Search Results
Results 251 - 300 of 726
< 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 >
Mottram Philip M - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Specific treatments targeting the pathophysiology of hypertensive heart disease are lacking. As aldosterone has been implicated in the genesis of myocardial fibrosis, hypertrophy, and dysfunction, we sought to determine the effects of aldosterone antagonism on myocardial function in hypertensive patients with suspected diastolic heart failure by using sensitive quantitative ...
Nicholls M G - - 2004
Adrenomedullin, a 52-amino acid residue peptide, has numerous biological actions which are of potential importance to cardiovascular homeostasis, growth and development of cardiovascular tissues and bone, prevention of infection, and regulation of body fluid and electrolyte balance. Studies in man using intravenous infusion of the peptide have demonstrated that, at ...
Iglarz Marc - - 2004
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of angiotensin II and oxidative stress on cardiovascular damage induced by chronic subcutaneous aldosterone infusion in the absence of salt loading. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were infused with d-aldosterone (0.75 microg/h subcutaneously) for 6 weeks. Blood pressure was measured with ...
Vasan Ramachandran S - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Primary hyperaldosteronism is a well-recognized cause of secondary hypertension. It is unknown whether serum aldosterone levels within the physiologic range influence the risk of hypertension. METHODS: We investigated the relation of baseline serum aldosterone levels to increases in blood pressure and the incidence of hypertension after four years in ...
Nishizaka Mari K - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that aldosterone may impair endothelium-dependent vascular function through suppression of nitric oxide formation. Assessments of forearm blood flow or arterial compliance suggest a similar effect in humans. The present study was designed to determine whether chronic aldosterone excess in subjects with resistant hypertension impairs endothelium-dependent vascular ...
Boldyreff Brigitte - - 2004
Aldosterone elicits not only genomic effects with physiological consequences within hours or days but also elicits rapid nongenomic effects, such as activation of sodium transport in target cells, within seconds or minutes. Rapid aldosterone effects, which have also been shown in several in vivo studies in humans (e.g., increase in ...
Frishman William H - - 2004
Aldosterone mediates both water and electrolyte balance by acting on the renal mineralocorticoid receptors. Recent experimental studies have also documented the presence of these receptors in other body organs, including the brain, blood vessels, and heart, suggesting that aldosterone plays a larger role in normal physiologic function and in cardiovascular ...
van Uum Stan H M - - 2004
Hypersecretion of cortisol is associated with hypertension. In addition, an abnormal cortisol metabolism may play a role in the pathogenesis of hypertension. The 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta-HSD) isozymes catalyze interconversion of cortisol and cortisone and play an important role in the regulation of the effects of cortisol. Activity of 11beta-HSD type ...
Tanabe Akiyo - - 2004
There is increasing evidence to support the importance of blocking aldosterone to prevent target-organ damage in hypertension. We recently demonstrated an aldosterone breakthrough phenomenon during administration of an angiotensin type 1 receptor blocker (ARB). To elucidate the pathophysiological significance of residual aldosterone by investigating the influence of the aldosterone antagonist ...
Dixit Mehul P - - 2004
BACKGROUND: The combination of hyponatremia and renovascular hypertension is called hyponatremic hypertensive syndrome (HHS). Malignant hypertension as a presentation has been reported in adults with HHS but is rare in children. CASE PRESENTATION: An eighteen month-old male presented with drowsiness, sudden onset status epilepticus and blood pressure of 210/160. The ...
Black Henry R HR Department of Preventive Medicine, Rush Presbyterian-St. Luke's Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612, USA. - - 2004
The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays an integral role in blood pressure regulation and has long been a target of pharmacologic approaches to controlling blood pressure. Traditionally, clinical interventions involving the RAAS have focused mainly on inhibiting the action of angiotensin II with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers, ...
Struthers Allan D AD Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Tayside DD1 9SY, Dundee, UK. - - 2004
Aldosterone is well recognized as a cause of sodium reabsorption, water retention, and potassium and magnesium loss; however, it also produces a variety of other actions that lead to progressive target organ damage in the heart, vasculature, and kidneys. Aldosterone interacts with mineralocorticoid receptors to promote endothelial dysfunction, facilitate thrombosis, ...
Bocchi Brigitte - - 2004
The enzyme 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 plays a major role in blood pressure regulation. It metabolizes glucocorticoid hormones into derivatives with low affinity for the mineralocorticoid receptor, preventing its permanent occupancy by circulating cortisol, which is 100- to 1000-fold more abundant than aldosterone in the plasma. Inactivating mutations of ...
