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Results 301 - 350 of 711
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Moneva Miroslava H - - 2002
Hypertension affects 20% to 25% of the adult population. Most patients are diagnosed as having essential or primary hypertension. Up to 10% to 15% have an identifiable cause and many of those have an adrenal basis. The identification of an adrenal cause of hypertension provides an opportunity for a targeted ...
Benchetrit Sydney - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Primary aldosteronism is a common cause of non-renal secondary hypertension. A correct diagnosis results in curing the hypertension or targeting appropriate pharmacotherapy. In patients with low renin resistant hypertension (after treatment with three or more different anti-hypertensive drugs the blood pressure remains above 140/90 mmHg), screening for aldosteronism is ...
Seeliger E - - 2001
1. This study aims at determining whether elevation of renal perfusion pressure (RPP) may correct for increased total body sodium (TBS), via pressure natriuresis. 2. Freely moving dogs were studied on four consecutive days. During day 1, low-dose angiotensin II and aldosterone were infused. Pressure natriuresis was prevented by servo-controlling ...
Funder J - - 2001
1. Over the past decade, aldosterone has been shown to have direct extra-epithelial actions and substantial (patho)physiological roles in the cardiovascular system in the context of inappropriate salt status. In experimental studies on uninephrectomized rats given 0.9% NaCl solution to drink, these include blood pressure elevation via activation of circumventricular ...
Bek M J - - 2001
There is increased awareness of the role of dopamine in cardiovascular function, renal function and systemic blood pressure regulation. Growing evidence indicates that each of the five dopamine receptor subtypes participates in the regulation of blood pressure by mechanisms distinct for that particular subtype. Some dopamine receptors regulate blood pressure ...
Nicholls M G - - 2001
Although the biological effects of adrenomedullin (AM) and PAMP have been reported extensively in animal studies and from in-vitro experiments, relatively little information is available on responses to the hormone administered to man. This review summarizes data from the few studies carried out in man. In healthy volunteers, i.v. infusion ...
Ichikawa S - - 2001
The object of this study is to evaluate the long-term effects of olmesartan on hypertension and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in hypertensive patients. This study evaluated 26 hypertensive male and female outpatients, 38-69 years of age, with a systolic blood pressure > or = 160 mmHg and/or a diastolic blood pressure ...
Stowasser M - - 2001
1. Evidence from recent experimental and clinical studies suggests that excessive circulating levels of aldosterone can bring about adverse cardiovascular sequelae independent of the effects on blood pressure. Examples of these sequelae are the development of myocardial and vascular fibrosis in uninephrectomized, salt-loaded rats infused with mineralocorticoids and, in humans, ...
Jackson R V - - 2001
1. An elevation in blood pressure has been consistently observed 24 h after adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) administration and is caused by increased ACTH-stimulated cortisol secretion, in association with increased cardiac output. The aim of the present study was to investigate the previously undefined time of onset of this increase in ...
Geller D S - - 2001
In recent years, the study of monogenic forms of hypertension has added greatly to our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms affecting blood pressure. Recently, a novel such form of human hypertension caused by gain-of-function mutation in the mineralocorticoid receptor, the mediator of aldosterone-induced sodium transport in the distal nephron, has ...
Godfrey J A JA Department of Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn 55905, - - 2001
Pheochromocytoma is a rare tumor. To our knowledge only 15 cases have been reported in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). We describe a 46-year-old woman with ESRD and a history of paroxysmal and difficult-to-control hypertension. During anesthesia for a surgical procedure, the patient experienced blood pressure lability with systolic ...
Sawka A M - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Hypertension often persists after adrenalectomy for primary aldosteronism. OBJECTIVE: To determine factors associated with resolution of hypertension after adrenalectomy for primary aldosteronism. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Tertiary care referral center in Rochester, Minnesota. PATIENTS: All patients who underwent adrenalectomy for primary aldosteronism between 1 January 1993 and 31 ...
Millet C - - 2001
We investigated in six men the impact of a 17-day head-down bed rest (HDBR) on the circadian rhythms of the hormones and electrolytes involved in hydroelectrolytic regulation. This HDBR study was designed to mimic an actual spaceflight. Urine samples were collected at each voiding before, during and after HDBR. Urinary ...
