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Results 401 - 450 of 726
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Haruna Y - - 1997
Long term change of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) induced by bed rest and its effects on cardiovascular system are still controversial. The purpose of this study was to obtain a general conclusion on these questions by analyzing our two 20-days horizontal bed rest experiments in past two years with 18 subjects. ...
Lee H S - - 1997
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of moxibustion at the meridian points BL-15 (Xin-shu) and BL-27 (Xiao-chang-shu) on renal function, systolic blood pressure, plasma levels of renin activity, aldosterone and atrial natriuretic peptide in spontaneously hypertensive rats. The results showed that urine volume increased significantly after ...
Pessina A C - - 1997
Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is a common finding in hypertension and represents a detrimental outcome since it is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. For similar elevation of blood pressure the severity and type of LVH vary considerably in relation to several factors. Compelling evidence suggests that both the renin-angiotensin ...
Fardella C E - - 1996
Low renin hypertension (LRH), which accounts for 10-20% of patients with idiopathic "essential" hypertension, bears hormonal similarities to mineralocorticoid-induced hypertension, but elevated mineralocorticoid concentrations have not been found. Some patients with LRH have normal, rather than suppressed, plasma aldosterone concentrations, so that the ratio of aldosterone concentration to PRA (Aldo/PRA) ...
Hui Y - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between certain humoral factors and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in essential hypertension. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 62 essential hypertension (EH) patients (32 men, 30 women; mean age, 55 years) and 20 normotensive healthy subjects (10 men, 10 women: mean age, 52 years) were studied. EH patients ...
Rizzoni D - - 1996
It has been proposed that several neurohumoral factors may be involved in the genesis of vascular structural changes (remodeling or hypertrophy) frequently observed in essential hypertension. Therefore, in this study we investigated vascular structural alterations of subcutaneous small resistance arteries in patients with secondary forms of hypertension. The study included ...
Dal Palù C - - 1996
A minimum level of blood pressure is necessary for atherosclerosis to develop, even in the presence of hypercholesterolemia. Experimentally and clinically we have both examples of atherosclerosis in which hypercholesterolemia is the dominant pathogenetic factor and others in which hypertension prevails (BBWT). The pathogenetic role of hypertension may be direct ...
Jensen L W - - 1996
The aim of this study was to assess the blood pressure profile and vasoactive hormones in valvular aortic disease. Thirteen aortic stenosis and/or aortic regurgitation patients were matched with 13 control subjects. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was performed for 24 h. Arterial and venous plasma concentrations of renin, angiotensin II, ...
Portaluppi F - - 1996
The temporal organization of blood pressure is mainly controlled by neuroendocrine mechanisms. The monoaminergic systems appear to integrate the major driving factors of temporal variability, but evidence also indicates a role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal, hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid, opioid, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone, and endothelial systems as well as other vasoactive peptides. Although their hormonal secretions ...
Tresham J J - - 1996
The possibility that corticotropin (ACTH)-induced hypertension results from a direct central effect of the adrenocortical steroids released by ACTH was investigated in sheep. Using two approaches, steroid levels were increased in the brain while peripheral levels remained sub-pressor. The blood pressure response to intravenous infusion of a combination of 7 ...
Rossi G P - - 1996
We investigated the effects on the heart of hypertension due to the excess of aldosterone and suppression of the renin-angiotensin system caused by primary aldosteronism with M-mode echocardiography and transmitral Doppler flow velocity measurements. We studied 34 consecutive patients with primary aldosteronism and 34 with essential hypertension individually matched for ...
Young M J - - 1996
In uninephrectomized rats on 1% NaCl solution to drink, aldosterone (0.75 micrograms/h subcutaneously for 8 weeks) raises blood pressure and causes marked interstitial and perivascular cardiac fibrosis, effects not seen in animals on a low salt intake. In extending these initial findings, we have shown that cardiac fibrosis (i) is ...
Ou Y C - - 1996
BACKGROUND: Primary aldosteronism (PA) is a rare but potentially curable cause of hypertension. Between October 1982 and November 1994, 30 patients of PA received unilateral adrenalectomy with a long-term follow up (mean:60.3 months). Nineteen (63.3%) cases were cured (Group 1); 11(36.7%) cases were improved (Group 2). The purpose of this ...