Zelinka T - - 2004
We examined circadian blood pressure (BP) variation (expressed as a relative night-time BP decline) in subjects with primary aldosteronism (78 patients), pheochromocytoma (n=45) and Cushing's syndrome (n=18). Subjects with aldosterone-producing adenoma (n=21) and pheochromocytoma (n=27) were also investigated after the tumour removal. In all, 65 patients with essential hypertension served ...
Stella Paola - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: The aim of our study was to evaluate the relationship between aldosterone synthase gene polymorphism and cardiac dimensions in essential hypertension. BACKGROUND: Higher aldosterone synthase messenger ribonucleic acid levels in the human heart are accompanied by increased intracardiac aldosterone production, a phenomenon that is associated with cardiac fibrosis and ...
Ishay Avraham - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: A patient is reported with hypertension due to combined medullary adrenal hyperplasia and myelolipoma. METHODS: A 52-year-old woman with long-standing hypertension was evaluated for an incidentally discovered large tumor of the left adrenal. Left adrenalectomy was performed for a presumptive clinical diagnosis of pheochromocytoma. RESULTS: Histopathologic examination revealed a ...
Mackay Judy A - - 2003
The EUropean trial on Reduction Of cardiac events with Perindopril in stable coronary Artery disease (EUROPA) demonstrated that the angiotensin- converting enzyme inhibitor, perindopril, compared with placebo, in patients with established coronary artery disease, reduced cardiovascular endpoints by 20% over a four-year follow-up period. Although the authors of this study ...
Ohbayashi Yasunori - - 2003
This study compared the effects of amlodipine and valsartan on the sympathetic nervous system, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and brain natriuretic peptide, which are considered important parameters of the long-term prognosis. Seventy-three elderly patients, who had received antihypertensive treatment for more than 6 months with amlodipine, participated in this study. They ...
de Leeuw P W - - 2003
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) often leads to massive oedema and the development of what is usually called cor pulmonale. The mechanisms by which patients with COPD retain salt and water are not completely understood. Several abnormalities have been found including reduced renal blood flow with relatively preserved glomerular filtration ...
De Tommasi Elisabetta - - 2003
BACKGROUND: In chronic heart failure (CHF), the derangement of autonomic nervous system activity has a deep impact on the progression of the disease. It has been demonstrated that modulation of the renin-angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) increases autonomic control of heart rate and reduces adrenergic activity. We sought to evaluate, in ...
Prisant L Michael LM Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA, - - 2003
Since neither angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I) nor angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB) can completely suppress aldosterone levels, there is a need for alternative/supplementary antihypertensive medications, such as the selective aldosterone blocker eplerenone (Inspra). This multicenter study measured the safety and efficacy of add-on eplerenone therapy to reduce blood pressure not ...
Voiculescu A - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The association of insulin resistance (IR) and essential hypertension is well known, but a causal relationship has not been proven. Patients with secondary hypertension as a result of renal artery stenosis (RAS) usually do not reveal IR, but no study has addressed the effect of blood pressure reduction after ...
Rübig A - - 2003
Drospirenone (DRSP) is a novel progestogen derived from 170alpha-spirolactone. Its pharmacodynamic profile is closer to progesterone than any other currently available progestogen. DRSP has progestational, antialdosterone and antiandrogenic properties, but is devoid of any estrogenic, androgenic, glucocorticoid, antiglucocorticoid or mineralocorticoid activities. The affinity of DRSP for the mineralocorticoid receptor makes ...
Pitt Bertram B University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, Mich, USA. - - 2003
Elevated renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activity correlates with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and cardiovascular risk, but the relative contributions of angiotensin II and aldosterone remain unclear. This study compared LVH regression during treatment with the selective aldosterone blocker eplerenone, enalapril, and their combination in patients with hypertension. A 9-month, double-blind, randomized study ...
Burgess Ellen D ED Department of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. - - 2003
Even within the normal range, aldosterone levels are linked to end-organ toxicity and mortality in patients with hypertension. Treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin-receptor blockers does not sufficiently reduce plasma aldosterone levels. This study was conducted to assess the long-term safety profile and efficacy of the selective aldosterone blocker ...
