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He, Jin - - 2010
In cold and semi-arid Northeast China, insufficient soil accumulative temperature and low water use efficiency (WUE) are the limiting factors for the further development of agriculture. Ridge tillage (RT) has been proposed to improve soil temperature and water conservation. Data from a 3-year field experiment conducted at two locations (Sujiatun ...
Bai, Junhong - - 2010
This study considers the spatial variability of soil organic carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus storage in a drained alpine wetland and the possible relationships with soil properties. Top 0-0.30 m soil samples were collected in a typical alpine wetland in the south-eastern Qinghai-Tibet plateau using grid sampling. There was high spatial ...
Grace, Peter - - 2010
Soil organic carbon (C) sequestration rates based on the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) methodology were combined with local economic data to simulate the economic potential for C sequestration in response to conservation tillage in the six agro-ecological zones within the Southern Region of the Australian grains industry. The ...
Pan, B. - - 2010
The formation of organo-mineral complexes is an important process controlling carbon cycling and the properties of soil particles. However, differences between the complexes formed in aqueous systems and those found in terrestrial systems have not been clearly recognised. This study simulated the formation of organo-mineral complexes between dissolved humic acid ...
Cournane, Fiona - - 2010
Cattle grazing can enhance the loss of phosphorus (P) and suspended sediment (SS) in surface runoff, which can impair receiving water bodies. We tested the hypothesis that much of the particulate-bound P in surface runoff is carried in light, low-density aggregates that may enhance the transfer of P and SS ...
Quill, Eben - - 2010
This study investigated the chemical structure of extracted dissolved organic matter (DOM) derived from thermally altered plant material found in the box--ironbark environments of central Victoria, namely: Eucalyptus tricarpa, Pinus pinaceae, Isolepsis nodosa, Acacia pycnantha, and Cassinia arcuata. Samples taken from the plants were burnt at 150, 300, and 400[degrees]C, ...
Bolland, M.D.A. - - 2010
Soil testing was conducted during 1999-2009 to determine lime and fertiliser phosphorus (P), potassium (K), and sulfur (S) requirements of intensively grazed, rain-fed, ryegrass dairy pastures in 48 paddocks on sand to sandy loam soils in the Mediterranean-type climate of south-western Australia. The study demonstrated that tissue testing was required ...
Chan, K.Y. - - 2010
Vegetable production is often located in the peri-urban areas close to large cities. In Sydney, Australia, excessive levels of phosphorus (P) have been reported in the soils, and vegetable farms have long been regarded as a potential source of the P that enters Sydney's waterways. We report vegetable production under ...
Warrender, Cristy - - 2010
A method is developed for estimation of accelerated nutrient release rates into a soil from particulate fertiliser formulations, by carrying out release studies at elevated temperatures. This can provide time-saving targetting of samples to be subsequently used in field trials. The rate of total phosphorus leaching into water from a ...
Rose, D.A. - - 2010
Shallow saline groundwater can meet part of a crop's water requirement by capillary rise (i.e. sub-irrigation) when supplemented by surface irrigation with water of better quality. Proper management of deficit irrigation under these conditions requires better understanding of direct water use by crops from the shallow saline groundwater. This in ...
Sarmah, Ajit - - 2010
We examined the retention ability of a New Zealand dairy farm soil amended with 3 types of biochar produced from a variety of feedstocks for a steroid hormone (oestradiol, E2) and its primary transformation product (estrone, El). Biochars produced from corn cob (CC), pine sawdust (PSD) and green waste (GW) ...
Namgay, Tshewang - - 2010
Biochar has gained importance due to its ability to increase the long-term soil carbon pool and improve crop productivity. However, little research has been done to evaluate the influence of biochar application to soil on the bioavailability of trace elements to plants. A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the ...
Kookana, Rai - - 2010
The role of biochar in sequestration of carbon, reducing the emission of greenhouse gases, and improving the soil fertility is increasingly being recognised and is leading to the recommendations of biochar amendment of soils. However, the implications of such amendments to the environmental fate and efficacy of pesticides are not ...
