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McKerchar, Todd - - 2012
The purpose of this review is to introduce the reader to the concepts of delay and probability discounting as well as the major empirical findings to emerge from research with humans on these concepts. First, we review a seminal discounting study by Rachlin, Raineri, and Cross (1991) as well as ...
Bondy, Andy - - 2012
The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is an alternative/augmentative communication protocol designed to help children and adults with autism and related disabilities to engage in functional communication. The protocol was developed over a number of years and was based on Skinner's analysis of verbal behavior. Publications about the application and ...
Smets, Jorien - - 2012
Depressed patients commonly experience intrusive memories. There is some evidence that ruminative responses to those intrusions are important for maintaining depressive symptoms. Three models concerning the interplay of intrusions and rumination in the prediction of depressive symptoms were tested in students in 2 studies (N = 711): (a) rumination moderating ...
Gianico-Relyea, Jennifer - - 2012
The tip-of-the-tongue experience (TOT) is a universal phenomenon in which a speaker Cannot fully produce a word that he or she believes will eventually be recalled and could easily be recognized. The purpose of the current experiment is to determine how variables such as word concreteness and word frequency influence ...
Tovar, Angel, - - 2012
We analyzed stimulus class formation in a human study and in a connectionist model (CM) with a yes/no procedure, using compound stimuli. In the human study, the participants were six female undergraduate students; the CM was a feed-forward back-propagation network. Two 3-member stimulus classes were trained with a similar procedure ...
Gan, Yiqun - - 2012
The objectives of the present study were to conceptualize interpersonal coping flexibility and to explore how it influences personal adaptation. Two hundred sixty two university students were classified based on their responses to prompts about their degree of prioritizing harmony and the number of coping strategies they employed when dealing ...
Brassai, Laszlo - - 2012
Although the role of existential attitudes in adolescent health-related behavior has received increased attention recently, historically it has been underinvestigated in the field. The present study focuses on existential attitudes related to meaning in life and hopelessness. Relations of presence of meaning, search for meaning, and hopelessness with past and ...
Troisi, Joseph R., - - 2012
Extinction and recovery of the discriminative stimulus effects of nicotine (0.3 mg/kg) was investigated with a devalued food reinforcer (rats sated). Sixteen rats were trained in a counterbalanced one manipulandum (nose-poke) drug discrimination procedure with the roles of nicotine and saline counterbalanced as [S.sup.D] and [S.sup.[DELTA]]. Discrimination training was maintained ...
Kroger-Costa, Andreia - - 2012
The present study investigated the effect of the presence of the experimenter on behavioral sensitivity to contingency change. In history training, college students were exposed to differential reinforcement of low rate (DRL) and fixed-ratio (FR) schedules, and in testing, to a fixed-interval (FI) schedule. For the control group, instructions were ...
Nastally, Becky - - 2012
In the current study, 3 participants with a history of problem gambling were exposed to computerized slot machine play consisting of outcomes that depicted wins, losses, and near misses (2 out of 3 identical slot machine symbols). Participants were asked to rate each type of outcome in terms of its ...
Vitale, Agata - - 2012
The current article examined patterns of adult responding to arbitrary more-than and less-than relations across a range of real-world tasks. Previous research had reported weak performances on specific types of comparative relations presented in an automated task but also demonstrated that these could be significantly improved with feedback and nonarbitrary ...
Sonoda, Akira - - 2012
One member of each pair of 52 undergraduates, referred to as a learner, was trained BC conditional discriminations, with B stimuli as the samples and C stimuli as the correct comparisons. Responses of the learner were either reinforced or punished by another member of each pair, an instructor, who had ...
Polenick, Courtney - - 2012
The effects of social praise contingent on either usual (conventional) or unusual (unconventional) responses during an object uses task were assessed on measures of generalized creativity in two novel, unrelated tasks. Participants were 20 older adults, ages 63 to 89 years (M = 80.90), who were recruited from a joint ...
St. Peter, Claire - - 2012
Sleep insufficiency is a major public health concern, yet the accuracy of self-reported sleep measures is often poor. Self-report may be useful when direct measurement of nonverbal behavior is impossible, infeasible, or undesirable, as it may be with sleep measurement. We used feedback and positive reinforcement within a small-n multiple-baseline ...
Wray, Alisha - - 2012
Acceptance and commitment therapy asserts that in clinical problems such as rumination and depression, making sense continues despite accompanying aversive consequences, because sense-making is reinforcing, particularly when it leads to experiential avoidance. The following series of experiments aimed to provide preliminary empirical evidence for this hypothesis by comparing college students' ...