Smith M C - - 1995
The major antihypertensive effect of losartan, a nonpeptide angiotensin II antagonist, is thought to be due to inhibition of the pressor effects of angiotensin II. It is possible, however, that losartan alters the synthesis of vasodilator or vasoconstrictor prostaglandins (PG), thus contributing to its antihypertensive effect. Sixteen postmenopausal women with ...
Munakata M - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: Reduced baroreflex sensitivity has been reported in several kinds of human hypertension. However, the nature of the baroreceptor-heart rate reflex in hypertension due to excess mineralocorticoid has never been fully explored. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty patients with primary aldosteronism, 60 patients with essential hypertension (World Health organization stages I ...
Young M - - 1995
Uninephrectomized rats maintained on 1.0% NaCl to drink and infused with aldosterone (0.75 microgram/h) for 8 wk have previously been shown to develop hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy, and cardiac fibrosis. In the present study we have shown that K+ supplementation (1.0% NaCl plus 0.4% KCl drinking solution) alters neither the interstitial ...
Nakamoto H - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the central nervous system has a pressor or a depressor role in glucocorticoid-induced hypertension. METHODS: Intracerebroventricular dexamethasone or its receptor antagonist, RU 38486, was administered in 20 trained conscious dogs. In addition, intracerebroventricular RU 38486 was administered in dogs treated with oral dexamethasone. RESULTS: Intracerebroventricular dexamethasone ...
Velasco Manuel - - 1995
Nine patients with mild or moderate essential hypertension were studied at the Vargas Hospital of Caracas, Venezuela. After antihypertensive treatment discontinuation, all patients were placed on placebo during a 1-week period, after which domperidone, a peripheral DA(2) dopaminergic blocker, was orally administered at the dose of 20 mg every 12 ...
Charoenlarp K - - 1995
A 31 year old hypertensive patient suffered from a fluctuation of blood pressure. Pheochromocytoma was suspected because of the clinical history, and extremely labile blood pressure but did not respond to therapy with alpha adrenergic blocking agent and normal excretion rates of catecholamine and vanilly mandelic acid (VMA). An enlarged ...
Kailasam M T - - 1995
Factitious pheochromocytoma usually occurs in patients surreptitiously ingesting adrenergic medications. We encountered a case of factitious pheochromocytoma where in the subject mimicked hemodynamic (profound hypertension) and biochemical (plasma catecholamine elevation) manifestations of the illness by consciously altering autonomic function with Valsalva maneuver. Clues to this presentation included visible performance of ...
Zdrojewski T R - - 1995
Previous studies have shown that symptom complex in patients with mitral valve prolapse syndrome (MVPS) may result from various forms of autonomic dysfunction. However, the interaction between adrenergic activity and renin release has not been studied. The purpose of this investigation was to assess changes in plasma renin activity (PRA) ...
Takeda R - - 1995
The incidence of vascular complications in 224 patients with aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) which was proven on adrenal surgery, was compared to that in 224 sex- and age-matched patients with essential hypertension (EHT). The incidence of cerebral hemorrhage was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the patients with APA when compared ...
Veglio F - - 1995
A disturbance of the autonomic cardiovascular function has been postulated in primary aldosteronism as a possible mechanism for hypertension. Using the method of spectral analysis of heart rate and blood pressure variability, the aim of this study was to assess sympathovagal interactions modulating cardiovascular function and baroreflex control in patients ...
Jamieson A - - 1995
BACKGROUND: The mineralocorticoid hormone aldosterone may be an important mediator of pathological ventricular hypertrophy and heart failure. Much of the evidence for this arises from experimental work in rat models of mineralocorticoid-dependent hypertension, and a pathological role in humans is still uncertain. SUBJECTS: Eleven subjects with glucocorticoid-suppressible hyperaldosteronism, a hereditary ...
Maillet A - - 1995
The volume of regulating hormones (renin, aldosterone, arginine vasopressin and atrial natriuretic factor), electrolytes and creatinine concentrations, and blood pressure were measured in two different four-week experimental protocols: respectively -6 degrees head-down bed-rest (5 subjects) and confinement (6 subjects). We observed a significant increase (P < 0.01 at D2 vs ...
