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Results 301 - 350 of 1023
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Arieli R - - 2005
The contribution of inert gases to the risk of central nervous system (CNS) oxygen toxicity is a matter of controversy. Therefore, diving regulations apply strict rules regarding permissible oxygen pressures (Po(2)). We studied the effects of nitrogen and helium (0, 15, 25, 40, 50, and 60%) and different levels of ...
Vouyouka Angela G - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Although de-endothelialization after vascular intervention is associated with intimal hyperplasia, endothelial cells (ECs) increase smooth muscle cell (SMC) numbers in conventional cocultures. In previously published work, SMCs cocultured with ECs in a chronic high-pressure environment exhibited significantly decreased cell counts compared to monocultured SMCs in the same high pressure. ...
Penache C - - 2004
A new plasma-based micropatterning technique, here referred to as plasma printing, combines the well known advantages given by the nonequilibrium character of a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) and its operation inside small gas volumes with dimension between tens and hundreds of micrometres. The discharge is run at atmospheric pressure and ...
Su Chien-Ling - - 2004
Diving acclimatization refers to a reduced susceptibility to acute decompression sickness (DCS) in individuals undergoing repeated compression-decompression cycles. We demonstrated in a previous study that the mechanism responsible for this acclimatization is similar to that of stress preconditioning. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of prior DCS preconditioning ...
Hort Joanne - - 2004
A multichannel flavor delivery system, Dynataste, was developed. Controlled amounts of isoamyl acetate (100 ppm) and sucrose (0-3%) solution was administered to experienced and naïve assessors who used time intensity techniques to record perceived 'fruit' flavor intensity. In-nose volatile delivery was monitored using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry. Results indicated ...
Paytan Adina - - 2004
The exogenic sulfur cycle is tightly coupled with the carbon and oxygen cycles, and therefore a central component of Earth's biogeochemistry. Here we present a high-resolution record of the sulfur isotopic composition of seawater sulfate for the Cretaceous. The general enrichment of isotopically light sulfur that prevailed during the Cretaceous ...
Suzuki Yasumasa - - 2004
Resonance measurements and atomic force microscopy (AFM) observations were carried out by the non-contact AFM operating in various gas atmospheres (hydrogen, helium, nitrogen and argon) over the range of pressures from 0.1 to 1.1 MPa. In each atmosphere, the resonance frequency of the AFM cantilever depended on the pressure of ...
Gong Henry H - - 2004
Twelve mildly asthmatic and four healthy adults were exposed to filtered air (FA) and concentrated ambient coarse particles (CCP) supplied to a whole-body exposure chamber via a coarse particle concentrator with 15 parallel virtual impactors. Exposures were conducted in a Los Angeles suburb with high levels of motor-vehicle pollution and ...
Christ G - - 2004
Air density must be taken into account when ionization dosimetry is performed with unsealed ionization chambers. The German dosimetry protocol DIN 6800-2 states an air density correction factor for which current barometric pressure and temperature and their reference values must be known. It also states that differences between air density ...
Fishwick David - - 2004
AIMS: This study investigates whether work-related respiratory symptoms and acute falls in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), previously observed in current welders, are related to measured workplace exposures to total fume and metals. METHODS: At four work sites in New Zealand, changes in pulmonary function (and reported respiratory ...
Vettier Aurélie - - 2004
Eels from different locations were tested comparing their energetic capacities to migrate by studying muscle (red and white) aerobic metabolism. As the migratory activity corresponds to a lengthy swimming activity at depth, their pressure resistance was evaluated by considering fish response to compression, mitochondrial respiration measured under pressure (101 ATA) ...
Ghione Sergio - - 2004
Previous studies have shown that exposure to an electromagnetic field (EMF) of 37 Hz at a flux density of 80 microT peak enhances nociceptive sensitivity in mice. Here we examined the effects on pain sensitivity and some indexes of cardiovascular regulation mechanisms in humans by measuring electrical cutaneous thresholds, arterial ...