Wang Hao - - 2003
Central nervous system (CNS) effects of mineralocorticoids participate in the development of salt-sensitive hypertension. In the brain, mineralocorticoids activate amiloride-sensitive sodium channels, and we hypothesized that this would lead to increased release of ouabainlike compounds (OLC) and thereby sympathetic hyperactivity and hypertension. In conscious Wistar rats, intracerebroventricular infusion of aldosterone ...
Lim Won Chung - - 2003
The renin-angiotensin cascade plays an important role in blood pressure control and sodium homeostasis. This study investigated whether cyclooxygenase-2 expression is regulated in the kidney, in an angiotensin II- and aldosterone-induced hypertension model. For this purpose, we treated male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=8 per group) with angiotensin II (9 mg/h, subcutaneously) ...
Kawamura Minoru - - 2003
A 46-year-old woman was presented with mineralocorticoid excess syndrome and a large mass originating from the right adrenal gland. Clinical examination before right adrenalectomy revealed elevated serum concentrations of 18-hydroxy-11-deoxycorticosterone (18-OH-DOC) both systemically and in the adrenal veins bilaterally. Histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses of the surgical specimen demonstrated adrenal hyperplasia ...
Norris Keith - - 2003
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is emerging as a new health pandemic. Underlying the global rise in CKD is an increase in diabetes, hypertension and other cardiovascular risk factors leading to progressive renal dysfunction. Emerging evidence strongly suggests that achieving target blood pressure goals via inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system confers ...
Strauch B - - 2003
Recently published studies from different parts of the world report significantly higher prevalence of primary hyperaldosteronism (PH) in hypertensives (ranging from 5 to 25%) than the previously accepted figures. There have been no data so far about the prevalence of PH in Central Europe. Therefore, we have undertaken this study ...
Hokotate Hirofumi - - 2003
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effectiveness and long-term follow-up results of superselective adrenal arterial embolization (SAAE) of aldosteronomas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-three patients with unilateral aldosteronomas were treated with SAAE. A 0.2-7.0-mL dose of high-concentration ethanol (HCE) was selectively infused into the feeding arterial branches of the aldosteronoma through a microcatheter ...
Bravo Emmanuel L - - 2003
Recent preclinical and clinical studies indicate that aldosterone, independent of angiotensin II and elevated blood pressure, may play a role in health and disease. In addition to its role in fluid and electrolyte balance and circulatory homeostasis, more recent studies have identified aldosterone as a critical mediator of vascular damage. ...
Connell John M C - - 2003
Approximately 10% of patients with hypertension have a high ratio of aldosterone to renin, but the reason for this and the relationships among low-renin essential hypertension, elevation of the ratio, and true primary aldosteronism are unclear. We have previously reported that a polymorphism of the gene (C-to-T conversion at position ...
Auchus Richard J RJ Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA. - - 2003
Hyperaldosteronism in its various forms is a recognized secondary cause of hypertension, yet the frequency of these disorders and the appropriate evaluation of suspected patients remain controversial. This review will summarize recent literature concerning the frequency of hyperaldosteronism in the hypertensive population, insight from uncommon forms of hyperaldosteronism, and new ...
Liew Danny D National Health and Medical Research Council, Department of Epidemiology, Monash University Central and Eastern Clinical School, Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria 3004, Australia. - - 2003
Pharmacia Corp (formerly GD Searle & Co) is developing eplerenone, an aldosterone receptor antagonist, as a potential treatment for congestive heart failure and systemic hypertension. The compound has been registered for hypertension and Pharmacia plans to submit a supplemental NDA for congestive heart failure in the first half of 2003 ...
Boerrigter Guido - - 2003
BACKGROUND: BAY 41-2272 is a recently introduced novel orally available agent that directly stimulates soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) and sensitizes it to its physiological stimulator, nitric oxide. To date, its therapeutic actions in congestive heart failure (CHF) remain undefined. We characterized the cardiorenal actions of intravenous BAY 41-2272 in a ...
Bernini Giampaolo - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To compare clinical and humoral parameters before and after surgery in patients with incidental adrenocortical adenomas. DESIGN: Six patients with subclinical Cushing's syndrome and nine with non-functioning adenomas were investigated before and 12 Months after removal of the mass. METHODS: Anthropometric (body weight, body mass index and waist to ...
Pedersen Karen M - - 2003
Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) in Persian cats has been increasingly reported and compared to human autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) in the last decade. In cats, however, few studies have dealt with the occurrence and hormonal determinants of hypertension, one of the most common extrarenal manifestations of ADPKD in ...