Goodfriend T L - - 1995
Exposure to lead has been postulated to contribute to elevated blood pressure in humans and has been shown to raise blood pressure in animals. The mechanism of action of lead on blood pressure is unknown. We fed lead to rats in their drinking water and then examined the production of ...
Hansen K W - - 1995
Ambulatory blood pressure was measured in 23 microalbuminuric Type 1 diabetic patients without hypertension. Nine patients had a reduction in mean arterial blood (MAP) pressure at night < 10% of their day-time value (non-dippers). The following parameters were measured: glomerular filtration rate (GFR), overnight urinary excretion of albumin (UAE), sodium ...
Gómez Sánchez E P - - 1995
An association between mineralocorticoids and hypertension has been recognized for over 50 years, although the mechanisms involved are not entirely clear. In addition to the hypertension seen in cases of frank mineralocorticoid excess, such as in an aldosterone-producing adenoma, many essential hypertensive patients respond to treatments mitigating mineralocorticoid action, even ...
Biglieri E G - - 1995
In the course of my studies of patients with mineralocorticoid hypertensive disorders, unusual presentations led to unexpected findings, both clinically and in steroid etiologies and regulation. Unique circumstances permitted early studies in defining the autonomy of the aldosterone-producing adenoma. A chance referral brought the index case of 17 alpha-hydroxylase deficiency ...
Maillet A - - 1995
EXEMSI'92 was a 60-day isolation and confinement experiment with an international crew. During this second experiment of the European Space Agency (the first one was a 28-day confinement with 6 men: ISEMSI'90), blood volume regulating hormones and water balance were studied. During ISEMSI'90, stress level was elevated as shown by ...
Dluhy R G - - 1995
Glucocorticoid-remediable aldosteronism (GRA) is a hereditary cause of human hypertension in which aldosterone secretion is regulated by adrenocorticotropin (ACTH). A genetic mutation which causes GRA has recently been identified in our laboratory, a hybrid or chimeric gene fusing nucleotide sequences of the 11 beta-hydroxylase and aldosterone synthase genes. The finding ...
Gennari C - - 1995
Primary hyperparathyroidism (HPTH) is frequently associated with hypertension. To date, the relationship between these two conditions is still not clear. We have studied 34 consecutive patients with primary HPTH due to a parathyroid adenoma. The diagnosis was later surgically confirmed in 32 cases. Ten of thirty-four HPTH patients were hypertensive. ...
Schmitt J K - - 1994
We present the case of a 60 year old C6 complete tetraplegic patient who developed profound hypotension following initiation of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor lisinopril to control blood pressure. Other causes of hypotension, such as myocardial infarction and sepsis was ruled out. Inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system was the probable ...
Guazzi M D - - 1994
BACKGROUND: Hypovolaemia stimulates the sympathoadrenal and renin systems and water retention. It has been proposed that in congestive heart failure reduction of cardiac output and any associated decrease in blood pressure cause underfilling of the arterial compartment, which promotes and perpetuates neurohumoral activation and the retention of fluid. This study ...
Nishikimi T - - 1994
Adrenomedullin is a novel hypotensive peptide, newly discovered in pheochromocytoma. Because immunoreactive adrenomedullin is present in human plasma, adrenomedullin may play a role in regulating blood pressure. A recent report showed that human adrenomedullin mRNA is expressed not only in pheochromocytoma but also in the normal adrenal medulla, kidney, lung, ...
Schmitz U - - 1994
In a 56-year-old normotensive white male subject with a 12-year history of hypokalemic alkalosis, hyperreninemia, and aldosteronism, the diagnosis of Bartter's syndrome was established on the basis of an impaired maximal renal diluting capacity and decreased distal fractional chloride absorption [CH2O/(CH2O+CCl)]. Negative urine analysis for diuretics suggested that this renal ...
Gomez-Sanchez E P - - 1994
There is strong evidence from different types of studies, including the discrete infusion of agonists and antagonists and ablation of specific brain areas or transmitter-type neurons, that mineralocorticoids, in excess, act in the brain to elevate blood pressure. Aldosterone enhances the entry of Na+ through amiloride-sensitive Na+ channels in some ...
Wang W - - 1994
In a previous study it was shown that acute perfusion of aldosterone into the isolated carotid sinus decreased baroreceptor activity. The aim of the present study was to determine whether chronic, systemic administration of aldosterone also depresses baroreflex function. In six conscious dogs, the baroreflex was determined before and 10 ...