Mazhar R - - 2001
Sympathetic overdrive in acute low cardiac output syndrome, diverts blood from cutaneous and visceral circulation centripetally. Microcirculation in general, and renal circulation in particular, deteriorates during these circulatory adjustments leading to multi-organ failure (MOF). Decreased afferent glomerular arteriolar blood flow, increased renal sympathetic nerve discharge and a resultant decreased sodium ...
Gomez-Sanchez C E - - 2001
There are clinical and experimental situations in which symptoms of mineralocorticoid excess are remediable with mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist treatment, in spite of paradoxically low levels of plasma renin and aldosterone. Several decades ago, a factor isolated from the heart was described that had mineralocorticoid properties like those of aldosterone, but ...
Stokes G S - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether an angiotensin II receptor antagonist decreases blood pressure in patients with hyperaldosteronism and hypertension who are taking other antihypertensive agents. DESIGN: A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled crossover study. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Blood pressure and hormonal responses to 2-week courses of placebo/irbesartan (150 mg/day given by mouth at ...
Park J B - - 2001
Increased endothelin-1 may be associated with elevation of blood pressure (BP) and promotion of vascular hypertrophy, especially in salt-sensitive hypertension. Mineralocorticoid hypertension has been associated with activation of the endothelin system. We evaluated whether in aldosterone-infused rats the selective endothelin type A receptor-antagonist BMS 182874 prevents BP elevation and vascular ...
Horita Y - - 2001
The cause of residual hypertension after adrenalectomy for primary aldosteronism (PA) is unknown. The purpose of this study is to investigate the characteristic pathological kidney features associated with PA. Between 1977 and 1999 at our hospital, 26 patients with PA caused by a unilateral adrenal cortical adenoma (Conn's syndrome) underwent ...
Zacharieva S - - 2001
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of short-term treatment with losartan, a selective and competitive angiotensin II (AngII) receptor blocker, on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), active renin and kallikrein activity (KA) in patients with essential hypertension and primary aldosteronism. Nine patients with primary aldosteronism (5 ...
Connell J M - - 2001
Abnormalities of mineralocorticoid synthesis and/or metabolism profoundly affect the regulation of electrolyte and water balance and of blood pressure. Characteristic changes in extracellular potassium, sodium and hydrogen ion concentrations are usually diagnostic. Serious deficiency may be acquired, for example in Addison's disease, or inherited. In most of the inherited syndromes, ...
El-Gharbawy A H - - 2001
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the relationship of aldosterone to blood pressure and left ventricular size in black American (n=109) and white French Canadian (n=73) patients with essential hypertension. Measurements were obtained with patients off antihypertensive medications and included 24-hour blood pressure monitoring, plasma renin activity ...
Quaschning T T Institute of Physiology, Cardiovascular Research, University of Zürich, Zürich, - - 2001
The enzyme 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta-HSD2) provides mineralocorticoid receptor specificity for aldosterone by metabolizing glucocorticoids to their receptor-inactive 11-dehydro derivatives. The present study investigated the effects of the aldosterone receptor antagonists spironolactone and eplerenone on endothelial function in liquorice-induced hypertension. Glycyrrhizic acid (GA), a recognized inhibitor of 11beta-HSD2, was supplemented to ...
Ferrari P - - 2001
The importance of hypertension in the pediatric population is not as well appreciated as in adults. This might be related in part to the lower prevalence of high blood pressure in this age group. As with height and weight, blood pressure increases with age during childhood. The underlying causes of ...
Vehaskari V M - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have suggested that low birthweight is a risk factor for the development of essential hypertension in adulthood, but the mechanism is unknown. METHODS: A rat model of intrauterine growth retardation was employed. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were kept on 6% protein or on control isocaloric 20% protein diet ...
Bleske B E - - 2000
Understanding of the pathophysiology of chronic systolic heart failure evolved from a purely mechanical model to one in which a cascade of neurohormones and biologically active molecules are thought to be critical in the development, maintenance, and progression of the disease. Two important neurohormonal systems are the sympathetic nervous and ...