Ninness, Chris - - 2012
Using 3 diversified datasets, we explored the pattern-recognition ability of the Self-Organizing Map (SOM) artificial neural network as applied to diversified nonlinear data distributions in the areas of behavioral and physiological research. Experiment 1 employed a dataset obtained from the UCI Machine Learning Repository. Data for this study were composed ...
Goddard, Murray - - 2012
Selected writings of B. F. Skinner are compared to 5 current topics in main-stream psychology, including the role of the unconscious, human language, the role of dispositions in psychology, human perceptions of conformity and bias, and mindfulness. The striking similarities between Skinner's work and these 5 current topics support Richelle's ...
Baltruschat, Lisa - - 2012
This study is part of a programmatic line of research into the use of basic positive reinforcement procedures for improving working memory in children with autism spectrum disorders. The authors evaluated the effects of multiple exemplar training, utilizing positive reinforcement, on performance of a "digit span backwards" task--a test of ...
Gueguen, Nicolas - - 2012
Research has demonstrated that women near ovulation change their appearance in order to look more attractive. I hypothesized that, near ovulation, women would use more cosmetics. In a first study, female participants received an LH test in a laboratory setting to determine their fertility risk. Participants estimated the time they ...
Weatherly, Jeffrey - - 2012
Immediacy theory of schizophrenia posits that the behavior of individuals with schizophrenia is controlled to a greater degree by stimuli in the current environment relative to individuals without schizophrenia. Prior research supports this idea by finding that individuals with schizophrenia display steeper rates of delay discounting than those without it. ...
O'Reilly, Anthony - - 2012
Subjects completed a baseline stimulus matching procedure designed to produce two symmetrical stimulus relations; A1-B1 and A2--B2. Using A1, B, and two novel stimuli, subjects were then trained to produce a common key-press response for two stimuli and a second key-press response for two further stimuli across two blocks of ...
Tse, Chi-Shing - - 2012
English speakers use horizontal spatial metaphors (e.g., before/after) to talk about time relative to vertical spatial metaphors (e.g., up/down), so they may be faster in verifying temporal targets (e.g., June comes after April) that are preceded by primes that activate horizontal, relative to vertical, spatial metaphors. We examined this horizontal ...
Johnson, Douglas - - 2012
Self-pacing, although often seen as one of the primary benefits of computer-based instruction (CBI), can also result in an important problem, namely, computer-based racing. Computer-based racing is when learners respond so quickly within CBI that mistakes are made, even on well-known material. This study compared traditional CBI with two forms ...
Hyland, John - - 2012
The current study investigated the relative effects of Before and After relational cues on temporal order judgments. In Experiment 1, participants (N = 20) were exposed to a 5-phase temporal relational responding task. Participants observed a sequence of 2 familiar shapes and then completed either a Before or an After ...
Ruiz, Francisco - - 2012
This study compared an individual, 4-hr intervention based on acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) versus a no-contact control condition in improving the performance of international-level chess players. Five participants received the brief ACT protocol, with each matched to another chess player with similar characteristics in the control condition. Experimental participants ...
Zettle, Robert - - 2012
The degree to which experiential avoidance may represent a functional response class was examined by comparing the perseverance of participants displaying high versus low levels of experiential avoidance, as assessed by the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (Hayes et al., 2004), during a "psychological biathlon" consisting of 2 challenging tasks that ...
Vilardaga, Roger - - 2012
Social anhedonia has been linked to the development and exacerbation of psychosis. The present study explored the hypothesis that scores in social anhedonia are related to deictic relational responding, empathic concern, and experiential avoidance, as suggested by relational frame theory and acceptance and commitment therapy. College students (N = 110) ...
Bellone, John - - 2012
Undergraduates participating in experiments late in the semester generally perform more poorly on demanding tasks and withdraw more often than those participating early. To investigate effects of task aversiveness, some participants were instructed to choose brief cartoon reinforcement with a long time-out while others were instructed to choose longer cartoon ...
Yan, Ji - - 2012
We employ a behavioral-economic equation put forward by Hursh and Silberberg (2008) to explain human consumption behavior among substitutable food brands, applying a consumer-choice model--the behavioral perspective model (BPM; Foxall, 1990/2004, 2005). In this study, we apply the behavioral-economic equation to human economic consumption data. We attempt to find the ...
Yan, Ji - - 2012
Essential value is defined by Hursh and Silberberg (2008) as the value of reinforcers, presented in an exponential model (Equation 1). This study extends previous research concerned with animal behavior or human responding in therapeutic situations. We applied 9 available demand curves to consumer data that included 10,000+ data points ...
Grant, Lyle - - 2012
In abstraction, or conceptual behavior, people discriminate features or properties of their surroundings. This permits people to respond selectively and precisely to specialized features of their environment, which has had many benefits, including steady advances in science and technology. Within psychology, J. R. Kantor and B. F. Skinner maintained that ...