Fuertes, A.B. - - 2010
The main properties of chars produced from com stover, either by pyrolysis at 550[degrees]C (to produce biochar) or by hydrothermal carbonisation (to produce hydrochar), were studied. Carbonaceous materials were characterised by: SEM imaging, solid-state [sup.13]C NMR, FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy, and XPS. The following parameters were determined: elemental composition, cation exchange ...
Hina, K. - - 2010
Surface-activated biochars not only represent a useful carbon sink, but can also act as useful filtering materials to extract plant nutrients (e.g. N[H.sub.4.sup.+]) from wastes (e.g. animal or municipal waste streams) and added thereafter to soils. Biochars produced by low-temperature pyrolysis of fibrous debarking waste from pine (PI) and eucalyptus ...
Chia, Chee - - 2010
Amazonian Dark Earths (Terra Preta) are anthropogenic soils with high organic carbon content and the ability to sustain higher fertility than adjacent, intensely weathered, acidic soils. Consequently, the microstructural development of bioehar-mineral complexes, termed synthetic Terra Preta (STP), has been investigated. Here, biochar-mineral complexes are produced at elevated temperatures to ...
Kameyama, Koji - - 2010
Enriching soil carbon storage is regarded as a viable option for mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the agricultural sector. Carbon sequestration by applying biomass into the soil can be an effective sequestration pathway for agriculture. Biochar, charcoal produced from biomass pyrolysis, is highly stable against microbial decomposition, and applying ...
Kimetu, Joseph - - 2010
Due to its recalcitrance against microbial degradation, biochar is very stable in soil compared to other organic matter additions, making its application to soils a suitable approach for the build-up of soil organic carbon (SOC). The net effects of such biochar addition also depend on its interactions with existing organic ...
van Zwieten, - - 2010
The effect of a low mineral ash biochar on biomass production and nitrogen (N) uptake into plants was tested with wheat and radish in a Yellow Earth used for commercial vegetable production. The biochar had an acid neutralising capacity <0.5% CaC[O.sub.3], a total C content of 75%, and a molar ...
van Zwieten, - - 2010
Biochars produced by slow pyrolysis of greenwaste (GW), poultry litter (PL), papermill waste (PS), and biosolids (BS) were shown to reduce [N.sub.2]O emissions from an acidic Ferrosol. Similar reductions were observed for the untreated GW feedstock. Soil was amended with biochar or feedstock giving application rates of 1 and 5%. ...
Solaiman, Zakaria - - 2010
The influence of biochar (biomass-derived black carbon) on crop growth and nutrient uptake varies based on the rate of biochar applied with fertilisers. We investigated the effect of deep-banded oil mallee biochar at different rates (0, 1.5, 3.0, and 6 t/ha) with 2 types of fertiliser (non-inoculated MultiMAPS[R] at 30 ...
Blackwell, Paul - - 2010
Effects of banded biochar application on dryland wheat production and fertiliser use in 4 experiments in Western Australia and South Australia suggest that biochar has the potential to reduce fertiliser requirement while crop productivity is maintained, and biochar additions can increase crop yields at lower rates of fertiliser use. Banding ...
Chen, Yan - - 2010
This study deals with the influence of biochar use on sugarcane growth and nitrate-nitrogen percolation losses, as well as chemical and physical properties of Shimajiri maji soil. Two varieties of biochars, biosolids and bagasse (residues of sugarcane stalks after juice extraction), were mixed with Shimajiri maji soil. Changes in nitrate-nitrogen ...
Singh, Balwant - - 2010
Biochar properties can be significantly influenced by feedstock source and pyrolysis conditions; this warrants detailed characterisation of biochars for their application to improve soil fertility and sequester carbon. We characterised 11 biochars, made from 5 feedstocks [Eucalyptus saligna wood (at 400[degrees]C and 550[degrees]C both with and without steam activation); E. ...