Cerame B I - - 2000
Blood pressure is determined by the product of cardiac output, intravascular volume, and peripheral resistance. Because hormones are involved in blood pressure regulation and affect these parameters, hypertension is a prominent feature of certain adrenal enzymatic abnormalities. In this report, two steroid-dependent forms of genetic low-renin hypertension are examined: 11beta-hydroxylase ...
Negro A - - 2000
Excessive ingestion of liquorice may result in sodium retention, hypertension, hypokalemia, and suppression of renin and aldosterone. Similarities between liquorice-induced effects and congenital apparent mineralocorticoid excess have recently been emphasized, as in both conditions, reduced activity of the enzyme 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 allows cortisol to act as a ...
Young M - - 2000
Classically, aldosterone is a steroid hormone secreted from the adrenal cortex, which acts on kidney, colon and sweat/salivary glands to promote unidirectional sodium transport. Currently, there is excellent experimental evidence for aldosterone acting directly on the central nervous system to raise blood pressure, and on the heart to cause cardiac ...
Stowasser M - - 2000
In familial hyperaldosteronism type I (FH-I), inheritance of a hybrid 11beta-hydroxylase/aldosterone synthase gene causes ACTH-regulated aldosterone overproduction. In an attempt to understand the marked variability in hypertension severity in FH-I, we compared clinical and biochemical characteristics of 9 affected individuals with mild hypertension (normotensive or onset of hypertension after 15 ...
Schlaich M P - - 2000
Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Experimental data revealed that elevated circulating aldosterone is associated with increased collagen accumulation resulting in myocardial fibrosis. To analyze whether aldosterone is also associated with cardiac structural and functional changes in humans, we examined the effects ...
Brilla C G - - 2000
Cardiac fibroblasts are known to have high affinity corticoid receptors for aldosterone and account for the accumulation of collagen within the interstitium of the rat myocardium in acquired and genetic hypertension. This interstitial fibrosis is an important determinant of pathologic hypertrophy in chronic heart failure. To examine the relationship between ...
Rietzschel E - - 2000
The purpose of this study was to examine if there is a relation between the aldosterone escape phenomenon and venous capacitance of the upper and lower limbs in patients with long-term congestive heart failure (CHF) receiving chronic treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. The study group consisted of 16 subjects ...
Hatakeyama H - - 2000
Aldosterone selectivity in mineralocorticoid target tissues is mainly due to 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11betaHSD), which converts cortisol to its inactive metabolite cortisone in humans. The defect of dehydrogenase activity would thus allow type 1 mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) to be occupied mostly by cortisol. It has been postulated that 11betaHSD type 2 ...
Funder J W - - 2000
Classically, mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) are activated by aldosterone to promote unidirectional transepithelial sodium transport. Activation of MR in nonepithelial tissues has been shown to elevate blood pressure (central nervous system; CNS) and to cause hypertrophy and fibrosis (heart). For both epithelial and nonepithelial tissues, there remain a variety of questions ...
Kukin M L - - 2000
Neurohormonal antagonism is now recognized as an essential treatment modality for heart failure. As a prime example, the benefits of blocking the renin-angiotensin system with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors are clearly established for all four New York Heart Association classes. In this clinical trials review, we discuss two other therapies ...
Mantero F - - 2000
Spironolactone, a competitive aldosterone receptor antagonist (ARA), has traditionally been the treatment of first choice in idiopathic hyperaldosteronism (IHA) and for preoperative management of aldosterone producing adenoma (APA). Spironolactone is partially absorbed, is extensively metabolized mainly by the liver and its therapeutic properties are attributable to active metabolite canrenone. At ...
Yasunari K - - 2000
We describe a patient with pheochromocytoma, which secretes dopamine. He was admitted to hospital because of chronic diarrhea. After surgical resection of the tumor, dramatic cessation of the diarrhea and blood pressure elevation were observed. Decreased expression of dopamine beta-hydroxylase in the tumor was considered a possible mechanism of producing ...
