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Leong Wai Fun - - 2009
The purpose of this study was to optimize the parameters involved in the production of water-soluble phytosterol microemulsions for use in the food industry. In this study, response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to model and optimize four of the processing parameters, namely, the number of cycles of high-pressure homogenization ...
Hay Sam - - 2009
We report the crystal structure of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) from the psychropiezophilic bacterium Moritella profunda, which was isolated from the deep ocean at 2 degrees C and 280 bar. The structure is typical of a chromosomal DHFR and we were unable to identify any obvious structural features that would suggest ...
Andersson Ove - - 2009
We report thermal conductivity kappa measurements of the pressure-induced collapse of two mixtures of ice and tetrahydrofuran (THF) clathrate hydrate formed by freezing aqueous solutions, THF23 H(2)O and THF20 H(2)O, one containing twice as much excess water than the other. On pressurizing, kappa of the solid mixture first decreases at ...
Köster Sarah - - 2009
Ejection of the genome from the virus, phage lambda, is the initial step in the infection of its host bacterium. In vitro, the ejection depends sensitively on internal pressure within the virus capsid; however, the in vivo effect of internal pressure on infection of bacteria is unknown. Here, we use ...
Chernyshov D - - 2009
TbBaCo_{2}O_{5.48} has been studied by high-pressure synchrotron x-ray diffraction together with resistivity measurements as a function of temperature and pressure. It was found that under pressure a structural phase transition takes place corroborating with a sluggish insulator-to-metal transition. An onset of the metallic state was deduced from a gradual drop ...
Giordano Valentina M - - 2009
The current status of phonon-dispersion studies at high pressure using very high energy resolution inelastic X-ray scattering is discussed. A brief description of the instrumental apparatus is given, together with an illustration of the high-pressure facilities available at the IXS beamlines ID16 and ID28 of the ESRF. Some selected examples ...
Kawamura Naomi - - 2009
An X-ray magnetic circular dichroism experiment under multiple extreme conditions, 2 <or= T <or= 300 K, H <or= 10 T and P <or= 50 GPa, has been achieved at SPring-8 BL39XU. A combination of the high-brilliant X-ray beam and a helicity-controlled technique enabled the dichroic signal to be recorded with ...
Mitsui Takaya - - 2009
An energy-domain (57)Fe-M??ssbauer spectrometer using synchrotron radiation (SR) with a diamond anvil cell (DAC) has been developed for ultrahigh-pressure measurements. The main optical system consists of a single-line pure nuclear Bragg reflection from an oscillating (57)FeBO(3) single crystal near the N??el temperature and an X-ray focusing device. The developed spectrometer ...
Nishiyama Norimasa - - 2009
A modified Drickamer anvil apparatus has been developed to combine with monochromatic synchrotron radiation for high-pressure X-ray diffraction and radiography in the GSECARS bending-magnet station, 13-BM-D, at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne, USA. Using this experimental set-up, deformation experiments can be carried out at pressures in excess of 30 GPa ...
Baspinar Yücel - - 2010
A physically and chemically stable positively charged prednicarbate nanoemulsion was developed as a carrier system for the treatment of atopic dermatitis. Phytosphingosine was used to obtain the positive charge and also because of its supportive properties for the restoration of damaged skin. As production method high pressure homogenization was employed. ...
Liu Dan - - 2009
The high-pressure behavior of scandium oxide (Sc(2)O(3)) has been investigated by angle-dispersive synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy techniques in a diamond anvil cell up to 46.2 and 42 GPa, respectively. An irreversible structural transformation of Sc(2)O(3) from the cubic phase to a monoclinic high-pressure phase was observed at ...
Filabozzi A - - 2010
We report here the results of elastic incoherent neutron scattering experiments on three globular proteins (trypsin, lysozyme and beta-lactoglobulin) in different pressure intervals ranging from 1 bar to 5.5 kbar. A decrease of the mean square hydrogen fluctuations, u(2), has been observed upon increasing pressure. Trypsin and beta-lactoglobulin behave similarly ...
Lang Maik - - 2009
High-pressure and high-temperature phases show unusual physical and chemical properties, but they are often difficult to 'quench' to ambient conditions. Here, we present a new approach, using bombardment with very high-energy, heavy ions accelerated to relativistic velocities, to stabilize a high-pressure phase. In this case, Gd(2)Zr(2)O(7), pressurized in a diamond-anvil ...