Stier Charles T CT Jr Department of Pharmacology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY 10595, USA. - - 2003
Recent studies suggest that aldosterone may play a larger role than once appreciated in normal physiologic function and cardiovascular disease. Some of the adverse cardiovascular effects that have been described include cardiac and vascular fibrosis, vascular necrosis and inflammation, impaired endothelial function, reduced fibrinolysis, hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), congestive ...
Liew Danny D NHMRC Centre of Clinical Research Excellence in Therapeutics, Department of Medicine, Monash University Central and Eastern Clinical School, Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. - - 2003
Aldosterone is an important and independent target for therapeutic intervention in hypertension and hypertension-related diseases. Its actions, once thought to be limited to the distal convoluted tubule of the kidney, are now recognised to be wide-ranging, including interactions with mineralocorticoid receptors in diverse cardiovascular sites to mediate vascular and myocardial ...
Lamb Robert E RE AstraZeneca LP, 725 Chesterbrook Boulevard, Wayne, PA 19087, USA. - - 2003
Despite the development of hypertension treatment guidelines, blood pressure control in the general population remains inadequate, indicating the need for ongoing re-evaluation of treatment strategies to further improve blood pressure control. Hypertension results from alterations in cardiac output and/or peripheral resistance. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system may be responsible, at least in ...
Wang Cindy - - 2003
Prostasin has been demonstrated to be an activator of epithelial sodium channels in cultured renal and bronchial epithelial cells. In this study, we evaluated the effects of adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of human prostasin on blood pressure regulation and sodium reabsorption in Wistar rats. Expression of human prostasin mRNA was identified ...
Delcayre Claude - - 2002
Cardiac remodeling, CR, is a complex and rather controversial issue and results from the, sometimes opposite, trophic effects of pure mechanical overload, and susceptibility factors, as senescence, aetiologies, as ischemia, and the neurohormonal reaction. The molecular mechanisms of CR are heritable and had, in the past, increased fitness, as such ...
Weber Michael A MA SUNY Health Science Center at Brooklyn, Brooklyn, NY 11203, USA. - - 2002
Aldosterone contributes to hypertension, cardiac and vascular remodeling, and heart failure. The significant risk reduction provided by the addition of spironolactone to standard therapy in patients with severe heart failure has renewed interest in aldosterone blockade. This review describes recent clinical studies of eplerenone, a selective aldosterone blocker, in patients ...
Rademaker Miriam T - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to determine the bioactivity of urocortin (Ucn) in experimental heart failure (HF). BACKGROUND: Urocortin may participate in cardiovascular function and pressure/volume homeostasis. Its effects in HF are unknown. METHODS: Eight normal sheep and eight sheep with pacing-induced HF received ovine Ucn (10, 50, ...
Goineau Sonia - - 2002
The use of beta-blockers reduces angiotensin II levels, but could not adequately suppress aldosterone production. Thus, the combination of a beta-blocker with an aldosterone receptor antagonist could exert additive effects. The effects of metoprolol and spironolactone and their combination on hemodynamics and cardiac remodeling in cardiomyopathic hamsters (CMH) were investigated. ...
Lim Pitt O - - 2002
The aldosterone-to-renin ratio (ARR) is a marker of aldosterone activity in hypertension. We examined the relationship of the ARR to the distribution of two biallelic polymorphisms at the CYP11B2 gene locus. One polymorphism affects a putative steroidogenic factor-1 binding site (-344 T/C) in the 5'-regulatory region, whereas the other marker ...
Torpy David J - - 2002
Cushing's syndrome is associated with hypertension in approximately 80% of cases. Hypertension contributes to the marked increased mortality risk of past or current Cushing's syndrome, largely because of increased cardiovascular risk. Observation of the pathophysiological effect of chronically elevated ACTH and cortisol values in patients with ectopic ACTH secretion complements ...
Young Morag J - - 2002
For almost 40 years since its discovery in 1953, the mineralocorticoid hormone, aldosterone, was considered to affect blood volume, and thus blood pressure, by its action to retain sodium at epithelial tissues. Over the past decade, direct effects of aldosterone on the heart and blood vessels, and on the cerebral ...
Mulatero Paolo - - 2002
Glucocorticoid remediable hyperaldosteronism (GRA) is a monogenic form of inherited hypertension caused by a chimeric gene originating from an unequal cross-over between the 11 beta-hydroxylase (CYP11B1) and aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) genes. GRA is characterized by high plasma levels of aldosterone (regulated by ACTH) with suppressed plasma renin activity and the ...
< 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 >