Zentall, Thomas - - 2012
If judiciously applied, cognitive terminology can encourage further examination of phenomena in useful ways that may not otherwise be studied. I give examples of 3 phenomena, the study of which have benefitted from a cognitive perspective. For the first, transitive inference behavior, it appears that non-cognitive accounts cannot satisfactorily account ...
Harrison, Justin - - 2012
Temporal discounting rates have become a popular dependent variable in social science research. While choice procedures are commonly employed to measure discounting rates, equivalent present value (EPV) procedures may be more sensitive to experimental manipulation. However, their use has been impeded by the absence of test retest reliability data. Staff ...
Walker, Jennifer - - 2012
Previous research has found that swim stress during a classical conditioning trial attenuates conditioned taste aversion (CTA). In the current study, rats were used to examine the effects of inescapable swim stress on the habituation of neophobia to a flavored solution and reacquisition of an extinguished conditioned taste aversion. In ...
Fields, Lanny - - 2012
Joint stimulus control occurs when responding is determined by the correspondence of elements of a complex sample and a complex comparison stimulus. In academic settings, joint stimulus control of behavior would be evidenced by the selection of an accurate description of a complex graph in which each element of a ...
Nicholson, Emma - - 2012
A greater understanding of implicit cognition can provide important information regarding the etiology and maintenance of psychological disorders. The current study sought to determine the utility of the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP) as a measure of implicit aversive bias toward spiders in two groups of known variation, high fear ...
Arntzen, Erik - - 2012
Reaction time (RT), thought to be important for acquiring a full understanding of the establishment of equivalence classes, has been reported in a number of studies within the area of stimulus equivalence research. In this study, we trained 3 classes of potentially 3 members, with arbitrary stimuli in a one-to-many ...
McGinty, Jenny - - 2012
A small-group, web-interactive approach to teaching precalculus concepts was investigated. Following an online pretest, 3 participants were given a brief (15 min) presentation on the details of reciprocal math relations and how they operate on the coordinate axes. During baseline, participants were tested regarding their ability to construct formulas for ...
Gokhan, Nurper - - 2012
The present investigation evaluated the role of verbal exchanges between parent and child (intraverbal exchanges) in relation to two contemporary measurements of the parent child relationship, mutual responsive orientation (MRO) and synchrony. Data were collected from 30 mother--preschool child dyads (19 girls, 11 boys) during a laboratory assessment. Rates of ...
Carp, Charlotte - - 2012
Perez-Gonzalez, Herszlikowicz, and Williams (2008) demonstrated the emergence of novel intraverbal responses following the training of several intraverbals. The present study replicated and extended that study by separating two training conditions that were combined in the previous study. Nine typically developing children ages 6-7 years were first taught A B ...
Melina, Rivard - - 2012
The scope of this study was direct observation of verbal behaviors of 14 children with autism spectrum disorders at the onset of an early behavioral intervention (EBI) program delivered in a public services agency. Objectives were to (1) describe frequencies of vocal, verbal, and listener behaviors; (2) evaluate the relationship ...
Teuscher, Ursina - - 2011
In this article, we examine the relation between delay discounting and future time perspective by reviewing how these concepts have been measured and quantified in order to assess their conceptual similarities. The extent to which the different measures are empirically related is reviewed by describing studies that have assessed both ...
Foxall, Gordon - - 2011
Delay discounting is often considered a universal feature of human choice behavior, but there is controversy over whether it is an individual difference that reflects an underlying psychological trait or a domain-specific behavior. Trait influence on discounting would manifest in (a) highly correlated discount rates for all decisions, regardless of ...
Charlton, Shawn - - 2011
Temporal discounting, the loss in perceived value associated with delayed outcomes, correlates with a number of personality measures, suggesting that an item-level analysis of trait measures might provide a more detailed understanding of discounting. The current report details two studies that investigate the utility of such an item-level analysis. Study ...
Manwaring, Jamie - - 2011
The present study compared the extent to which obese women with binge eating disorder (BED), obese women without BED, and controls discounted delayed and probabilistic money and directly consumable rewards: food, massage time, and preferred sedentary activity. Of special interest was whether the BED group differed from the other groups ...
Reed, Derek - - 2011
When making a choice, people like to nave options, but an emerging literature on "choice overload" suggests that the provision of too many options results in adverse experiences, including a depletion of cognitive resources and postdecision feelings of regret A strong implication is that individuals should shy away from situations ...
Weatherly, Jeffrey - - 2011
The present study used a delay discounting framework to study decisions about six social policy issues and one monetary outcome. For outcomes that nearly all participants discounted, social policies were discounted significantly more than money. A similar result was observed when analyzing all outcomes using data only from participants who ...
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