Elliott James A - - 2004
We present classical molecular dynamics simulations demonstrating that single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) bundles collapse under hydrostatic pressure. The collapse pressures obtained as a function of nanotube diameter are in excellent quantitative agreement with new data presented here for small diameter (d approximately 0.8 nm) SWNTs, and the majority of previously ...
Yamada Masuyoshi - - 2004
The decrease of trichlorophenol by injecting oxidation catalyst into a municipal solid waste incinerator was monitored in real time. Direct sampling atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI)/ion trap mass spectrometry (ITMS) was used for the real-time monitoring. The oxidation catalyst was iron oxide type, which exponentially reduced trichlorophenol emission. CO emission, ...
Iizuka Kenji - - 2004
Hypertension is a major risk factor for atherosclerosis and the genesis of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Therefore, the protection of atherosclerosis progression is one of the purpose of an anti-hypertensive treatment in vascular system. Nitric oxide (NO)-releasing drugs have been reported to have an inhibitory effect on shear stress-induced extracellular ...
Dedieu David - - 2004
Previous studies have demonstrated opposite effects of high-pressure helium and nitrogen on extracellular dopamine (DA) levels, which may reflect disturbances on the synthesis, release or metabolic mechanisms. Intrastriatal microdialysis was used to measure the precursor (tyrosine), DA and its metabolites (DOPAC, HVA) levels under nitrogen- or helium- at pressure up ...
Ghorui S - - 2004
Fluctuations in arc plasma devices are extremely important for any technological application in thermal plasma. The origin of such fluctuations remains unexplained. This paper presents a theory for observed fluctuations in atmospheric pressure arc plasma devices. A qualitative explanation for observed behavior on atmospheric pressure arc plasma fluctuations, reported in ...
Heise, M.
The emission of UV light as well as chemical reaction in plasmas allow them to be used for decontamination of food packaging. Sterilization efficiency of different dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) setups at atmospheric pressure was investigated for spores of B. subtilis and A. niger sprayed onto PET foils. In normal ...
Hublitz I - - 2004
A major challenge of designing a bioregenerative life support system for Mars is the reduction of the mass, volume, power, thermal and crew-time requirements. Structural mass of the greenhouse could be saved by operating the greenhouse at low atmospheric pressure. This paper investigates the feasibility of this concept. The method ...
Kurto─člu Mehmet - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (RAAA) is a highly mortal entity. In recent years, the role of seasonality has been proposed in the incidence of RAAA. In this study, we sought possible correlations between monthly atmospheric pressures and the number of patients admitted with RAAA. METHODS: Twenty-four patients who were ...
Neubauer B - - 2004
During diving the respiratory tract is exposed to occupational hazards (increased oxygen partial pressure, pulmonary vessel engorgement during submersion, inert gas micro embolism during decompression). Leukotriene-B4 [LTB4] concentrations in the exhaled breath mirrors the inflammatory activity of the airways if the respiratory tract has been exposed to occupational hazards. In ...
Paul Anna-Lisa - - 2004
As a step in developing an understanding of plant adaptation to low atmospheric pressures, we have identified genes central to the initial response of Arabidopsis to hypobaria. Exposure of plants to an atmosphere of 10 kPa compared with the sea-level pressure of 101 kPa resulted in the significant differential expression ...
Gong Henry H - - 2003
Epidemiologic studies report health effects associated with exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM), but underlying biologic mechanisms remain unclear. We evaluated pulmonary and systemic effects in twelve healthy human adult and twelve asthmatic volunteers exposed once for 2 hours in a whole-body chamber to approximately 200 microg/m3 concentrated ambient particles ...
DeGorordo Antonio - - 2003
Self-Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus (SCUBA) diving popularity is increasing tremendously, reaching a total of 9 million people in the US during 2001, and 50,000 in the UK in 1985. Over the past 10 years, new advances, equipment improvements, and improved diver education have made SCUBA diving safer and more enjoyable. ...
