Search Results
Results 251 - 300 of 708
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de Leeuw P W - - 2003
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) often leads to massive oedema and the development of what is usually called cor pulmonale. The mechanisms by which patients with COPD retain salt and water are not completely understood. Several abnormalities have been found including reduced renal blood flow with relatively preserved glomerular filtration ...
De Tommasi Elisabetta - - 2003
BACKGROUND: In chronic heart failure (CHF), the derangement of autonomic nervous system activity has a deep impact on the progression of the disease. It has been demonstrated that modulation of the renin-angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) increases autonomic control of heart rate and reduces adrenergic activity. We sought to evaluate, in ...
Prisant L Michael LM Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA, - - 2003
Since neither angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I) nor angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB) can completely suppress aldosterone levels, there is a need for alternative/supplementary antihypertensive medications, such as the selective aldosterone blocker eplerenone (Inspra). This multicenter study measured the safety and efficacy of add-on eplerenone therapy to reduce blood pressure not ...
Voiculescu A - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The association of insulin resistance (IR) and essential hypertension is well known, but a causal relationship has not been proven. Patients with secondary hypertension as a result of renal artery stenosis (RAS) usually do not reveal IR, but no study has addressed the effect of blood pressure reduction after ...
Rübig A - - 2003
Drospirenone (DRSP) is a novel progestogen derived from 170alpha-spirolactone. Its pharmacodynamic profile is closer to progesterone than any other currently available progestogen. DRSP has progestational, antialdosterone and antiandrogenic properties, but is devoid of any estrogenic, androgenic, glucocorticoid, antiglucocorticoid or mineralocorticoid activities. The affinity of DRSP for the mineralocorticoid receptor makes ...
Pitt Bertram B University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, Mich, USA. - - 2003
Elevated renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activity correlates with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and cardiovascular risk, but the relative contributions of angiotensin II and aldosterone remain unclear. This study compared LVH regression during treatment with the selective aldosterone blocker eplerenone, enalapril, and their combination in patients with hypertension. A 9-month, double-blind, randomized study ...
Burgess Ellen D ED Department of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. - - 2003
Even within the normal range, aldosterone levels are linked to end-organ toxicity and mortality in patients with hypertension. Treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin-receptor blockers does not sufficiently reduce plasma aldosterone levels. This study was conducted to assess the long-term safety profile and efficacy of the selective aldosterone blocker ...
Wang Hao - - 2003
Central nervous system (CNS) effects of mineralocorticoids participate in the development of salt-sensitive hypertension. In the brain, mineralocorticoids activate amiloride-sensitive sodium channels, and we hypothesized that this would lead to increased release of ouabainlike compounds (OLC) and thereby sympathetic hyperactivity and hypertension. In conscious Wistar rats, intracerebroventricular infusion of aldosterone ...
Lim Won Chung - - 2003
The renin-angiotensin cascade plays an important role in blood pressure control and sodium homeostasis. This study investigated whether cyclooxygenase-2 expression is regulated in the kidney, in an angiotensin II- and aldosterone-induced hypertension model. For this purpose, we treated male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=8 per group) with angiotensin II (9 mg/h, subcutaneously) ...
Kawamura Minoru - - 2003
A 46-year-old woman was presented with mineralocorticoid excess syndrome and a large mass originating from the right adrenal gland. Clinical examination before right adrenalectomy revealed elevated serum concentrations of 18-hydroxy-11-deoxycorticosterone (18-OH-DOC) both systemically and in the adrenal veins bilaterally. Histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses of the surgical specimen demonstrated adrenal hyperplasia ...
Norris Keith - - 2003
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is emerging as a new health pandemic. Underlying the global rise in CKD is an increase in diabetes, hypertension and other cardiovascular risk factors leading to progressive renal dysfunction. Emerging evidence strongly suggests that achieving target blood pressure goals via inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system confers ...
Strauch B - - 2003
Recently published studies from different parts of the world report significantly higher prevalence of primary hyperaldosteronism (PH) in hypertensives (ranging from 5 to 25%) than the previously accepted figures. There have been no data so far about the prevalence of PH in Central Europe. Therefore, we have undertaken this study ...
Hokotate Hirofumi - - 2003
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effectiveness and long-term follow-up results of superselective adrenal arterial embolization (SAAE) of aldosteronomas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-three patients with unilateral aldosteronomas were treated with SAAE. A 0.2-7.0-mL dose of high-concentration ethanol (HCE) was selectively infused into the feeding arterial branches of the aldosteronoma through a microcatheter ...