Joseph, S.D. - - 2010
Interactions between biochar, soil, microbes, and plant roots may occur within a short period of time after application to the soil. The extent, rates, and implications of these interactions, however, are far from understood. This review describes the properties of biochars and suggests possible reactions that may occur after the ...
Ogawa, Makoto - - 2010
In Asian countries, people have a long history of using rice husk charcoal or wood ash as an agricultural soil amendment, but evidence of this has been long obscured. Since the 1980s, microbiological studies, mainly on symbiotic organisms, have been performed in Japan. Charcoal is a porous material with high ...
Manoharan, V. - - 2010
Phytotoxicity due to excessive boron (B) uptake by plants impedes routine agronomic utilisation of coal fly ash. We assessed 11 fly ashes (pH 3.14-10.77) having total B content ([B.sub.t]) of 12-136 mg/kg, of which 20-30% was hot water soluble ([B.sub.s]) in the acidic ashes (pH <5) and 5-10% in the ...
Moritani, S. - - 2010
The use of artificial zeolite (AZ) derived from recycled material as a soil amendment has recently received much attention. The effectiveness of AZ in controlling soil loss, sediment concentration, and runoff water quality in artificial sodic soils is discussed in this study. Soils containing 3 different types of clay mineralogies ...
Jeyakumar, P. - - 2010
The effects of high concentrations of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) in a soil treated with biosolids previously spiked with these metals on poplar (Populus deltoides x yunnanensis) were investigated in a pot trial. The total soil metal concentrations in the treatments were 12, 46, 137, and 226 mg Cu/kg ...
Grant, C.D. - - 2010
We outline several formulations of the Groenevelt-Grant water retention model of 2004 to show how it can be anchored at different points. The model is highly flexible and easy to perform multiple differentiations and integrations on. Among many possible formulations of the model we choose one anchored solely at the ...
Triantafilis, J. - - 2010
The ability to map the spatial distribution of average soil property values using geophysical methods at the field and district level has been well described. This includes the use of electromagnetic (EM) instruments which measure bulk soil electrical conductivity ([[sigma].sub.a]). However, soil is a 3-dimensional medium. In order to better ...
Wilson, Brian - - 2010
There is a growing need for information relating to soil condition, its current status, and the nature and direction of change in response to management pressures. Monitoring is therefore being promoted regionally, nationally, and internationally to assess and evaluate soil condition for the purposes of reporting and prioritisation of funding ...
Ghosh, Subhadip - - 2010
Soil organic carbon (SOC) constitutes a significant proportion of the terrestrial carbon (C) store and has a pivotal role in several physical, chemical, and biological soil processes that contribute to soil productivity and sustainability. Applications of inorganic and organic materials are management options that have the potential to increase SOC ...
Zhang, Jiaying - - 2010
The storage of carbon (C) in soils can be influenced by rainfall patterns that affect both inputs from plant productivity and losses through soil respiration. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of rainfall on the soil C transformation. A laboratory experiment was conducted using soil columns ...
Uchida, Yoshitaka - - 2010
A relationship between soil respiration rate ([R.sub.s]) and temperature ([T.sub.s]), has been understood to be predicated on carbon (C) substrate availability. However, unlike [T.sub.s], C availability in soils is not a state variable that can be readily measured. The C in soils has come from plants, so the C supply ...
Price, Sally - - 2010
Monthly measurements of carbon dioxide (C[O.sub.2]), methane (C[H.sub.4]), and nitrous oxide ([N.sub.2]O) fluxes were made at 3 sites along a sequence of naturally regenerating Kunzea ericoides shrubland in New Zealand, consisting of unimproved pasture (UP), young (8-12 years) Kunzea trees (YK), and old (80 years) Kunzea trees (OK). The C[O.sub.2] ...
Li, Yichun - - 2010
Cadmium (Cd) activity may vary in flooded soils but the mechanisms underlying these variations have remained conflicting and ambiguous. In this study, a continuous [N.sub.2] bubbling experiment was conducted using a red soil from the subtropical region of southern China to identify factors controlling Cd activity under reductive conditions. The ...