Wilton David J - - 2009
In this work we measured 1H NMR chemical shifts for the ribonuclease barnase at pressures from 3 MPa to 200 MPa, both free and bound to d(CGAC). Shift changes with pressure were used as restraints to determine the change in structure with pressure. Free barnase is compressed by approximately 0.7%. ...
Zogaris Stamatis - - 2009
A survey of 218 woody vegetation plots at 109 streamside sites was undertaken to describe anthropogenic degradation of riparian zone woodlands in the mountains of mainland Greece. Two assessment indices and specific anthropogenic pressure variables were employed and they showed good correlations at both the site and river segment scales. ...
Greene Jan - - 2009
With pressures coming from all sides, planning has become a dynamic, rolling process.
Grosso Clara - - 2009
Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of the volatile oil from Santolina chamaecyparissus L. flower heads was performed under different conditions of pressure, temperature, mean particle size and CO(2) flow rate. This oil was compared with the essential oil isolated by hydrodistillation (HD). The SFE volatile and essential oils were analysed by ...
Pel??iz-Barranco Aim?? - - 2009
The electric field-induced phase transformation behavior in lanthanum-doped lead zirconate titanate ceramics was examined by polarization versus electrical field (P-E) measurements carried out from room temperature to 130 degrees C and under hydrostatic pressures from 20 to 300 MPa. The samples with composition (Pb(1-x)La(x))(Zr(0.90)Ti(0.10))(1-x/4)O(3) [PLZT x/90/10; x = 2,3,4 at%] ...
Kajikawa Hiroaki - - 2009
A new controlled-clearance (CC) pressure balance has been developed with the aim of improving hydraulic pressure standards up to pressures of 1 GPa. The pressure balance is equipped with a weight-loading unit that can load/unload selected weights automatically and a CC piston-cylinder that is designed for the jacket pressure to ...
Willer Robb - - 2009
Prevailing theory assumes that people enforce norms in order to pressure others to act in ways that they approve. Yet there are numerous examples of "unpopular norms" in which people compel each other to do things that they privately disapprove. While peer sanctioning suggests a ready explanation for why people ...
Han Qi-gang - - 2009
A hybrid-anvil used in cubic high pressure apparatus is presented, which makes it possible to pressurize samples of 36 mm(3) volume up to 5.5 GPa and to heat simultaneously up to 1350-1400 degrees C for routine operation. The hybrid-anvil has been designed based on the theory of multilayered pressure vessels ...
Dzida Marzena - - 2009
This paper reports a theoretical study of decan-1-ol+heptane and ethanol+heptane systems and experimental data of decan-1-ol+heptane mixtures as a function of temperature and pressure over the whole composition range. The ability of the modifications introduced into the original ERAS model in determining thermodynamic excess properties of decan-1-ol+heptane and ethanol+heptane mixtures ...
Slooten E - - 2009
We report a high-pressure single crystal study of the superconducting ferromagnet UCoGe. Measurements of the ac susceptibility and resistivity under pressures up to 2.2 GPa show ferromagnetism is smoothly depressed and vanishes at a critical pressure p(c) = 1.4 GPa. Near the ferromagnetic critical point superconductivity is enhanced. Upper-critical field ...
Black E P - - 2010
The purposes of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of high pressure to inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef at ambient and subzero treatment temperatures and to study the fate of surviving bacteria postprocess and during frozen storage. Fresh ground beef was inoculated with a five-strain cocktail of ...
Parkes R John - - 2009
Deep subseafloor sediments may contain depressurization-sensitive, anaerobic, piezophilic prokaryotes. To test this we developed the DeepIsoBUG system, which when coupled with the HYACINTH pressure-retaining drilling and core storage system and the PRESS core cutting and processing system, enables deep sediments to be handled without depressurization (up to 25 MPa) and ...
Wang Qingfa - - 2009
Nitrated HTPB (NHTPB) is a potential energetic binder to replace the conventional inert binder, HTPB, for the composite solid propellants and plastic bonded explosives (PBXs). The thermal stability of the NHTPB sample with 10% double bonds converted to dinitrate ester group (10% NHTPB) was evaluated by high-pressure differential scanning calorimeter ...