Bravo Emmanuel L - - 2003
Recent preclinical and clinical studies indicate that aldosterone, independent of angiotensin II and elevated blood pressure, may play a role in health and disease. In addition to its role in fluid and electrolyte balance and circulatory homeostasis, more recent studies have identified aldosterone as a critical mediator of vascular damage. ...
Connell John M C - - 2003
Approximately 10% of patients with hypertension have a high ratio of aldosterone to renin, but the reason for this and the relationships among low-renin essential hypertension, elevation of the ratio, and true primary aldosteronism are unclear. We have previously reported that a polymorphism of the gene (C-to-T conversion at position ...
Auchus Richard J RJ Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA. - - 2003
Hyperaldosteronism in its various forms is a recognized secondary cause of hypertension, yet the frequency of these disorders and the appropriate evaluation of suspected patients remain controversial. This review will summarize recent literature concerning the frequency of hyperaldosteronism in the hypertensive population, insight from uncommon forms of hyperaldosteronism, and new ...
Liew Danny D National Health and Medical Research Council, Department of Epidemiology, Monash University Central and Eastern Clinical School, Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria 3004, Australia. - - 2003
Pharmacia Corp (formerly GD Searle & Co) is developing eplerenone, an aldosterone receptor antagonist, as a potential treatment for congestive heart failure and systemic hypertension. The compound has been registered for hypertension and Pharmacia plans to submit a supplemental NDA for congestive heart failure in the first half of 2003 ...
Boerrigter Guido - - 2003
BACKGROUND: BAY 41-2272 is a recently introduced novel orally available agent that directly stimulates soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) and sensitizes it to its physiological stimulator, nitric oxide. To date, its therapeutic actions in congestive heart failure (CHF) remain undefined. We characterized the cardiorenal actions of intravenous BAY 41-2272 in a ...
Bernini Giampaolo - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To compare clinical and humoral parameters before and after surgery in patients with incidental adrenocortical adenomas. DESIGN: Six patients with subclinical Cushing's syndrome and nine with non-functioning adenomas were investigated before and 12 Months after removal of the mass. METHODS: Anthropometric (body weight, body mass index and waist to ...
Pedersen Karen M - - 2003
Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) in Persian cats has been increasingly reported and compared to human autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) in the last decade. In cats, however, few studies have dealt with the occurrence and hormonal determinants of hypertension, one of the most common extrarenal manifestations of ADPKD in ...
Stier Charles T CT Jr Department of Pharmacology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY 10595, USA. - - 2003
Recent studies suggest that aldosterone may play a larger role than once appreciated in normal physiologic function and cardiovascular disease. Some of the adverse cardiovascular effects that have been described include cardiac and vascular fibrosis, vascular necrosis and inflammation, impaired endothelial function, reduced fibrinolysis, hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), congestive ...
Liew Danny D NHMRC Centre of Clinical Research Excellence in Therapeutics, Department of Medicine, Monash University Central and Eastern Clinical School, Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. - - 2003
Aldosterone is an important and independent target for therapeutic intervention in hypertension and hypertension-related diseases. Its actions, once thought to be limited to the distal convoluted tubule of the kidney, are now recognised to be wide-ranging, including interactions with mineralocorticoid receptors in diverse cardiovascular sites to mediate vascular and myocardial ...
Lamb Robert E RE AstraZeneca LP, 725 Chesterbrook Boulevard, Wayne, PA 19087, USA. - - 2003
Despite the development of hypertension treatment guidelines, blood pressure control in the general population remains inadequate, indicating the need for ongoing re-evaluation of treatment strategies to further improve blood pressure control. Hypertension results from alterations in cardiac output and/or peripheral resistance. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system may be responsible, at least in ...
Wang Cindy - - 2003
Prostasin has been demonstrated to be an activator of epithelial sodium channels in cultured renal and bronchial epithelial cells. In this study, we evaluated the effects of adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of human prostasin on blood pressure regulation and sodium reabsorption in Wistar rats. Expression of human prostasin mRNA was identified ...
Delcayre Claude - - 2002
Cardiac remodeling, CR, is a complex and rather controversial issue and results from the, sometimes opposite, trophic effects of pure mechanical overload, and susceptibility factors, as senescence, aetiologies, as ischemia, and the neurohormonal reaction. The molecular mechanisms of CR are heritable and had, in the past, increased fitness, as such ...
