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Bock, Carl - - 2011
Livestock grazing and fire influence the composition of desert grassland communities, including their rodent populations. However, there have been few studies of the interactions between grazing and wildfire in arid grasslands of the southwestern United States. We trapped rodents and measured vegetation on grazed versus ungrazed plots before (2001) and ...
Kirchner, Brianna - - 2011
This study investigated effects of a prescribed burn on the small mammal community and vegetative cover in a tallgrass prairie remnant in east central Texas. Small mammals were live-trapped 8 mo before and 8 mo after a prescribed burn. Vegetation sampling confirmed drastic reduction of cover after fire in the ...
Houdeshell, Heather - - 2011
Oak savannas in the Midwestern United States are rare ecosystems heavily altered by human activity. Common land management practices, like prescribed fire can control invasive species and restore native plants, but few studies have examined the impacts of such practices on oak savanna invertebrate communities. We examined impacts of prescribed ...
McCravy, Kenneth - - 2011
Robber fly diversity, seasonal activity and habitat associations were studied in prairie and forest habitats in west-central Illinois from May to Oct. 2005. The greatest numbers of individuals and species were collected in recently burned prairie and forest habitats, although richness in the recently burned prairie was lower than expected ...
Sullivan, Aaron - - 2011
Simulium larvae perform two behaviors in response to physical contact with invertebrate predators: curling and drifting. Curling involves the attachment of a silk thread to the substrate (in preparation for drifting), and drifting allows an individual to quickly leave the vicinity of the predator. The purpose of this study is ...
Cipollini, Kendra - - 2011
Information about invasive species is often based primarily on anecdotal evidence, indicating the need for further information. Ranunculus ficaria is an ephemeral riparian plant species that is presumed invasive in the United States, despite the lack of any published information on its impacts. Mechanisms by which R. ficaria may affect ...
Hopfensperger, Kristine - - 2011
Scientists are beginning to have a firm grasp on the dramatic influence invasive earthworms can have on nutrient cycling in northern hardwood forests, yet a concrete understanding of their effects on plant communities is still needed. Towards this effort, we examined both the above and belowground plant communities, along with ...
Ciola, Victoria - - 2011
Garlic mustard is an invasive Eurasian biennial that has rapidly spread throughout the United States. In Southwestern Ohio, many garlic mustard populations are infected with Erysiphe cruciferarum, a causal agent of powdery mildew disease in Brassicaceous plants. We examined the regional distribution of E. cruciferarum on garlic mustard and determined ...
Zettler, Lawrence - - 2011
The Federally threatened Eastern Prairie Fringed Orchid, Platanthera leucophaea (Nutt.) Lindley (Orchidaceae), has experienced long-term decline largely due to habitat loss and degradation. Although this species has been propagated from seed in the laboratory, achieving seedling survival ex vitro has been problematic, forcing conservationists to sow seeds directly into field ...
Hustad, Vincent - - 2011
Macrofungi from two old-growth prairie grove remnants in the Midwestern United States (Brownfield and Trelease Woods, Champaign Co., IL ) were surveyed over two summer and fall fruiting periods. Communities of Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes and Myxomycetes were sampled and compared using multivariate statistical analyses. Standard estimations of species richness were calculated ...
Carraway, Leslie - - 2011
New knowledge in science is built on previous knowledge. Thus, the primary purpose of preserving scientific knowledge is that future scientists will be able collate said knowledge years from now to answer questions not yet asked. Secondarily, if preserved, datasets associated with published research papers could be compared to or ...
Aoki, Carissa - - 2011
Cones of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) are often serotinous, releasing their seeds from closed cones under heat from fire. Stand-replacing fires in predominantly serotinous stands can thus be expected to result in a strong regeneration response. After large-scale mortality caused by mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), however, the ...
Demma, Dominic - - 2011
We used locations of 6 wolves (Canis lupus) in Minnesota from Global Positioning System (GPS) collars to compare day-versus-night locations to estimate territory size and location during summer. We employed both minimum convex polygon (MCP) and fixed kernel (FK) methods. We used two methods to partition GPS locations for day-versus-night ...
Grovenburg, Troy - - 2011
Survival and cause-specific mortality of female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have been well documented in forested and agricultural landscapes, but limited information has been collected in grassland habitats typical of the Northern Great Plains. Our objectives were to document and compare survival and cause-specific mortality of adult female white-tailed deer ...
Feldhamer, George - - 2011
We found dental anomalies in 36 of 249 (14.5%) cleaned skulls of eastern moles from southern Illinois and Cincinnati, Ohio. Additional teeth (supernumeration) were observed in four individuals; one specimen had a unilateral additional upper premolar, and three specimens had additional upper or lower incisors. Connation (splitting) occurred unilaterally in ...
Henterly, Andrew - - 2011
Prairie (Microtus ochrogaster) and meadow (M. pennsylvanicus) voles are morphologically very similar species of rodents that are often found sympatrically. To assess the reliability of morphological characters typically used to differentiate between these two species, we compared the concordance of species identification based on morphological characteristics with identifications based on ...
