Search Results
Results 351 - 400 of 728
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Funder J W - - 2000
Classically, mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) are activated by aldosterone to promote unidirectional transepithelial sodium transport. Activation of MR in nonepithelial tissues has been shown to elevate blood pressure (central nervous system; CNS) and to cause hypertrophy and fibrosis (heart). For both epithelial and nonepithelial tissues, there remain a variety of questions ...
Kukin M L - - 2000
Neurohormonal antagonism is now recognized as an essential treatment modality for heart failure. As a prime example, the benefits of blocking the renin-angiotensin system with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors are clearly established for all four New York Heart Association classes. In this clinical trials review, we discuss two other therapies ...
Mantero F - - 2000
Spironolactone, a competitive aldosterone receptor antagonist (ARA), has traditionally been the treatment of first choice in idiopathic hyperaldosteronism (IHA) and for preoperative management of aldosterone producing adenoma (APA). Spironolactone is partially absorbed, is extensively metabolized mainly by the liver and its therapeutic properties are attributable to active metabolite canrenone. At ...
Yasunari K - - 2000
We describe a patient with pheochromocytoma, which secretes dopamine. He was admitted to hospital because of chronic diarrhea. After surgical resection of the tumor, dramatic cessation of the diarrhea and blood pressure elevation were observed. Decreased expression of dopamine beta-hydroxylase in the tumor was considered a possible mechanism of producing ...
Rezkalla L - - 2000
The case of a 74-year-old woman with past history of hypertension and cerebrovascular accident admitted with pneumonia, dehydration, hypernatremia and severe hypokalemic alkalosis is presented. After correction of the hypertonic dehydration, the hypokalemia and alkalosis persisted in spite of aggressive potassium supplementation and the patient became hypertensive. Mineralocorticoid excess was ...
Shouman A E - - 2000
Numerous observations have indicated a relationship between lead exposure and elevated blood pressure. The present study aims to investigate the association between occupational lead-exposure and elevated blood pressure as well as serum aldosterone level and plasma renin activity as parameters affecting blood pressure. Fifty occupationally lead-exposed (16 males and 34 ...
Hanna N N - - 1999
Adrenal-dependent hypertension syndromes are uncommon forms of hypertension. They include primary aldosteronism, pheochromocytoma, Cushing"s syndrome, and congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Pheochromocytomas are the cause of hypertension in 0.1% to 0.2% of hypertensive patients. Excess catecholamine release and other neural and humoral mechanisms contribute to the pathophysiology of hypertension. Patients with pheochromocytomas ...
Guazzi M - - 1999
The microvascular pulmonary endothelium barrier is critical in preventing interstitial fluid overflow and deterioration in gas diffusion. The role of endothelium in transporting small solutes in pathological conditions, such as congestive heart failure (CHF), has not been studied. Monitoring of pulmonary gas transfer during saline infusion in CHF was used ...
Schunkert H - - 1999
Endogenous dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) levels have been reported to be positively related to blood pressure levels. To further analyze this association, we quantified DHEAS in middle-aged subjects (mean age +/-SEM: 57.8+/-0.1 years) of a population-based sample (n = 646). DHEAS levels were higher in hypertensive as compared with normotensive individuals ...
Schlaich M P - - 1999
BACKGROUND: High angiotensin II levels in relation to the corresponding urinary sodium excretion have been found to modulate left ventricular (LV) structure in middle-aged hypertensive patients. To analyze whether such a relation between the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and left ventricular structure is already present in young individuals, we examined the changes ...
Lim P O - - 1999
Aldosterone/renin ratio is an index for inappropriate aldosterone activity, and it is increasingly being used to screen for primary aldosteronism within the hypertensive population. It may also be a good index to help predict the response to spironolactone. To assess the blood pressure response to oral spironolactone in hypertensive patients ...
Kreze A - - 1999
No significant difference has been demonstrated in the altered circadian blood pressure pattern between the pituitary-dependent and adrenal forms of Cushing's syndrome before surgery. The effect of therapy, however, proved to be different. The mesor was normalized in the pituitary-dependent Cushing's syndrome more conspicuously for systolic than for diastolic blood ...
