Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 833
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Smith, Adam - - 2006
This article presents 7 simple models of the relationship between cognitive empathy (mental perspective taking) and emotional empathy (the vicarious sharing of emotion). I consider behavioral outcomes of the models, arguing that, during human evolution, natural selection may have acted on variation in the relationship between cognitive empathy and emotional ...
Quinn, Paul - - 2005
Vidic and Haaf (2004) questioned the idea that infants use head information to categorize cats as distinct from dogs (Quinn & Eimas, 1996) and argued instead that the torso region is important. However, only null results were observed in the critical test comparisons between modified and unmodified stimuli. In addition, ...
Saito, Kotaro - - 2005
The present study examined spatial learning in goldfish using a new apparatus that was an open-field circular pool with latticed holes. The subjects were motivated to reach the baited hole. We examined gustatory cues, intramaze cues, the possibility that the subject could see the food, etc. In Experiment 1, the ...
Martinez, Hector - - 2005
In two experiments, 40 undergraduate students were trained on conditional discrimination tasks (matching to sample) involving 1 of 4 types of instructional histories: (a) true instructions followed by false instructions; (b) false instructions followed by true instructions; (c) true instructions followed by true instructions, with a change of reinforced sample-comparison ...
Ribes, Emilio - - 2005
Three experimental studies were carried out in order to find within-subject consistencies as well as individual differences in a concurrent choice situation involving risk-taking. Four subjects were exposed twice, with a 4-month delay, to a horse-race game and a stock-exchange game, in order to evaluate their choices for a conservative ...
Overskeid, Geir - - 2005
The many authors debating whether computers can understand often fail to clarify what understanding is, and no agreement exists on this important issue. In his Chinese room argument, Searle (1980) claims that computers running formal programs can never understand. I discuss Searle's claim based on a definition of understanding that ...
Yi, Richard - - 2005
In studies of probability discounting, the reduction in the value of an outcome as a result of its degree of uncertainty is calculated. Decision making studies suggest two issues with probability that may play a role in data obtained in probability discounting studies. The first issue involves the reduction of ...
Merwin, Rhonda - - 2005
Thirty-two subjects completed 2 stimulus equivalence tasks using a matching-to-sample paradigm. One task involved direct reinforcement of conditional discriminations designed to produce derived relations between self-referring stimuli (e.g., me, myself, I) and positive evaluation words (e.g., whole, desirable, perfect). The other task was designed to produce derived relations between self-referring ...
Saunders, Richard - - 2005
In Experiment 1, 12 senior citizens from the community were trained with 18 sets of conditional discriminations. Training included 2-, 3-, and 4-choice matching-to-sample (MTS) configurations in linear series (LS), many-to-one (MTO), and one-to-many (OTM) training structures. Training structure order was counterbalanced across participants. The design permitted tests for class ...
Spiga, Ralph - - 2005
The present study examined whether in humans the generalized matching law described the relation between relative responding and relative drug intake by humans under concurrent variable interval variable interval (conc VI VI) schedules of drug reinforcement. Methadone-maintained patients, stabilized on 80 mg per day of methadone, were recruited and trained ...
Zettle, Robert - - 2005
Participants displaying high versus low levels of experiential avoidance as assessed by the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (Hayes, Strosahl, et al., 2004) were compared in their reactions to and efforts to cope with pain induced by the cold pressor task. As expected, high avoidant participants were less tolerant of pain ...
- - 2005
Smeets, Paul - - 2005
Previous research has suggested that persons with mental retardation evidence equivalence more readily after being trained on auditory-visual than on visual-visual match-to-sample tasks. The present study sought to determine if this discrepancy is also apparent in normally capable preschoolers and whether the derived class-consistent test performances could have resulted from ...
Dymond, Simon - - 2005
Nonautomated or tabletop procedures are widely used in derived stimulus relations research. These procedures offer several advantages to the researcher, not least of which is the interactive format of the task. However, this feature is often criticized because of the possibility of experimenter cuing and imprecise experimental control over task ...
Reynolds, Brady - - 2005
Delay of Gratification (DG) and Delay Discounting (DD) represent two indices of impulsive behavior often treated as though they represent equivalent or the same underlying processes. However, there are key differences between DG and DD procedures, and between certain research findings with each procedure, that suggest they are not equivalent. ...
Tarbox, Jonathan - - 2005
Behavioral contrast can be defined as an inverse relationship between the conditions of reinforcement in one setting and the rate of responding in another setting. Behavioral contrast is a phenomenon that is reliably demonstrated in pigeons and rats and in the context of multiple experimental preparations with these animals. However, ...