Clarkson P B - - 1994
1. Doppler echocardiographic indices of diastolic function and systemic haemodynamics were studied in response to infusions of angiotensin II (1, 2, 5 and 10 ng min-1 kg-1), D-aldosterone (2, 4, 10 and 20 ng min-1 kg-1) and placebo [0.9% (w/v) NaCl] in ten normal male subjects. 2. Dose-related increases in ...
Glace B W - - 1994
OBJECTIVE: Although the role of postexercise carbohydrate intake in the replenishment of muscle glycogen is well established, large amounts of carbohydrate may affect other systems which are recovering from exercise as well. METHODS: We varied the timing and amount of a commercial glucose polymer/fructose (CHO) beverage ingested postexercise in 2 ...
Anderson G H GH - - 1994
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the importance of age and other variables on the prevalence of secondary forms of hypertension in a hypertension referral center. DESIGN: Over the past 18 years 4429 patients have been referred by their physicians for a 1-day blood pressure study to investigate secondary causes of hypertension. METHODS: ...
Portaluppi F - - 1994
Fatal familial insomnia is a prion disease in which a selective thalamic degeneration leads to total sleep deprivation, hypertension, dysautonomia, adrenal overactivity, and impaired motor functions. With patients under continuous recumbency and polysomnographic control, we assessed the changes in the 24-hour patterns of blood pressure, heart rate, plasma catecholamines, corticotropin, ...
Bognetti E - - 1994
Cardiovascular responses to cold pressor test and associated changes in blood concentrations of renin, aldosterone, and catecholamines were measured in 11 type I diabetic patients with microalbuminuria; 11 type I diabetic patients with normoalbuminuria matched for age, duration of diabetes, metabolic control; and in nine normal control subjects. Heart rate, ...
McGrady A - - 1994
One hundred and one patients, 70 experimental and 31 controls, with a diagnosis of essential hypertension, were examined for the effects of group relaxation training and thermal biofeedback on blood pressure and on other psychophysiologic measures: heart rate, forehead muscle tension, finger temperature, depression, anxiety, plasma aldosterone, plasma renin activity, ...
Pozzi M - - 1994
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Tense ascites of cirrhosis can be treated with total paracentesis; however, the short-term effects of this procedure are poorly defined. METHODS: The circulatory and humoral changes induced by total paracentesis (250 mL/min) were studied in 12 cirrhotics with tense, refractory ascites. Data were collected before, during, and after paracentesis ...
Wada T - - 1994
In dispersed rabbit adrenocortical glomerulosa cells, a non-peptide angiotensin II (AT1) receptor antagonist, CV-11974 (10(-10)-10(-5) M), competitively inhibited angiotensin II- or angiotensin III-stimulated aldosterone production, whereas PD123177, an angiotensin AT2 receptor antagonist, did not. CV-11974 inhibited aldosterone production induced by 4 mM K+ but not by 12 mM K+. CV-11974 ...
Chandra M - - 1993
Serotonin and abnormal serotonergic activity (both central and peripheral) may play a role in pathogenesis of essential hypertension. Serotonin acts chiefly via three types of receptors namely S1, S2 and S3 serotonergic receptors. Besides being vasoactive, it has some inotropic and chronotropic properties and also affects blood rheology. It has ...
Navarro-Lopez F - - 1993
In order to analyse the hormonal and erythrocyte ion transport systems in relation to left ventricular hypertrophy (LV) in essential hypertension, a prospective study of 50 consecutive hypertensive patients under 55 years of age and without prior antihypertensive therapy was performed. Twenty-seven normal subjects with no family history of hypertension ...
Jacobsen J - - 1993
Effects of ileus on cardiovascular and hormonal responses to haemorrhage were evaluated in 10 anaesthetized pigs. Ileus was induced and the bleeding sequence repeated on the following day. Before ileus, a resting heart rate (HR) of 105 (range 83-140) beats min-1 remained unchanged until haemorrhage amounted to 15% of the ...
Smith R J - - 1993
Primary aldosteronism due to an adrenal tumor is rare. When found, it can be treated surgically and cured. This is a case report of a 41-year-old man with a long history of severe hypertension who complained of weakness and weight loss. Laboratory studies revealed hypokalemia and marked elevation of the ...
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