Vantyghem M C - - 1999
Normotensive primary hyperaldosteronism is exceedingly rare. We report two new cases of this syndrome in two middle-aged women, one of Asian origin. The presenting signs were tetany in one case and an adrenal mass in the other. Neither patient had hypertension, despite repeated measurements with a manual armlet. A typical ...
Ghose R P - - 1999
BACKGROUND: No data are available on the long-term medical management of aldosterone-producing adenomas. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the efficacy of medical management of aldosterone-producing adenomas in terms of blood pressure and serum potassium concentration and to discuss morbidity associated with medical management. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Large tertiary care referral ...
Anderson G H - - 1999
We evaluate in this study the factors associated with the effect of age on blood pressure in more than 4800 patients. Their physicians referred them to evaluate for secondary causes for their hypertension. Factors studied included history and physical examination, serum sodium, potassium and creatinine, a stimulated plasma renin and ...
Gomez-Sanchez E P - - 1999
Epidemiological and experimental evidence suggests that gestational events modulate the level of blood pressure that will be "normal" for the individual as an adult. Glucocorticoid excess during gestation is associated with low birth weight, a large placenta, and adult hypertension in humans and animals. It has been proposed that the ...
Izzo J L JL - - 1999
Blood pressure and blood volume are closely regulated by the interrelated actions of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Reflex vasoconstriction caused by parallel SNS and RAAS activation is modulated by two interactive negative feedback systems called baroreflex. The aortic-carotid baroreflex systems respond to momentary changes ...
Schunkert H - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Cardiac growth and function may be modulated in part by trophic effects of neurohormones. Specifically, aldosterone has been shown to stimulate the growth of cardiac myocytes and the accumulation of cardiac extracellular matrix proteins. Moreover, a variant of the aldosterone synthase gene (a cytosine/thymidine exchange at position -344 in ...
Hatakeyama H - - 1999
11beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (11beta-HSD) interconvert cortisol, the physiological glucocorticoid, and its inactive metabolite cortisone in humans. The diminished dehydrogenase activity (cortisol to cortisone) has been demonstrated in patients with essential hypertension and in resistance vessels of genetically hypertensive rats. 11beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11beta-HSD2) catalyzes only 11beta-dehydrogenation. However, a functional relationship ...
Schmidt J - - 1999
We report the case of a 68-year-old man who presented with a mass 3 x 4 cm in size located in the right adrenal gland together with extreme hypertension, tripled urine levels for normetanephrine, and normal plasmatic levels of metanephrines. The patient had suffered a fall from a height of ...
Tajima F - - 1999
BACKGROUND: The hydrostatic pressure gradient during head-out water immersion (HOI) causes a blood shift from the legs into the thoracic cavity to stretch the receptors in the cardiac atria and results in a diuresis in hydrated subjects. The present study was conducted to examine whether the HOI-induced diuresis and related ...
Schulz O - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Heart transplantation is associated with a reduction of the neurohumoral activation seen in patients with severe congestive heart failure. In this study, we investigated whether pharmacologically induced complex hemodynamic improvement during assessment of reversibility of pulmonary hypertension with a phosphodiesterase inhibitor is able to induce neurohormonal changes of diagnostic ...
Stewart P M - - 1999
Hypertension with hypokalaemia and suppression of plasma renin activity is known as mineralocorticoid hypertension. Although mineralocorticoid hypertension accounts for a small number of patients labelled as having "essential" hypertension, it is a potentially reversible cause of high blood pressure. The most common cause of mineralocorticoid hypertension is probably primary aldosteronism; ...
Hummler E - - 1999
Arterial blood pressure is critically dependent on sodium balance. The kidney is the key player in maintaining sodium homeostasis. Aldosterone-dependent epithelial sodium transport in the distal nephron is mediated by the highly selective, amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channel (ENaC). Direct evidence that dysfunction of ENaC participates in blood pressure regulation has ...
Zavagli G - - 1999
The infusion of 40 mEq potassium (aspartate) in 250 ml isotonic 1-fructose at a rate of 20 mEq/h into 5 patients (34-56 years old) with aldosteronoma and 2 patients with bilateral primary aldosteronism consistently raised their mean arterial pressure by 15-20 mmHg. Their pressure values returned to the baseline levels ...