Weber Michael A MA SUNY Health Science Center at Brooklyn, Brooklyn, NY 11203, USA. - - 2002
Aldosterone contributes to hypertension, cardiac and vascular remodeling, and heart failure. The significant risk reduction provided by the addition of spironolactone to standard therapy in patients with severe heart failure has renewed interest in aldosterone blockade. This review describes recent clinical studies of eplerenone, a selective aldosterone blocker, in patients ...
Rademaker Miriam T - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to determine the bioactivity of urocortin (Ucn) in experimental heart failure (HF). BACKGROUND: Urocortin may participate in cardiovascular function and pressure/volume homeostasis. Its effects in HF are unknown. METHODS: Eight normal sheep and eight sheep with pacing-induced HF received ovine Ucn (10, 50, ...
Goineau Sonia - - 2002
The use of beta-blockers reduces angiotensin II levels, but could not adequately suppress aldosterone production. Thus, the combination of a beta-blocker with an aldosterone receptor antagonist could exert additive effects. The effects of metoprolol and spironolactone and their combination on hemodynamics and cardiac remodeling in cardiomyopathic hamsters (CMH) were investigated. ...
Lim Pitt O - - 2002
The aldosterone-to-renin ratio (ARR) is a marker of aldosterone activity in hypertension. We examined the relationship of the ARR to the distribution of two biallelic polymorphisms at the CYP11B2 gene locus. One polymorphism affects a putative steroidogenic factor-1 binding site (-344 T/C) in the 5'-regulatory region, whereas the other marker ...
Torpy David J - - 2002
Cushing's syndrome is associated with hypertension in approximately 80% of cases. Hypertension contributes to the marked increased mortality risk of past or current Cushing's syndrome, largely because of increased cardiovascular risk. Observation of the pathophysiological effect of chronically elevated ACTH and cortisol values in patients with ectopic ACTH secretion complements ...
Young Morag J - - 2002
For almost 40 years since its discovery in 1953, the mineralocorticoid hormone, aldosterone, was considered to affect blood volume, and thus blood pressure, by its action to retain sodium at epithelial tissues. Over the past decade, direct effects of aldosterone on the heart and blood vessels, and on the cerebral ...
Mulatero Paolo - - 2002
Glucocorticoid remediable hyperaldosteronism (GRA) is a monogenic form of inherited hypertension caused by a chimeric gene originating from an unequal cross-over between the 11 beta-hydroxylase (CYP11B1) and aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) genes. GRA is characterized by high plasma levels of aldosterone (regulated by ACTH) with suppressed plasma renin activity and the ...
Rossi Gian Paolo - - 2002
Hyperaldosteronism has been causally linked to myocardial interstitial fibrosis experimentally, but it remains unclear if this link also applies to humans. Thus, we investigated the effects of excess aldosterone due to primary aldosteronism (PA) on collagen deposition in the heart. We used echocardiography to estimate left ventricular (LV) wall thickness ...
Olsen Karsten S - - 2002
Hypertension after craniotomy is frequent. To establish an association between vasoactive modulators and postoperative hypertension, we followed the arterial blood pressure and plasma concentrations of selected substances in patients undergoing craniotomy. Twelve consecutive patients scheduled for operation of a supratentorial brain tumor were anesthetized with thiopental, fentanyl, isoflurane, and pancuronium. ...
Larochelle Pierre - - 2002
Awareness of an increased incidence of cardiovascular events shortly after awakening has heightened interest in the chronopathology of cardiovascular diseases. Blood pressure varies according to cycles characterized by a reduction during sleep and an increase on awakening. The surge in blood pressure coincides with the circadian nature of various endocrine ...
Mulatero Paolo - - 2002
Primary aldosteronism (PA) is the most common cause of endocrine hypertension. PA is most frequently presented as moderate to severe hypertension, but the clinical and biochemical features vary widely. The aim of our study was to identify genetic variants that influence the phenotype of patients with PA. We hypothesized that ...
Le?n Leopoldo A Sosa - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To determine the extent to which mineralocortioid hypertension depends on a direct action of aldosterone on the kidney or on the brain. METHODS: Studies were performed in conscious sheep that were previously uninephrectomized, implanted with silastic cannulae in the renal artery of the remaining kidney, and had guide tubes ...
