Ganjam, Orissa. We establish a neotype and provide additional ...
Valdez-Mondragon, Alejandro - - 2009
Two new species of the spider genus Ochyrocera Simon 1891 are described from Mexico. Ochyrocera juquila new species was collected under moist rotten logs and hollow trunks on a thick bed of pine needles in oak-pine forests located in a mountain range south of the city of Oaxaca at 1400-2700 ...
Hofer, Hubert - - 2009
We sampled 505 specimens of 7 arachnid orders (313 Araneae, 65 Opiliones, 111 Pseudoscorpiones, 10 Ricinulei, 3 Schizomida, 1 Thelyphonida, 2 Scorpiones) in natural forest and agroforestry sites in central Amazonia to analyze fresh and dry mass to body length relations. The low number of schizomids, scorpions, and thelyphonids did ...
Catenazzi, Alessandro - - 2009
Two species of Chinchippus (Ammotrechidae) were studied in central Peru. Both species are endemic to the hyper-arid coastal desert and appear to derive most of their energy and nutrients from maritime prey, such as intertidal amphipods feeding on beach-cast algae or as arthropod scavengers feeding upon seabird and pinniped carcasses. ...
Jones, Tappey - - 2009
Two female specimens of an undescribed species of stylocellid harvestman (Opiliones, Stylocellidae) from Sulawesi were extracted in methanol, and compounds in the product were identified by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Nineteen significant peaks were found, 12 of which were identified, indicating the presence of naphthoquinone, 2-tridecanone, 2-tetradecanone, 2-pentadecanone, 6-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, ...
Chatzaki, Maria - - 2009
The harvestman fauna was studied along an altitudinal gradient on the southern slope of Lefka Ori Mountains, Crete, Greece for one year. Four sampling areas were defined at 800, 1200, 1600, and 2000 m elevation and they were sampled with pitfall traps that were emptied at monthly intervals. In total, ...
Aisenberg, Anita - - 2009
Environments where prey availability is scarce or highly variable have been reported as potential settings for the occurrence of paternal investment and sex-role reversal (choosy males and competitive, courting females). Allocosa brasiliensis (Petrunkevitch 1910) and Allocosa alticeps (Mello-Leitao 1944) are two sand-dwelling wolf spiders that construct burrows along the Uruguayan ...
Nazareth, Tais - - 2009
In this paper, we investigate the reproductive behavior of the gonyleptid Chavesincola inexpectabilis Soares & Soares 1946 (Heteropachylinae) and provide basic descriptive information about courtship, copulation, oviposition, and paternal care. Like most gonyleptids, males of C. inexpectabilis have a strong armature on the fourth pair of legs and use their ...
Holler, Rebecca - - 2009
Prey are able to show adaptive antipredator responses in the presence of silk from the wolf spider Hogna helluo (Walckenaer 1837). Hogna helluo also is attracted to chemical cues associated with previously consumed prey. Consequently H. helluo may benefit by modifying its silk deposition when encountering prey cues to avoid ...
Panzera, Alejandra - - 2009
The ability of Grammostola. mollicoma (Ausserer 1875) spiderlings (Araneae, Theraphosidae) to emerge from the cocoon without the assistance of their mother was tested experimentally. We created two experimental groups with 23 cocoons in each group. In one of the groups we cut the cocoon wall creating an opening; in the ...
Smith, Helen - - 2009
In orb web spiders that recycle webs and thus minimize the material costs of web relocation, the characteristics of their temporal movement patterns between web sites can be used to examine otherwise hidden costs. Previous studies have shown that one such cost is the extra risk from predation. An unusually ...
Schaider, Miriam - - 2009
The morphology of the scent glands of Trogulus tricarinatus (Linnaeus 1767) (Trogulidae), a small, soil-dwelling opilionid species, was investigated by means of serial histological semi thin-sections. The glands constitute paired prosomal glandular sacs that open to the body surface via one pore (ozopore) on either side of the body, dorsally ...
Morse, Douglass - - 2009
Life history theory predicts that the intensity of selection will decline as individuals age; thus, adaptive traits should decrease during post-reproductive stages. To test this prediction, I measured several potential fitness variables in adult female crab spiders [Misumena vatia (Clerck 1757): Thomisidae]: maximum mass before laying, mass after laying, mass ...
Ingram, A.L. - - 2009
Segestria florentina (Rossi 1790) (Segestriidae) displays iridescent green coloration on the paturons of the chelicerae. This was confirmed by reflectance measurements, which gave a spectral peak at 505 nm. Scanning electron microscopy did not identify cuticular surface scales or sculpturing, suggesting that the cause of the iridescence was subsurface. Transmission ...
Sharma, Prashant - - 2009
A new species of Cyphophthalmi (Opiliones) belonging to the Sri Lankan endemic genus Pettalus is described and illustrated. Represented in a recent phylogeny of the family Pettalidae, this species was designated Pettalus cf. brevicauda, but subsequent examination of its morphology and of the type material of P. brevicauda indicates that ...
Navidpour, Shahrokh - - 2009
The scorpion Apistobuthus susanae Lourenco 1998 is redescribed based on new specimens collected from Khoozestan Province, Iran. It is distinct from A. pterygocercus Finnegan 1932 found in the dunes of Rub' al-Khali. The two species cannot be separated by previously used diagnostic characters. Instead, A. susanae is differentiated from A. ...
Santos, Adalberto - - 2009
Surazomus uarini n. sp. is described and illustrated based on specimens collected by beating on understory vegetation of Amazonian "terra firme" upland rain forests. A new cuticular structure, possibly a gland opening, is described on the female tarsus I and terminal flagellum. A putatively homologous structure is reported from the ...
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