Sato A - - 1999
There is increasing evidence for important cardiovascular effects of aldosterone via classical mineralocorticoid receptors in the heart. Administration of aldosterone with excess salt produces both cardiac hypertrophy and interstitial cardiac fibrosis in rats, and concomitant administration of potassium canrenoate at a dose that only modestly lowers blood pressure completely blocks ...
Stoynev A G - - 1999
The circadian rhythm of arterial pressure (AP) is not a passive consequence of the impact of exogenous factors. Endogenous mechanisms play an important role in the generation and maintenance of AP rhythm. The adaptation of the exogenous components of AP rhythm to the demands of the environment is modulated by ...
Veglio F - - 1999
The purpose of this study was to evaluate if changes in vascular properties were related to baroreflex function in patients with primary aldosteronism. Twenty-three patients with primary aldosteronism, 22 essential hypertensive patients and 16 normal controls were studied. Continuous finger blood pressure (BP) was recorded by Portapres device during supine ...
Rocha R - - 1999
Stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) on 1% NaCl drinking solution and Stroke-Prone Rodent Diet develop severe hypertension and glomerular and vascular lesions characteristic of thrombotic microangiopathy seen in malignant nephrosclerosis. We recently reported that spironolactone, a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, markedly reduced proteinuria and malignant nephrosclerotic lesions in these animals. This ...
Fridman K U - - 1999
The effects of the angiotensin II receptor blocker candesartan cilexetil on systemic and forearm haemodynamics and baroreceptor sensitivity were evaluated in this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study. After a 4-week placebo run-in period, 22 patients with essential hypertension (diastolic blood pressure 100-114 mmHg) were randomized to receive either candesartan cilexetil ...
Spitzer D - - 1998
A 46-year old female nursing sister was admitted to three different hospitals because of blood pressure crises of 300/150 mmHg which occurred up to six times a day. The rises in blood pressure were accompanied by headache, tachycardia and outbreaks of sweating. Raised catecholamine concentrations were repeatedly measured in the ...
Yee K M - - 1998
1. Recent animal evidence suggests that aldosterone, like angiotensin II, may possess detrimental autonomic modulating properties. Aldosterone has been shown to impair the baroreflex response in animal models. This study is designed to test the hypothesis that aldosterone directly attenuates the baroreflex in vivo in man.2. Fourteen healthy male volunteers ...
Proye C A - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Despite cure of primary aldosteronism by surgical resection, hypertension persists postoperatively in 30% to 50% of patients. The aim of this study was to determine factors influencing long-term outcome of blood pressure after unilateral adrenalectomy for primary aldosteronism. METHODS: Records of 100 patients who underwent unilateral adrenalectomy for primary ...
Kelly J J - - 1998
1. In humans, the hypertensive effects of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) infusion are reproduced by intravenous or oral cortisol. Oral cortisol increases blood pressure in a dose-dependent fashion. At a dose of 80-200 mg/day, the peak increases in systolic pressure are of the order of 15 mmHg. Increases in blood pressure ...
Wehling M - - 1998
Rapid nongenomic in vitro effects of aldosterone have been demonstrated recently in cultured vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells. But there is, as yet, little evidence for corresponding in vivo effects. The present study thus investigates the rapid nongenomic effects of aldosterone on human cardiovascular function. In a double-blind placebo-controlled ...
Tominaga M - - 1998
Resection of pheochromocytoma is associated with potential risks of hypertensive crises and serious arrhythmias due to massive release of catecholamines from the tumor. We report our surgical experience with complete inferior vena caval isolation and extracorporeal charcoal hemoperfusion (IVCI-CHP), which were performed to prevent systemic exposure to catecholamines during surgical ...
Pojoga L - - 1998
The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system plays an important role in large artery structure and blood pressure homeostasis. Among the genes coding for different components of this system, the aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) gene could play an important role, but has been less investigated. We examined the role of two variations of the aldosterone ...
Luchsinger A - - 1998
This study was conducted in normotensive and hypertensive subjects at the Vargas Hospital of Caracas. Normotensive subjects received, in a cross-over fashion, placebo, metoclopramide (MTC), or domperidone (DOMP), 40 mg of each drug, daily for 1 week. The first group of patients under placebo for 1 week received a single ...
