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Results 201 - 250 of 711
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Botros Fady T - - 2005
BACKGROUND: The heme oxygenase system (HO-1 and HO-2) catalyzes the conversion of heme to free iron, carbon monoxide (CO), a vasodepressor, and biliverdin, which is further converted to bilirubin, an antioxidant. HO-1 induction has been shown to suppress arachidonic acid metabolism by cytochrome P450 (CYP450) monooxygenases and cyclooxygenases (COX), and ...
Fallo Francesco - - 2006
CONTEXT: Patients with hypertension have a high prevalence of concurrent metabolic abnormalities, including obesity, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia. Clustering of these cardiovascular risk factors, defined as metabolic syndrome, causes a more pronounced target organ damage. Aldosterone excess has been found to be associated with glucose disorders and may contribute to cardiovascular ...
Pizzolo Francesca - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Poor blood pressure control in renal artery disease patients after percutaneous renal angioplasty (PTRA), with or without stenting (PTRAS), may be due to pre-existing hypertension. Primary hyperaldosteronism is much more frequent than was previously suspected. We hypothesized that residual hypertension observed in some renal artery disease patients after technically ...
Nishizaka Mari K - - 2005
Resistant hypertension is an increasingly common problem faced by primary care physicians and specialists and will undoubtedly become even more common as the adult population ages and gains weight. In the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT), at least 8% of subjects were resistant to treatment ...
Gockel I - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Primary hyperaldosteronism caused by an aldosterone-producing adenoma of the adrenal gland is regarded as the most common type of endocrine hypertension. The aim of this study was to analyze the changing pattern of the intraoperative blood pressure during endoscopic adrenalectomy recorded in patients with Conn's syndrome compared to patients ...
Susic Dinko D Hypertension Research Laboratory, Division of Research, Ochsner Clinic Foundation, New Orleans, LA 70121, USA. - - 2005
Aldosterone has been implicated as a potential mediator of cardiac and vascular damage in a variety of disorders. This study examined the role of aldosterone and its interplay with the renin-angiotensin system in the pathogenesis of hypertension. To this end, the effects of the aldosterone antagonist eplerenone and the angiotensin ...
Saha Chandan - - 2005
Hypertension in blacks is more prevalent and less often controlled than the hypertension of other ethnic groups. We sought to explore the benefit of adding inhibitors of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), an aldosterone-regulated site of sodium reabsorption in the distal nephron, to the antihypertensive regimen of black hypertensive patients. ...
Sica Domenic A DA Division of Nephrology, Box 980160, MCV Station, Medical College of Virginia, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298, USA. - - 2005
Spironolactone and eplerenone are mineralocorticoid- blocking agents used for their ability to block a host of epithelial and nonepithelial actions of aldosterone. These compounds are of proven benefit in reducing blood pressure and urine protein excretion, and in conferring cardiovascular gain in diverse circumstances of heart failure. However, as enthusiasm ...
Shotan Avraham - - 2005
BACKGROUND: In advanced heart failure, the compensatory responses to reduced cardiac output, in spite of fluid retention, lead to maladaptive consequences. METHODS: We performed a Medline survey for fluid overload and heart failure as well as reviewing textbook chapters. RESULTS: The increased sympathetic nervous system, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and antidiuretic hormone ...
Perlmutter Adam E - - 2005
In adults, 10% of pheochromocytomas are extra-adrenal. Most extra-adrenal pheochromocytomas occur in the organ of Zuckerkandl. Occasionally, pheochromocytomas can arise from paraganglion chromaffin cells in other locations. We present the case of a 63-year-old hypertensive man with a periprostatic pheochromocytoma. Our patient underwent surgical extirpation of the pheochromocytoma, while sparing ...
Gross Evan - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Through its actions on nonepithelial tissues, including brain, blood vessels, and heart, aldosterone may mediate hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy, and fibrosis. Whether aldosterone has a direct pathogenic role in the development of cardiovascular complications in patients with end-stage renal disease is unknown. Oligo-anuric dialysis patients provide a clinical setting to ...
Stowasser Michael - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: To explore whether aldosterone excess can induce adverse cardiovascular effects independently of effects on blood pressure (BP), we sought evidence of disturbed cardiovascular structure or function in normotensive individuals with primary aldosteronism. METHODS: Eight normotensive subjects with genetically proven familial hyperaldosteronism type I (FH-I) were compared with 24 age- ...