Almond Matthew J - - 2009
Matrix isolation IR spectroscopy has been used to study the vacuum pyrolysis of 1,1,3,3-tetramethyldisiloxane (L1), 1,1,3,3,5,5-hexamethyltrisiloxane (L2) and 3H,5H-octamethyltetrasiloxane (L3) at ca. 1000 K in a flow reactor at low pressures. The hydrocarbons CH3, CH4, C2H2, C2H4, and C2H6 were observed as prominent pyrolysis products in all three systems, and ...
Pravica Michael - - 2009
Synchrotron infrared measurements of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) have been performed in the far-IR and mid-IR spectral regions up to approximately 30 and approximately 40 GPa, respectively. For the far-IR experiment, no pressurizing medium was used, whereas KBr was utilized as a pressurizing medium for the mid-IR experiment. For both experiments, pressure ...
Verlinde Philippe H C J - - 2009
The mechanism and kinetics of the degradation of 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid during thermal and combined high pressure-thermal treatments in an aqueous solution were investigated. In a first approach the degradation was described by a first-order kinetic model using single-response modeling, and the combined pressure-temperature dependence of the resulting degradation rate constants ...
Kim Duck Young - - 2009
Metallization in pure hydrogen has been proposed to give rise to high-temperature superconductivity at pressures which still lie beyond the reach of contemporary experimental techniques. Hydrogen-dense materials offer an opportunity to study related phenomena at experimentally achievable pressures. Here we report the prediction of high-temperature superconductivity in yttrium hydride (YH3), ...
Wu X - - 2009
The stability of perovskite-structured materials at high pressure and temperature is of fundamental interest in solid-state physics, chemistry, and the geosciences. As an alternative to decomposition into oxides or transformation of the CaIrO_{3} postperovskite structure, we observe in situ the breakdown of FeTiO_{3} perovskite into a (Fe_{1-delta},Ti_{delta})O + Fe_{1+delta}Ti_{2-delta}O_{5} assemblage ...
Sharma Vijendra - - 2009
The thermal resistance of Clostridium sporogenes PA 3679 ATCC 7955 was determined in soymilk (pH 7) and 0.1% peptone water (pH 7) by the capillary tube method. In the continuous flow high-pressure throttling, the temperature of soymilk increased due to instantaneous pressure release and the additional heat was supplied by ...
Bielmann Michael - - 2009
The determination of the equilibrium thermodynamic parameters of hydrogen storage materials from quasiequilibrium pressure data using the mass flow pressure concentration isotherm (pcI) method is presented. The method bases on the acquisition of pcI curves at different flow rates using a thermal mass flow controller to determine the amount of ...
Abramson Evan H - - 2009
Shear viscosities of supercritical carbon dioxide have been measured to 673 K and 8 GPa (80 kbar). Measurements were made in a diamond-anvil cell with a rolling-ball technique. Individual isotherms are well fit by a modified free-volume equation. The data demonstrate a close relation between viscosity and residual entropy.
Sarkar P - - 2009
We report on the hydrostatic pressure dependence of the order of ferromagnetic (FM) to paramagnetic (PM) phase transition in a (Sm(0.7)Nd(0.3))(0.52)Sr(0.48)MnO(3) single crystal. At ambient pressure, the system undergoes a first-order FM-PM phase transition at 146 K. The application of pressure increases the T(C), suppresses the hysteresis width, and thus ...
Yao Yansun - - 2009
High-pressure phase transformations of Ca are studied using the metadynamics method to explore the anharmonic free-energy surface, together with a genetic algorithm structural search method to identify lowest enthalpy structures. Disagreement between theory and experiment regarding the structure of Ca in the pressure range 32-119 GPa is partially resolved by ...
Siddique Maria - - 2009
The thermal-pressure-mediated hydrolysis rates and the degradation kinetics of environmentally persistent Reactive Blue (RB) 19 dye were studied. The dye decomposition was studied at 40-120 degrees C, pH 2-10, and atmospheric pressure range of 1-2 atm. The intermediates and end products formed during the degradation were identified using gas chromatography/mass ...