Assadi Farahnak K - - 2002
A 10-week-old female infant developed hypertension. The elevated blood pressure was associated with metabolic alkalosis and urinary chloride wastage. The family history was unremarkable. Her urinalysis, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and serum creatinine concentrations were all normal. A renal ultrasound was normal. A technetium-99m diethylenetriaminopentoacetic acid (DTPA) renal scan with ...
Nácul Flávio E - - 2002
A 39-year-old man presented with 80% body surface area burned following a thermal accident. The patient showed hemodynamic instability and low response to intravenous fluids or vasopressors for 20 days in the intensive care unit (ICU). The adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test was consistent with adrenal insufficiency. After a 3-day steroid ...
Cheng Judy W M - - 2002
Nesiritide mimics the actions of endogenous B-type natriuretic peptides. Clinical studies on patients who had acute decompensated heart failure demonstrated rapid-onset dose-related vasodilatory effects. Nesiritide reduces pulmonary capillary wedge pressure and improves dypsnea. These effects compared favorably to standard treatments. It decreases preload and afterload and suppresses the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis ...
Fommei Enza - - 2002
Arterial hypertension is known to be frequently associated with thyroid dysfunction, with a particularly high prevalence in chronic hypothyroidism. However, to our knowledge no comprehensive study addressed causal mechanisms possibly involved in this association. We here report the physiological relationships between blood pressure and neuro-humoral modifications induced by acute hypothyroidism ...
Bakris George L - - 2002
Although the definitive cause of primary hypertension remains unknown, its pathogenesis and clinical history are relatively well understood. Genes, environment, and their interaction play crucial roles in the development of hypertension. Elevated blood pressure levels are maintained through alterations in multiple BP regulatory systems including the central and peripheral nervous ...
Goldkorn Ronen - - 2002
BACKGROUND: In experimental renovascular hypertension, aldosterone has been implicated in myocardial remodeling and fibrosis, but it is uncertain whether excess aldosterone effects left ventricular structure and function in hypertensive patients. METHODS: Hypertensive patients from the Cardiovascular Center of the New York Presbyterian Hospital-Weill Cornell Medical Center in New York and ...
Nocente R - - 2002
This report describes a rare case of ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (AIMAH) arisen with symptomatic severe hypertension and hypokaliemia. A 55-year-old man was admitted to hospital with a clinical picture characterized by several episodes of transient ischemic attacks (TIA) and right hemiplegia, related to severe arterial hypertension. Laboratory tests showed ...
Stier Charles T CT - - 2002
The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system plays a central role in the development of hypertension and the progression of end-organ damage. Although angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor antagonists can initially suppress plasma aldosterone, it is now well established that aldosterone escape may occur, whereby aldosterone levels return to or exceed baseline ...
Cataliotti Alessandro A Cardiorenal Research Laboratory, Department of Physiology and Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, Minnesota, USA. - - 2002
Omapatrilat (OMA), a vasopeptidase inhibitor, simultaneously inhibits angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and neutral endopeptidase, which degrades vasodilatory factors (eg, ADM) and natriuretic peptides. Based on the beneficial cardiorenal and humoral properties of the natriuretic peptides, we hypothesized that an acute vasopeptidase inhibitor with or without diuretic would result in more favorable ...
Ferrari Paolo - - 2002
Abnormalities in steroid biosynthesis have been known for years to cause hypertension in some cases of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. In these patients hypertension usually accompanies a characteristic phenotype with abnormal sexual differentiation. Recently, the molecular basis of four forms of severe hypertension transmitted on an autosomal basis but without additional ...
Moneva Miroslava H - - 2002
Hypertension affects 20% to 25% of the adult population. Most patients are diagnosed as having essential or primary hypertension. Up to 10% to 15% have an identifiable cause and many of those have an adrenal basis. The identification of an adrenal cause of hypertension provides an opportunity for a targeted ...
Benchetrit Sydney - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Primary aldosteronism is a common cause of non-renal secondary hypertension. A correct diagnosis results in curing the hypertension or targeting appropriate pharmacotherapy. In patients with low renin resistant hypertension (after treatment with three or more different anti-hypertensive drugs the blood pressure remains above 140/90 mmHg), screening for aldosteronism is ...
Seeliger E - - 2001
1. This study aims at determining whether elevation of renal perfusion pressure (RPP) may correct for increased total body sodium (TBS), via pressure natriuresis. 2. Freely moving dogs were studied on four consecutive days. During day 1, low-dose angiotensin II and aldosterone were infused. Pressure natriuresis was prevented by servo-controlling ...
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