Rezkalla L - - 2000
The case of a 74-year-old woman with past history of hypertension and cerebrovascular accident admitted with pneumonia, dehydration, hypernatremia and severe hypokalemic alkalosis is presented. After correction of the hypertonic dehydration, the hypokalemia and alkalosis persisted in spite of aggressive potassium supplementation and the patient became hypertensive. Mineralocorticoid excess was ...
Shouman A E - - 2000
Numerous observations have indicated a relationship between lead exposure and elevated blood pressure. The present study aims to investigate the association between occupational lead-exposure and elevated blood pressure as well as serum aldosterone level and plasma renin activity as parameters affecting blood pressure. Fifty occupationally lead-exposed (16 males and 34 ...
Hanna N N - - 1999
Adrenal-dependent hypertension syndromes are uncommon forms of hypertension. They include primary aldosteronism, pheochromocytoma, Cushing"s syndrome, and congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Pheochromocytomas are the cause of hypertension in 0.1% to 0.2% of hypertensive patients. Excess catecholamine release and other neural and humoral mechanisms contribute to the pathophysiology of hypertension. Patients with pheochromocytomas ...
Guazzi M - - 1999
The microvascular pulmonary endothelium barrier is critical in preventing interstitial fluid overflow and deterioration in gas diffusion. The role of endothelium in transporting small solutes in pathological conditions, such as congestive heart failure (CHF), has not been studied. Monitoring of pulmonary gas transfer during saline infusion in CHF was used ...
Schunkert H - - 1999
Endogenous dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) levels have been reported to be positively related to blood pressure levels. To further analyze this association, we quantified DHEAS in middle-aged subjects (mean age +/-SEM: 57.8+/-0.1 years) of a population-based sample (n = 646). DHEAS levels were higher in hypertensive as compared with normotensive individuals ...
Schlaich M P - - 1999
BACKGROUND: High angiotensin II levels in relation to the corresponding urinary sodium excretion have been found to modulate left ventricular (LV) structure in middle-aged hypertensive patients. To analyze whether such a relation between the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and left ventricular structure is already present in young individuals, we examined the changes ...
Lim P O - - 1999
Aldosterone/renin ratio is an index for inappropriate aldosterone activity, and it is increasingly being used to screen for primary aldosteronism within the hypertensive population. It may also be a good index to help predict the response to spironolactone. To assess the blood pressure response to oral spironolactone in hypertensive patients ...
Kreze A - - 1999
No significant difference has been demonstrated in the altered circadian blood pressure pattern between the pituitary-dependent and adrenal forms of Cushing's syndrome before surgery. The effect of therapy, however, proved to be different. The mesor was normalized in the pituitary-dependent Cushing's syndrome more conspicuously for systolic than for diastolic blood ...
Vantyghem M C - - 1999
Normotensive primary hyperaldosteronism is exceedingly rare. We report two new cases of this syndrome in two middle-aged women, one of Asian origin. The presenting signs were tetany in one case and an adrenal mass in the other. Neither patient had hypertension, despite repeated measurements with a manual armlet. A typical ...
Ghose R P - - 1999
BACKGROUND: No data are available on the long-term medical management of aldosterone-producing adenomas. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the efficacy of medical management of aldosterone-producing adenomas in terms of blood pressure and serum potassium concentration and to discuss morbidity associated with medical management. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Large tertiary care referral ...
Anderson G H - - 1999
We evaluate in this study the factors associated with the effect of age on blood pressure in more than 4800 patients. Their physicians referred them to evaluate for secondary causes for their hypertension. Factors studied included history and physical examination, serum sodium, potassium and creatinine, a stimulated plasma renin and ...
Gomez-Sanchez E P - - 1999
Epidemiological and experimental evidence suggests that gestational events modulate the level of blood pressure that will be "normal" for the individual as an adult. Glucocorticoid excess during gestation is associated with low birth weight, a large placenta, and adult hypertension in humans and animals. It has been proposed that the ...
Izzo J L JL - - 1999
Blood pressure and blood volume are closely regulated by the interrelated actions of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Reflex vasoconstriction caused by parallel SNS and RAAS activation is modulated by two interactive negative feedback systems called baroreflex. The aortic-carotid baroreflex systems respond to momentary changes ...
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