Somnitz H - - 2009
Pressure dependent CO and CO2 quantum yields in the laser pulse photolysis of acetone at 248 nm and T = 298 K have been measured directly using quantitative infrared diode laser absorption. The experiments cover the pressure range from 50 to 900 mbar. It is found that the quantum yields ...
Schwartz Gustavo Ariel - - 2009
Plasticizers are usually added to polymers to give them the desired flexibility and processability by changing the dynamical properties of the polymer chains. It is therefore important to give a quantitative description about how the dynamic behavior of a given polymer is modified by the incorporation of a second component. ...
Del Gaudio Piero - - 2009
The effect of pressure on melt viscosity was investigated for five compositions along the join An(CaAl(2)Si(2)O(8))-Di(CaMgSi(2)O(6)) and four alkali silicates containing lithium, sodium, and potassium in constant ratio of approximately 1:1:1, but alkali-silica ratios are varying. The experiments were performed in an internally heated gas pressure vessel at pressures from ...
Neves L J P F - - 2009
Indoor radon activities were measured during a period of 6 months, as well as several physical environmental variables (temperature, pressure, humidity and rainfall). The location was a small room at an administrative building of the University of Coimbra, usually undisturbed by human activities and situated over bedrock of low-uranium Triassic ...
Moussa Marwen - - 2009
We investigated the influence of cell hydration on the ability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CBS 1171 to withstand extreme hydrostatic pressure in order to determine the mechanisms involved in cell resistance. Hydration conditions were modified in two different ways. We first modulated the chemical potential of water by adding glycerol in ...
Biyani Nikhil - - 2009
Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to obtain the effects of pressure on the potentials of mean force between a pair of neopentane molecules immersed in water as well as in aqueous solutions containing trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). It was found that the hydrophobic attraction acting between a neopentane pair in pure water ...
Prescimone Alessandro - - 2009
A combined study of the high pressure crystallography and high pressure magnetism of the complex [Mn3(Hcht)2(bpy)4](ClO4)3.Et2O.2MeCN (1.Et2O.2MeCN) (H3cht is cis,cis-1,3,5-cyclohexanetriol) is presented in an attempt to observe and correlate pressure induced changes in its structural and physical properties. At 0.16 GPa the complex 1.Et2O.2MeCN loses all associated solvent in the ...
Goto Masaki - - 2009
The alignment of the sn-1 and sn-2 acyl chains at the terminal methyl ends generally produces significant influence on the thermodynamic properties of the bilayer phase transitions. We investigated the bilayer phase behavior of asymmetric phospholipids, myristoylpalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and palmitoylmyristoylphosphatidylcholine, by high-pressure light-transmittance and Prodan-fluorescence techniques and differential scanning calorimetry. Constructed ...
Ceppatelli Matteo - - 2009
High-pressure methods have been demonstrated to be efficient in providing new routes for the synthesis of materials of technological interest. In several molecular compounds, the drastic pressure conditions required for spontaneous transformations have been lowered to the kilobar range by photoactivation of the reactions. At these pressures, the syntheses are ...
Wakita Junji - - 2009
To clarify the nature of optical absorptions in polyimides (PIs), the ultraviolet-visible optical absorption spectra of PI thin films were observed at high pressures up to 400 MPa using a custom-built hydrostatic pressure optical cell. A pressure-induced bathochromic shift with increasing bandwidth was observed in the locally excited (LE) absorption ...
Leunissen J L M - - 2009
A method is described for the cryofixation of biological specimens for ultrastructural analysis and immunocytochemical detection studies. The method employs plunge freezing of specimens in a sealed capillary tube into a cryogen such as liquid propane or liquid nitrogen. Using this method a number of single-cell test specimens were well ...
Pina-Pérez Maria Consuelo - - 2009
An in-depth study was conducted in order to extend the storage life of a liquid whole egg-skim milk (LWE-SM) mixed beverage to enhance its safety and the safety of related beverages. Bacillus cereus vegetative cells (1 x 10(8) colony-forming units [CFU]/mL) were inoculated in LWE-SM beverages with or without natural ...
Padiernos C A - - 2009
Whey is the inevitable by-product of cheese production. Whey can be incorporated into a variety of foods, but little has been done to investigate its suitability in whipping cream. The objective of this work was to evaluate the foaming properties of selected low-fat whipping cream formulations containing whey protein concentrate ...
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