Fiebeler Anette - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Aldosterone and angiotensin (Ang) II both may cause organ damage. Circulating aldosterone is produced in the adrenals; however, local cardiac synthesis has been reported. Aldosterone concentrations depend on the activity of aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2). We tested the hypothesis that reducing aldosterone by inhibiting CYP11B2 or by adrenalectomy (ADX) may ...
Pratt-Ubunama Monique N MN Vascular Biology and Hypertension Program, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 933 19th Street South, Room 115, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA. - - 2005
Aldosterone antagonists have been available for many decades for the treatment of hypertension, but their use has been mostly limited to patients with classic primary aldosteronism or to combination products with hydrochlorothiazide to minimize risk for hypokalemia. Recently, indications for aldosterone antagonists have been expanded to include congestive heart failure ...
Yoshida Kaoru - - 2005
Aldosterone is known to play a role in the pathophysiology of some cardiovascular diseases. However, previous studies on aldosterone infusion have been mostly performed in animals receiving sodium loading and uninephrectomy, and thus the cardiac action of aldosterone alone remains to be fully clarified. The present study was undertaken to ...
Hogg Karen - - 2005
Other than natriuretic peptides, neurohumoral markers have not been studied adequately in heart failure with preserved systolic function. There is little evidence of chronic activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone and sympathetic nervous systems, as in heart failure with reduced systolic function. These and other neurohumoral pathways may, however, become excessively stimulated ...
Seeliger Erdmann - - 2005
1. The physiological role of the 'renal body fluid pressure control system', including the intrarenal mechanism of 'pressure natriuresis', is uncertain. 2. Balance studies in freely moving dogs address the following questions: (i) what is the physiological contribution of pressure natriuresis to the control of total body sodium (TBS); (ii) ...
Rademaker Miriam T - - 2005
AIMS: To investigate the role of the endogenous urocortin peptides in heart failure (HF) through blockade of the corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 2 (CRF-R2). METHODS AND RESULTS: Eight sheep were administered the CRF-R2 antagonist CRF(9-41) (1.5 mg bolus) before (Normal) and after development of pacing-induced HF. Compared with controls, CRF(9-41) in ...
Rossi GianPaolo - - 2005
Aldosterone exerts cardiovascular effects by influencing epithelial fluid and electrolyte excretion, and thus blood volume and pressure. Mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) are found in epithelial and non-epithelial tissues (vessel walls, heart, brain), with high affinity for aldosterone and physiological glucocorticoids cortisol and corticosterone. MR blockade by spironolactone or eplerenone favorably affects ...
Schjoedt K J - - 2005
Dual blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) with both ACE inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor-blockers has been shown to reduce both albuminuria and blood pressure compared to either monotherapy. The mechanisms behind these beneficial effects are not known, and we hypothesized that the effect of dual RAAS blockade may be ...
Ribstein Jean - - 2005
Experimental and clinical data suggest that primary aldosteronism (PA) may be associated with cardiovascular hypertrophy and fibrosis, in part independent of the BP level. Whether PA may also result in specific deleterious effects on the kidneys was less studied. In 25 patients with tumoral PA, renal studies (urinary excretion of ...
Touger Leslie - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To describe a patient with aldosterone synthase deficiency, who presented with failure to thrive, hypovolemic hyponatremia, and the unexpected finding of hypertension. METHODS: We present a case report, review the related literature, and outline a possible mechanism for the concomitant occurrence of high blood pressure and hyponatremia in this ...
Grim Clarence E - - 2005
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between aldosterone and blood pressure in a total of 220 normotensive and 293 essential hypertensive subjects in 2 genetically distinct populations-blacks and white French Canadians. The 24-hour blood pressure monitoring was performed under standardized conditions after discontinuing antihypertensive medications. Plasma ...
Meyer Andreas - - 2005
The objective of this study was to assess the long-term effects of adrenalectomy on the blood pressure and antihypertensive medication in patients with primary aldosteronism (PA). Twenty-four patients (15 female and 9 male) with a mean age of 48.3 +/- 10.8 years underwent surgery for PA in our institution between ...
Reyes Ariel J - - 2005
Eplerenone is a new aldosterone-receptor blocker that differs from spironolactone by virtue of higher selectivity for the aldosterone receptor. Therefore, eplerenone treatment is associated with comparative and absolute low incidences of gynecomastia, mastodynia, and abnormal vaginal bleeding. Similarly, a lower incidence of sexual impotence than that associated with spironolactone administration ...