Brosvic, Gary - - 2005
Participants completed 5 classroom examinations during which the timing of knowledge of results (no feedback: Scantron form; delayed feedback: end-of-test, 24 hour delay; immediate feedback: educator, response form) and iterative responding (1 response, up to 4 responses) were manipulated. At the end of the semester, each participant completed a 100-item ...
Reisner, Andrew - - 2005
I review the Common Factors Model, the Empirically Validated Therapy Model, and the Recovery Model of therapeutic change and effectiveness. In general, psychotherapy appears to be effective and common factors account for more of the variance than do specific techniques. However, in some areas, particularly in the treatment of anxiety ...
Singer-Dudek, Jessica - - 2005
In 2 experiments, each involving different mathematical operations, we compared 2 training procedures for teaching component math skills in terms of their effects on the learning and long-term maintenance of composite skill. The dependent variables were learn units to composite task mastery and performance on the composite task 2 months ...
Clayton, Michael - - 2005
J. R. Kantor (1888-1984) developed and promoted an often underappreciated psychological system he called interbehaviorism that attempted to organize scientific values into a coherent system of psychology. Kantor insisted that in all scientific behavior the scientist needed to differentiate between constructs and events. If we were to develop constructs it ...
Doughty, Adam - - 2005
Two experiments examined whether differential resistance to change would occur under identical variable-interval schedules as a function of a differential behavioral history. In Experiment 1, each of 3 pigeons first pecked at different rates under a multiple variable-ratio differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate schedule. In a subsequent condition, a multiple variable-interval variable-interval schedule operated ...
Benz, Joseph - - 2005
Mate selection criteria for humans, and the concept of deception as a mating strategy, have both been demonstrated by past research. This study provides evidence that men and women believe that the mate selection criteria used by one sex corresponds to the deceptive tactics used by the opposite sex. A ...
Gueguen, Nicolas - - 2005
The "but you are free to accept or to refuse" technique is a compliance procedure in which someone is approached with a request by simply telling him/her that he/she is free to accept or to refuse the request. This semantic evocation leads to increase compliance with the request. Furthermore, in ...
Weatherly, Jeffrey - - 2005
Studies have shown that rats' rates of lever pressing for low-concentration liquid-sucrose reinforcers in the first half of an experimental session are higher if food-pellet, rather than the same sucrose, reinforcement will be delivered in the second half. Experiment 1 investigated whether this induction effect would be altered if subjects ...
Li, Yuelin - - 2005
We evaluated Samaniego and Reneau's 1994 novel weight method for eliciting subjective probability estimates. Experiment 1 replicated their experiment (subjects weighed their prior estimate against 10 new observations), with an additional weight judgment against 50 observations. In Experiment 2, subjects gave prior estimates to questions in a domain more familiar ...
Reilly, Thomas - - 2005
The current experiment investigated the effect of differential training histories on responses to a 5-term linear chain of nonsense syllables (described here with sequential, alphabetical characters; A<B<C<D<E) across unreinforced probe trials. Participants' responses to nonarbitrary stimulus relations of More-than and Less-than were first brought under contextual control. Participants were then ...
de Faria Galvao, - - 2005
The capacity to exhibit generalized sameness-difference judgments is a hallmark of cognition that is regularly exhibited by humans. As yet, that capacity has not been well documented in New World monkeys such as the capuchin (Cebus apella). This article presents data obtained with 6 capuchin monkeys with a variety of ...
Vause, Tricia - - 2005
The relationship between language, performance on the Assessment of Basic Learning Abilities (ABLA) test, and stimulus equivalence was examined. Five participants with minimal verbal repertoires were studied; 3 who passed up to ABLA Level 4, a visual quasi-identity discrimination and 2 who passed ABLA Level 6, an auditory-visual nonidentity discrimination. ...
Rehfeldt, Ruth - - 2005
The present study examined the effects of equivalence test order and nodal distance on the emergence and stability of derived discriminative stimulus functions. Participants in 1 group were exposed to a transfer of functions test following a symmetry and equivalence test, another group of participants completed a symmetry and equivalence ...
O'Hora, Denis - - 2005
Twenty-six monolingual and 46 bilingual college students were assigned to 2 groups on the basis of their performance on a complex relational task, an empirical model of instructional control (O'Hora, Barnes-Holmes, Roche, & Smeets, 2004). The subjects were then exposed to the vocabulary, arithmetic, and digit-symbol encoding subtests of the ...
Ninness, Chris - - 2005
Fifteen participants unfamiliar with mathematical operations relative to reflections and vertical and horizontal shifts were exposed to an introductory lecture regarding the fundamentals of the rectangular coordinate system and the relationship between formulas and their graphed analogues. The lecture was followed immediately by computer-assisted instructions and matching-to-sample procedures in which ...