Hansen, Christopher - - 2011
Ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbeUus) are important game birds that depend on multiple forest age-classes of aspen (Populus spp.) for food and cover, which makes them an appropriate management indicator species for the condition of quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) communities in the Black Hills National Forest of western South Dakota and ...
Stokes, Amber - - 2011
Newts of the genus Taricha have long been studied in regards to their skin toxin, tetrodotoxin (TTX). It has been shown that the TTX levels across populations of Taricha are highly variable, and this has been mostly attributed to the interaction between Taricha and their only documented predators, garter snakes ...
Zani, Peter - - 2011
The effects of climate change on environments are increasingly obvious and are leading to stronger and more varied biological responses as organisms compensate. To understand better the responses of terrestrial ectotherms to climate oscillations we created a biophysical model based on the degree-days concept to predict relevant life-history events. By ...
Chalupnicki, Marc - - 2011
Lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulveseens) are native within the Lake Ontario drainage basin and listed as threatened by New York State. In 1995 the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) initiated restoration management of lake sturgeon. This management included both protection of extant populations and stocking of uninhabited historic ...
Seibert, Justin - - 2011
Because the shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) population in the Middle Mississippi River (MMR) between Cairo, IL and St. Louis, MO (RKM 0-320) appears to be declining, we must understand dietary needs to help assess its conservation status. Diet is linked to growth, condition and reproduction and reflects population state. Thus, ...
Hove, Mark - - 2011
We conducted a series of studies to improve our understanding of pistolgrip life history and distribution in Minnesota and Wisconsin. In the St. Croix River, where this species is relatively abundant, we studied animals biweekly from May-Nov. 1997, Apr.-Oct. 1998 and nearly biweekly during May-Jul. 2004-2007 and observed gravid females ...
Fiene, Justin - - 2011
We present the results of an 18 mo survey of the seasonal activity and species composition of dung beetles (Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae and Aphodiinae and Geotrupidae: Geotrupes) from a cattle pasture on Crowley's Ridge, Arkansas, and of 17 additional surveys, at various localities and habitats across Arkansas. Collections at the cattle ...
Hudgins, Rhonda - - 2011
The goal of this study was to determine ecological, behavioral and environmental factors that would facilitate a management plan for the rare cobblestone tiger beetle (Cicindela marginipennis). We used a mark--recapture study to document dispersal distances of the cobblestone tiger beetle along the upper Genesee River in western New York ...
Aardema, Matthew - - 2011
Butterflies are among the most charismatic and alluring of invertebrate organisms. Their complex life histories and diverse habitat affiliations often produce regional variation and local adaptation among different populations. Unfortunately, numerous lepidopteran species are facing extinction. In this paper we address the importance of considering local adaptation in butterfly conservation ...
Herringshaw, Cassie - - 2011
Knowledge of relationships between land cover (i.e., land use) and abiotic and biotic features of headwater streams enhances our ability to predict and effectively assess conditions in a variety of aquatic ecosystems. We evaluated land use effects on stream condition in an Iowa watershed dominated by intensive row crop agriculture ...
Benson, Thomas - - 2011
Extensive conversion of Midwestern riparian areas for agricultural production has had many consequences including reduced habitat for nesting birds. However, more than 120,000 ha of riparian habitat have been restored in this region through USDA conservation programs. In 2001 and 2002, we assessed songbird responses to burning and disking for ...
Nemec, Kristine - - 2011
Corridors such as roads and trails can facilitate invasions by non-native plant species. The open, disturbed habitat associated with corridors provides favorable growing conditions for many non-native plant species. Bike trails are a corridor system common to many urban areas that have not been studied for their potential role in ...
Watrous, Kristal - - 2011
Astragalus L. (Fabaceae) is an enormous and diverse plant genus with a cosmopolitan distribution, but relatively few breeding biologies are known for its member species. Threadstalk (or basalt) milkvetch, Astragalus filipes Torrey ex. A. Gray, is common and widespread throughout the U.S. Intermountain West, including the Great Basin. It is ...
Avolio, Meghan - - 2011
Genotypic diversity of dominant species has been shown to have important consequences for community and ecosystem processes at a fine spatial scale. We examined the fine-scale (i.e., plant neighborhood scale, <1 [m.sup.2]) genotypic structure of Andropogon gerardii, a dominant species in the tallgrass prairie, which is a productive and endangered ...
Cramer, Michael - - 2011
Way, Jonathan - - 2011
We report on an eastern coyote or coywolf (Canis latrans X lycaon) pack in a heavily urbanized area at the northern edge of Boston, Massachusetts, living at a high pack density. We radio-collared four members of this social unit, a breeding pair and two of their juvenile offspring and tracked ...