Rasiah, V. - - 2010
Solute import--export dynamics in groundwater (GW) systems interacting with surface-water are complex, particularly under farming systems receiving high fertiliser/pesticide inputs in high rainfall regions. We investigated whether any linkage existed between nitrate-N in: (i) leachate (LC) collected at ~1 m depth under banana (Musa) and that in GW, and (ii) ...
Coad, J.R. - - 2010
Pasture soils of mainland Australia are routinely sampled to a depth of 100 mm, whereas pasture soils of Tasmania and New Zealand are sampled to a depth of 75 mm. Despite this difference, there are no published studies to allow accurate conversion between the 2 sampling depths. This study was ...
Wisawapipat, W. - - 2010
Surface charge characteristics were investigated using a charge fingerprinting procedure for 90 samples from 32 profiles of highly weathered Oxisols and Ultisols derived from shale/limestone, basalt, granite, local alluvium, sedimentary, and metasedimentary rocks under tropical savanna and tropical monsoonal climates in Thailand. The charge fingerprints of 5 whole soils, after ...
Robertson, M.J. - - 2010
Many estimates have been made of the future likely extent of salinity at regional and national scales in Australia; however, there are few detailed studies of changes in temporal and spatial patterns at catchment scale. This study was conducted in the Wallatin and O' Brien catchments in the low-medium rainfall ...
Milne, A.E. - - 2010
Gilgais form repeating patterns that seem to be regular to some degree. We have analysed the patterns of gilgais as they appear on aerial photographs of the Bland Plain of New South Wales to discover to what degree they exhibit regularity and to estimate the spatial frequencies of the repeating ...
Vaze, Jai - - 2010
There are limited datasets which cover the heavy clays found in the Murray floodplain area. To understand the processes associated with the water balance within the Koondrook-Perricoota Forest (KPF), detailed hydraulic and hydrodynamic modelling of the flood inundation patterns and overland flow in the KPF is required. Reliable and accurate ...
McLaren, R.G. - - 2010
In this study we examined the bioavailability and chemistry of Cu, Ni, and Zn in metal-spiked, biosolids-amended forest (Pinus radiata) soils that had undergone a simulated conversion back to agricultural use. Mixing of the biosolids-treated forest litter into the underlying mineral soil resulted in high concentrations of each metal in ...
Roper, Margaret - - 2010
A 7-year tillage experiment was conducted on a deep sand in the central wheat belt of Western Australia between 1998 and 2004 to evaluate the impact of tillage intensity [no-tillage (NT), conservation tillage (CT), and rotary tillage (RT)] on soil organic matter, microbial biomass and function, and crop yields in ...
Sofo, Adriano - - 2010
The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of 2 soil management systems, so called 'innovative' (INN) and 'conventional' (CON), on genetic and metabolic diversity of soil microbial communities of peach and kiwifruit orchards. INN system included minimum tillage, organic matter inputs from compost and cover crops, winter ...
Leite, Luiz - - 2010
No-tillage and organic farming are important strategies to improve soil quality. This study aimed to quantify the effects of the tillage systems and organic management on total organic carbon (TOC), labile C (CL), and biological indicators in an Acrisol in north-eastern Brazil. Five systems were studied: NV, native vegetation; NT/ORG, ...
Miklos, Matthew - - 2010
The reliable assessment of soil carbon stock is of key importance for soil conservation and mitigation strategies related to reducing atmospheric carbon. Measuring and monitoring soil carbon is complex because carbon pools cycle and rates of carbon sequestration vary across the landscape due to climate, soil type, and management practices. ...
Hettiarachchi, G.M. - - 2010
The grain yield benefits of applying micronutrient fluid fertilisers over conventional granular products in calcareous sandy loam soils have been agronomically demonstrated. An understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and reactions occurring following application of these products to soils is critical to improve fertiliser management. We therefore examined the diffusion, solubility, ...
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