He Chuanjiu - - 2003
Elevated levels of ethylene occur in enclosed crop production systems and in spaceflight environments, leading to adverse plant growth and sterility. There are engineering advantages in growing plants at hypobaric (reduced atmospheric pressure) conditions in biomass production for extraterrestrial base or spaceflight environments. Objectives of this research were to characterize ...
Theron Michaël - - 2003
The goal of this article was to assess whether a pressure change can constitute a bias of interpretation of pressure effects on pressure-acclimatized fishes. This work consisted first in a study of the recompression effects of mitochondrial extracts from eels pressure-acclimatized; and then in a study of red muscle fibre ...
Meller Renaud - - 2003
HYPOTHESIS: Direct pressure applied on the inner ear cannot induce hearing loss. BACKGROUND: Three possible causes have been described in the literature for inner ear permanent lesions during scuba diving: pressure imbalance between the middle ear and the external ear, appearance of microbubbles in the internal ear, and direct effect ...
Ferretti Guido - - 2003
Several features of potential adaptation to breath-hold diving in diving populations and extreme divers are reviewed. Thermal adaptation consists of an improvement in cold tolerance, as witnessed by a decrease in critical water temperature, and implies an elevation of the shivering threshold associated with a greater body insulation. This is ...
Kim Joon-Youn - - 2003
This study was performed to determine whether there was any relationship between cold exposure and hypertension, and to evaluate risk factors affecting hypertension in cold-exposed workers. In 11 refrigeration industries, 68 male workers working in cold areas more than once per day were selected as the cold-exposed group, and 68 ...
Dean Jay B - - 2003
As ambient pressure increases, hydrostatic compression of the central nervous system, combined with increasing levels of inspired Po2, Pco2, and N2 partial pressure, has deleterious effects on neuronal function, resulting in O2 toxicity, CO2 toxicity, N2 narcosis, and high-pressure nervous syndrome. The cellular mechanisms responsible for each disorder have been ...
Sindosi O A - - 2003
This work aims at defining characteristic air mass types that dominate in the region of Athens, Greece during the cold (November-March) and the warm (May-September) period of the year and also at evaluating the corresponding concentration levels of the main air pollutants. For each air mass type, the mean atmospheric ...
Sicardy B - - 2003
Pluto's tenuous nitrogen atmosphere was first detected by the imprint left on the light curve of a star that was occulted by the planet in 1985 (ref. 1), and studied more extensively during a second occultation event in 1988 (refs 2-6). These events are, however, quite rare and Pluto's atmosphere ...
Fitzpatrick Daniel T - - 2003
INTRODUCTION: There is limited data about the long-term pulmonary effects of nitrox use in divers at shallow depths. This study examined changes in pulmonary function in a cohort of working divers breathing a 46% oxygen enriched mixture while diving at depths less than 12 m. METHODS: A total of 43 ...
Gibbons John A - - 2003
Neurologic and respiratory decompression sickness (DCS) symptoms occurring in the same individual represent complications rarely observed in altitude research. A case is presented of multi-symptom serious DCS resulting from exposure to 12,192 m (40,000 ft). Following 90 min of preoxygenation, the patient was decompressed in a hypobaric chamber from ground ...
Davies Daryl L - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Behavioral and biochemical studies indicate that exposure to 12 times normal atmospheric pressure (12 ATA) of helium-oxygen gas (heliox) is a direct, selective ethanol antagonist. The current study begins to test the hypothesis that ethanol acts by a common mechanism on ligand-gated ion channels by expanding previous hyperbaric investigations ...
Mulkey Daniel K - - 2003
Neuronal sensitivity to pressure, barosensitivity, is illustrated by high-pressure nervous syndrome, which manifests as increased central nervous system excitability when heliox or trimix is breathed at >15 atmospheres absolute (ATA). We have tested the hypothesis that smaller levels of pressure (<or=4 ATA) also increase neuronal excitability. The effect of hyperbaric ...
Vouyouka Angela G - - 2003
High in vitro pressures have been reported to alter smooth muscle cell (SMC) and endothelial cell (EC) phenotype, while endothelial cells (ECs) can influence the proliferation, phenotype, and contractile features of smooth muscle cells (SMC) in coculture systems. However, little is known about the in vitro effects of pressure on ...