Jain, Aaftab - - 2011
We examined bat collision mortality, activity and species composition at an 89-turbine wind resource area in farmland of north-central Iowa from mid-Apr, to mid-Dec., 2003 and mid-Mar, to mid-Dec., 2004. We found 30 bats beneath turbines on cleared ground and gravel access areas in 2003 and 45 bats in 2004. ...
Stearns, Cory - - 2011
The food habits of river otters (Lontra canadensis) on three rivers in the Red River of the North drainage of eastern North Dakota were evaluated using an analysis of 569 scats collected between 4 Oct. 2006 and 26 Nov. 2007. Fish and crayfish were the primary prey items, occurring in ...
Jesmer, Brett - - 2011
The golden-mantled ground squirrel (Callospermophilus lateralis) is considered an asocial species, characterized by agonistic interactions, nonsharing of territories and early dispersal. The species is poorly studied, so we used radiotelemetry to determine home range size, home range overlap and dispersal. Home ranges of 12 adult females averaged 3.75 ha (range ...
Hellgren, Eric - - 2011
Urban-adapter species facultatively exploit human-subsidized resources in the urban and suburban matrix. We used the woodchuck (Marmota monax) to study how aspects of autecology in an urban-adapter can vary across a gradient of urbanization. We captured and monitored woodchucks by radiotelemetry in southern Illinois from summer 2007 to spring 2009. ...
Currylow, Andrea - - 2011
Eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) are widespread in U.S. eastern deciduous forests, yet many populations are experiencing dramatic declines. Herein, we present an assessment of annual survival for adult eastern box turtles that were radio-tracked over a period of 2 y. Using a known fates Kaplan-Meier estimator, the baseline ...
Burke, Russell - - 2011
While many aspects of the reproductive ecology of Eastern Box Turtles are well known, numerous gaps remain regarding inter-populational variation in clutch size, egg viability and clutch frequency, all vital components of population models. We collected data on nesting ecology of a dense Long Island population of Eastern Box Turtles ...
Stone, Paul - - 2011
The risk allocation hypothesis predicts that animals should be most averse to risk during brief and infrequent high risk situations. For animals in shallow aquatic habitats, encounters with terrestrial predators may represent such a situation. Terrestrial flight responses, acute movements from water onto land following a disturbance, may be a ...
Shartell, Lindsey - - 2011
Throughout Midwestern forests, invasion by the exotic plant garlic mustard [Alliaria petiolata M. Bieb. (Cavara & Grande)] has become increasingly problematic. A multicriteria risk model was developed to predict invasion in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan where garlic mustard is present but not yet widely distributed. The model uses geographic ...
Bauer, Jonathan - - 2011
Biological invasions are associated with declining biodiversity in many ecosystems, but it is often unclear if invasions are directly responsible for such changes, or if invasions are a symptom of environmental degradation. In addition, the mechanism underlying the effects of many invasive species is unknown. To determine if invaders are ...
Comer, Christopher - - 2011
Due to fire suppression and land use changes, Missouri glade habitats have undergone long-term declines in area and function leading to consequent declines in many bird species that rely on these habitats. We examined breeding bird species composition and vegetation community composition on three glade sites undergoing restoration with prescribed ...
Romo, J.T. - - 2011
Fescue Prairie is one of the most threatened ecosystems in Canada, and burning is essential for conserving remnants of this grassland. Burning is a key process in the natural disturbance regime, but its effect on the soil seed bank in Fescue Prairie is poorly understood. We tested the hypotheses that ...
McMillan, Brock - - 2011
Bison (Bos bison) were a keystone species in the tallgrass prairie region of the Great Plains of North America. Cattle (Bos taurus) have been described as a functional equivalent to bison and have replaced bison in most of the grassland that remains intact. However, non-grazing behaviors influence grassland dynamics and ...
Stephenson, Karen - - 2011
Presettlement Florida had a variety of open habitats, including grasslands and savannas. This study examined the historic distribution of the Florida grasslands using U.S. General Land Office land surveys made during the 19th century. All survey maps with areas labeled "prairie" or "savanna" were compiled into a composite map. A ...
Underwood, Nora - - 2011
Herbivore movement behavior is a key mediator of how host-plant populations affect herbivore populations. We examined the effects of host-plant genotype and variance among host-plant genotypes on movement rates of apterous strawberry aphids, Chaetosiphon fragaefolii (Cockerell) (Homoptera: Aphididae), on Fragaria chiloensis (L.) P. Mill. In the field we estimated aphid ...
Douhovnikoff, Vladimir - - 2011
We developed a suite of tetranucleotide microsatellite loci and applied them to a study of genetic variation across the geographic range of coast redwood [Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl.]. The objectives of the study were to determine if the microsatellite loci could provide useful information on genetic diversity in this ...
Peterson, Bryan - - 2011
Knowledge of variation among populations is important for making decisions about conservation of rare, threatened or endangered taxa. We investigated variation within and among five populations of Dirca palustris L. an understory shrub with a sporadic distribution and life-history traits that led us to predict strong phenotypic and genetic differentiation ...
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