Kuster Gabriela M GM Cardiovascular Medicine Section, Boston University Medical Center, Boston, Mass, - - 2005
Although aldosterone, acting via mineralocorticoid receptors, causes left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy in experimental models of high-aldosterone hypertension, little is known about the role of aldosterone or mineralocorticoid receptors in mediating adverse remodeling in response to chronic pressure overload. We used the mineralocorticoid receptor-selective antagonist eplerenone (EPL) to test the role ...
Mirzoyev Zaur - - 2005
The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis is an integral component linking the renal-humoral system to the cardiovascular system. It is involved in the normal control of blood pressure and intravascular volume. Its activity is also enhanced in pathologic states, namely congestive heart failure, in which stimulation of the axis leads to further deleterious ...
Matsumura Kiyoshi - - 2005
1. Only limited information is available concerning the changes in the electrocardiogram in primary aldosteronism. The aim of the present study was to determine factors influencing the QTc interval in patients with primary aldosteronism. 2. Nineteen patients with primary aldosteronism caused by a Conn's adenoma and 69 patients with essential ...
Grandi Anna Maria - - 2005
The interest for the therapeutic potential of aldosterone antagonists in essential hypertension comes from the recently discovered nonclassical pathways of aldosterone actions, above all the presence of extra-adrenal aldosterone production and the discovery of aldosterone's proinflammatory and profibrotic actions. The review begins with the discussion of experimental studies on animals, ...
Joffe Hylton V - - 2005
Aldosterone, the final product of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, is classically viewed as a regulator of renal sodium and potassium handling, blood volume, and blood pressure. Recent studies suggest that aldosterone can cause microvascular damage, vascular inflammation, oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction. In animal models, aldosterone-mediated vascular injury in the brain, ...
Moritz Karen M - - 2005
Maternal infusion of dexamethasone for 48 h early in gestation results in upregulation of mRNA for mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid (MR and GR) receptors and angiotensin II receptors in ovine fetal kidneys late in gestation. This study sought to determine whether dexamethasone exposure results in changes in renal function and blood ...
Glorioso Nicola - - 2005
AIMS: Left ventricular mass (LVM) is under the control of aldosterone and angiotensin II in experimental hypertension, but the effect of aldosterone on LVM is controversial in essential hypertension (EH). Some EH patients show a mild impairment of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11beta-HSD2) activity without clinical features of the syndrome ...
Grim Clarence E - - 2004
The recent "epidemic" of primary aldosteronism reported in the literature is most likely related to the widespread acceptance that with easy access to accurate measurements of renin and aldosterone, it is no longer necessary to wait until hypokalemia has become profound before embarking on diagnostic testing to attempt to ferret ...
Kallaras C - - 2004
In order to investigate the effects of centrally administered ANP on plasma ADH, aldosterone and corticosterone levels as well as on blood pressure and on heart rate, 20 male New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits were used. Measurements were made on restrained conscious animals one week after the implantation of an ...
Freel E Marie - - 2004
Hypertension is a common disorder that affects a large heterogeneous patient population. Subgroups can be identified on the basis of their responses to hormonal and biologic stimuli. These subgroups include low-renin hypertensives and nonmodulators. Aldosterone, the principal human mineralocorticoid, is increasingly recognized as playing a significant role in cardiovascular morbidity, ...
Mottram Philip M - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Specific treatments targeting the pathophysiology of hypertensive heart disease are lacking. As aldosterone has been implicated in the genesis of myocardial fibrosis, hypertrophy, and dysfunction, we sought to determine the effects of aldosterone antagonism on myocardial function in hypertensive patients with suspected diastolic heart failure by using sensitive quantitative ...
Nicholls M G - - 2004
Adrenomedullin, a 52-amino acid residue peptide, has numerous biological actions which are of potential importance to cardiovascular homeostasis, growth and development of cardiovascular tissues and bone, prevention of infection, and regulation of body fluid and electrolyte balance. Studies in man using intravenous infusion of the peptide have demonstrated that, at ...
Iglarz Marc - - 2004
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of angiotensin II and oxidative stress on cardiovascular damage induced by chronic subcutaneous aldosterone infusion in the absence of salt loading. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were infused with d-aldosterone (0.75 microg/h subcutaneously) for 6 weeks. Blood pressure was measured with ...