Pickard Brian J - - 2003
U-2 pilots are at an increased risk of decompression sickness compared with other aviators in the U.S. Air Force. This is due to the extreme altitudes at which the missions take place. Presented here is a case of decompression sickness that occurred in a U-2 pilot who was wearing a ...
Cheng Tsun-Jen - - 2003
Epidemiologic studies have shown that increased concentrations of ambient particles are associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, the exact mechanisms remain unclear. Recent studies have revealed that particulate air pollution exposure is associated with indicators of autonomic function including heart rate, blood pressure, and heart rate variability. However, this ...
Muth C M - - 2003
Elite apnea divers have considerably extended the limits of dive depth and duration but the mechanisms allowing humans to tolerate the compression- and decompression-induced changes in alveolar gas partial pressures are still not fully understood. Therefore we measured arterial blood gas tensions and acid-base-status in two elite apnea divers during ...
van der Werf Siebren Y - - 2003
A new and flexible ray-tracing procedure for calculating astronomical refraction is outlined and applied to the US1976 standard atmosphere. This atmosphere is generalized to allow for a free choice of the temperature and pressure at sea level, and in this form it has been named the modified US1976 (MUSA76) atmosphere. ...
Iwabuchi K - - 2003
In this study, spinach plants were grown under atmospheric and low pressure conditions with constant O2 and CO2 partial pressures, and the effects of low total pressure on gas exchange rates were investigated. CO2 assimilation and transpiration rates of spinach grown under atmospheric pressure increased after short-term exposure to low ...
Bown M J - - 2003
INTRODUCTION: the rate of rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) has been shown to have a seasonal variation with more ruptures occurring during the winter months. One of the main meterological changes between the seasons is a change in atmospheric pressure. The aim of this study was to investigate whether ...
Pinheiro R - - 2003
AIMS: To investigate the effect of total air pressure raise on cell growth and intracellular beta-galactosidase activity in batch cultures of Kluyveromyces marxianus CBS 7894. METHODS AND RESULTS: A pressurized bioreactor was used for K. marxianus batch cultivation under increased air pressure from 1.2 to 6 bar. Under these conditions ...
Machera K - - 2003
One of the steps during the authorization process of plant protection products (PPP) in the European Union is to evaluate the safety of the operator. For this purpose, information on the probable levels of operator exposure during the proposed uses of the PPP is required. These levels can be estimated ...
Spanarkel Robert - - 2002
The response of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Waldmann's Green) to low atmospheric pressure was examined during the initial 5 days of germination and emergence, and also during subsequent growth to vegetative maturity at 30 days. Growth took place inside a 66-l-volume low pressure chamber maintained at 70 kPa, and ...
Lydersen C - - 2002
In this study we used a Doppler ultrasonic device, in combination with a sonographic contrast medium, to test whether free-living bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus) pups have a closed (anatomically or functionally) foramen ovale. A total of 17 examinations were performed on 12 individual pups with a body mass range of ...
Danielides Vasilis - - 2002
The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of weather conditions on the frequency of acute laryngitis in adults. The medical records of 825 patients with a diagnosis of acute laryngitis obtained over a 5-year period were reviewed. Meteorological data reviewed included the daily values of 13 parameters. ...
Balon Norbert - - 2002
Nitrogen-oxygen breathing mixtures, for pressures higher than 0.5 MPa, decrease the release of dopamine in the rat striatum, due to the narcotic potency of nitrogen. In contrast, high pressures of helium-oxygen breathing mixtures of more than 1-2 MPa induce an increase of the striatal dopamine release and an enhancement of ...
Hull Jay G - - 2002
Five studies demonstrated that private self-consciousness is associated with nonconscious, automatic behaviors. In 2 studies, high but not low self-conscious individuals walked more slowly following exposure to an implicit elderly prime. In a 3rd study, high but not low self-conscious individuals showed improved performance following exposure to a subliminal success ...
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