Bartter F C - - 1998
A new syndrome, characterized by hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the juxtaglomerular apparatus of the kidneys, aldosteronism resulting from adrenal cortical hyperplasia, and persistently normal blood pressure is described in two patients. Overproduction of aldosterone could not be prevented by sodium loading or by administration of albumin intravenously; it was associated ...
Fletcher A K - - 1998
Correction of the causes of secondary forms of hypertension usually restores blood pressure to normal. Hypothyroidism is a potentially important but overlooked cause of hypertension and restoration of euthyroidism with thyroxine therapy usually results in a substantial reduction in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, especially in younger subjects. The ...
Rizzoni D - - 1998
The aim of our study was to evaluate the relationships between endothelial function, small resistance artery structure, and blood pressure in patients with primary or secondary hypertension. Sixty subjects were included in the study: 9 patients with pheochromocytoma, 10 with primary aldosteronism, 17 with renovascular hypertension, and 13 with essential ...
Sohn C I - - 1998
A 40-year-old woman was admitted because of abdominal pain and diarrhea. She sometimes experienced paroxysmal hypertension, sweating, headache, and palpitation. Sigmoidoscopic findings showed well-demarcated diffuse mucosal edema, hyperemia, and easy touch bleeding from distal descending colon up to the splenic flexure area. Barium x-ray showed loss of haustral marking, thumb ...
Miyazawa K - - 1998
A 49-year-old male was diagnosed as having primary aldosteronism at age 39, and he was treated with antihypertensive drugs. In 1995, a computed tomogram revealed a mass in the right adrenal gland. Radiological examinations and endocrinological data revealed the presence of a pheochromocytoma in the right and an adrenocortical tumor ...
Blacher J - - 1997
We previously observed that, in subjects with essential hypertension, acute ouabain constricts the brachial artery diameter in the presence of spironolactone treatment, a finding that is not observed in the absence of aldosterone antagonist and therefore suggests a specific effect of aldosterone on the arterial wall. To evaluate whether aldosterone ...
Wang H - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of ouabain on the blood pressure of rats with that of digoxin to find the evidences of the relationship between endogenous ouabain (EO) and development of hypertension. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats, which were divided into 3 groups, were infused with ouabain (23 x 75 micrograms.kg-1/day, i.p.), ...
Jespersen B - - 1997
As it has been suggested that parathyroid hormone (PTH) is implicated in the pathophysiology of essential hypertension, the effects of PTH(1-34) were assessed during infusion over 120 min in ten men with essential hypertension and in ten healthy men. Ionized calcium was kept constant by a clamping technique. Mean arterial ...
Thorens J B - - 1997
The aim of this study was to investigate the haemodynamic and endocrinological effects of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV). Eleven patients with oedema and recent hypercapnic and hypoxaemic worsening of a chronic respiratory insufficiency were included. Echocardiography, cardiac radionuclide assessment, blood catecholamines, salt and water handling hormones were measured at ...
Zweiker R - - 1997
Pheochromocytoma endures as a life-threatening disorder. In the absence of systemic hypertension, diagnosis may be difficult. We present a 46-year-old normotensive male with a history of presyncope. One of these episodes could be documented, and revealed symptomatic bradycardia suspicious of sinus node arrest. Due to hints of an elevated sympathetic ...
Takami H - - 1997
A patient with asymptomatic pheochromocytoma associated with catecholamine hypersecretion but no hypertension was treated by right laparoscopic adrenalectomy. The 63-year-old male patient was referred to us for treatment of an incidentaloma. The diameter of the adrenal tumor was 50 mm, and the peripheral blood nonrepinephrine level was 1.12 ng/ml (normal ...
White P C - - 1997
Genetic defects in aldosterone biosynthesis and action affect blood pressure and electrolyte homeostasis. Aldosterone synthase deficiency, salt-wasting forms of congenital adrenal hyperplasia, and adrenal hypoplasia congenita all cause aldosterone deficiency, signs of which include hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, hypovolemia, elevated plasma renin activity, and sometimes shock and death. Conversely, the inappropriate regulation ...
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