Vasan Ramachandran S - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Primary hyperaldosteronism is a well-recognized cause of secondary hypertension. It is unknown whether serum aldosterone levels within the physiologic range influence the risk of hypertension. METHODS: We investigated the relation of baseline serum aldosterone levels to increases in blood pressure and the incidence of hypertension after four years in ...
Nishizaka Mari K - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that aldosterone may impair endothelium-dependent vascular function through suppression of nitric oxide formation. Assessments of forearm blood flow or arterial compliance suggest a similar effect in humans. The present study was designed to determine whether chronic aldosterone excess in subjects with resistant hypertension impairs endothelium-dependent vascular ...
Boldyreff Brigitte - - 2004
Aldosterone elicits not only genomic effects with physiological consequences within hours or days but also elicits rapid nongenomic effects, such as activation of sodium transport in target cells, within seconds or minutes. Rapid aldosterone effects, which have also been shown in several in vivo studies in humans (e.g., increase in ...
Frishman William H - - 2004
Aldosterone mediates both water and electrolyte balance by acting on the renal mineralocorticoid receptors. Recent experimental studies have also documented the presence of these receptors in other body organs, including the brain, blood vessels, and heart, suggesting that aldosterone plays a larger role in normal physiologic function and in cardiovascular ...
van Uum Stan H M - - 2004
Hypersecretion of cortisol is associated with hypertension. In addition, an abnormal cortisol metabolism may play a role in the pathogenesis of hypertension. The 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta-HSD) isozymes catalyze interconversion of cortisol and cortisone and play an important role in the regulation of the effects of cortisol. Activity of 11beta-HSD type ...
Tanabe Akiyo - - 2004
There is increasing evidence to support the importance of blocking aldosterone to prevent target-organ damage in hypertension. We recently demonstrated an aldosterone breakthrough phenomenon during administration of an angiotensin type 1 receptor blocker (ARB). To elucidate the pathophysiological significance of residual aldosterone by investigating the influence of the aldosterone antagonist ...
Dixit Mehul P - - 2004
BACKGROUND: The combination of hyponatremia and renovascular hypertension is called hyponatremic hypertensive syndrome (HHS). Malignant hypertension as a presentation has been reported in adults with HHS but is rare in children. CASE PRESENTATION: An eighteen month-old male presented with drowsiness, sudden onset status epilepticus and blood pressure of 210/160. The ...
Black Henry R HR Department of Preventive Medicine, Rush Presbyterian-St. Luke's Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612, USA. - - 2004
The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays an integral role in blood pressure regulation and has long been a target of pharmacologic approaches to controlling blood pressure. Traditionally, clinical interventions involving the RAAS have focused mainly on inhibiting the action of angiotensin II with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers, ...
Struthers Allan D AD Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Tayside DD1 9SY, Dundee, UK. - - 2004
Aldosterone is well recognized as a cause of sodium reabsorption, water retention, and potassium and magnesium loss; however, it also produces a variety of other actions that lead to progressive target organ damage in the heart, vasculature, and kidneys. Aldosterone interacts with mineralocorticoid receptors to promote endothelial dysfunction, facilitate thrombosis, ...
Bocchi Brigitte - - 2004
The enzyme 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 plays a major role in blood pressure regulation. It metabolizes glucocorticoid hormones into derivatives with low affinity for the mineralocorticoid receptor, preventing its permanent occupancy by circulating cortisol, which is 100- to 1000-fold more abundant than aldosterone in the plasma. Inactivating mutations of ...
Zelinka T - - 2004
We examined circadian blood pressure (BP) variation (expressed as a relative night-time BP decline) in subjects with primary aldosteronism (78 patients), pheochromocytoma (n=45) and Cushing's syndrome (n=18). Subjects with aldosterone-producing adenoma (n=21) and pheochromocytoma (n=27) were also investigated after the tumour removal. In all, 65 patients with essential hypertension served ...
Stella Paola - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: The aim of our study was to evaluate the relationship between aldosterone synthase gene polymorphism and cardiac dimensions in essential hypertension. BACKGROUND: Higher aldosterone synthase messenger ribonucleic acid levels in the human heart are accompanied by increased intracardiac aldosterone production, a phenomenon that is associated with cardiac fibrosis and ...
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