Ferraro, F. - - 2005
Two groups of undergraduates received simulated amnesia instructions that either informed them how amnesics perform on memory tasks (informed; n = 11) or did not inform them about how amnesics perform on memory tasks (uninformed; n = 9). A third group received no such instructions (control; n = 9). Performance ...
Bizo, Lewis - - 2005
Participants were exposed to 3 conditions in a between-groups design. Participants were told the experiment was about extrasensory perception and were asked to select the word from a pair of words that they thought the experimenter was thinking about. In 1 condition selections of the word with a double letter ...
Henley, Tracy - - 2005
The medieval period--roughly the 1,000 years from the classical Greco-Roman age to the Renaissance and modern era--has long been neglected in the history of psychology. Various reasons have been offered for why this period is treated so lightly, for example, that it was a Dark Age, or that it was ...
Kanamori, Nobuhiro - - 2005
We examined in detail effects of priming in 2 mental rotation strategies: spinning (rotating in a picture plane) and flipping (rotating in depth around a horizontal axis) by using a priming paradigm of Kanamori and Yagi (2002). The priming paradigm included prime and probe tasks within 1 trial. In the ...
Robert, Michele - - 2005
In the water-level task, both spatial skill and physical knowledge contribute to representing the surface of a liquid as horizontal irrespective of the container's tilt. Under the standard visual format of the task, men systematically surpass women at drawing correct water lines in outlines of tilted containers. The present exploratory ...
Dihoff, Roberta - - 2005
The effects of feedback on the acquisition and retention of mathematical fact series by elementary school students classified with mild mental retardation was examined in 4 studies. Immediate feedback was provided by either an educator or the Immediate Feedback Assessment Technique (IF AT), at the end of a test series ...
Williams, Jon - - 2005
Exposing rats to the predator odor of trimethylthiazoline (TMT), obtained from the red fox, was compared to exposure to the novel control odor of citronella. In Experiment 1, TMT produced defensive freezing and an analgesic reaction that was reversed by an opiate antagonist. In Experiment 2, TMT augmented response stereotypy ...
Lieving, Gregory - - 2004
Resurgence may be defined generally as the extinction-induced recurrence of previously learned response patterns. Understanding the conditions under which this phenomenon occurs has theoretical, clinical, and applied implications, particularly with respect to a related area of research on response-class hierarchies. In the current study, we examined resurgence with 2 participants ...
Andrzejewski, Matthew - - 2004
In a first series of experiments, 9 groups of rats were exposed to 30 20-minute sessions of successive visual discrimination training ("go/no-go," or mult FR-1 ext), where components ([S.sup.D] and [S.sup.[DELTA]]) were equal (1 min) in length. Responses during [S.sup.D] were reinforced with a nonresetting delay (Experiment 1a) or a ...
Clayton, Michael - - 2004
Throughout the 25-year history of research on stimulus equivalence, one feature of the training procedure has remained constant, namely, the requirement of operant responding during the training procedures. The present investigation compared the traditional match-to-sample (MTS) training with a more recent respondent-type (ReT) procedure. Another consistent feature of the equivalence ...
Hayes, Steven - - 2004
The present study describes the development of a short, general measure of experiential avoidance, based on a specific theoretical approach to this process. A theoretically driven iterative exploratory analysis using structural equation modeling on data from a clinical sample yielded a single factor comprising 9 items. A fully confirmatory factor ...
Stewart, Ian - - 2004
Analogical reasoning is conceptualized by Relational Frame Theory as responding in accordance with an equivalence relation between equivalence or other types of derived stimulus relations. The purpose of this study was to provide an empirical demonstration of analogy using the Relational Evaluation Procedure (REP), a recently developed technique for the ...
Vansickel, Andrea - - 2004
The present study investigated acquisition and extinction of free-operant responding when rats' lever presses produced sucrose pellets after resetting delays of 10 or 20 s. Presses on a second lever cancelled any scheduled food deliveries. Although previous research using 60-s delays failed to demonstrate maintenance of responding across repeated sessions, ...
Navarick, Douglas - - 2004
College students exhibited impulsivity if, in the first of 2 sessions, they consistently chose an immediate, small reinforcer (15-s cartoon video followed by 75 s of waiting) over a delayed, large reinforcer (55-s prereinforcer delay, 25-s video, 10 additional s of waiting), or self-control if they showed the opposite preference. ...
Ingvarsson, Einar - - 2004
The perceived inability of behaviorism to deal with complex human behavior has been a recurrent theme among its critics. Although ingenious and subtle, even Skinner's Verbal Behavior (1957) is widely faulted on these grounds, in particular, for failing to explain linguistic generativity (Chomsky, 1959). In Relational Frame Theory: A Post-Skinnerian ...
- - 2004
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