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Hood Susan J - - 2007
BACKGROUND: There is continuing variation in diagnosis and estimated prevalence of primary hyperaldosteronism. The higher estimates encourage search for adrenal adenomas in patients with elevated ratios of plasma aldosterone to renin. However, it is more likely that patients with normal plasma K+ and aldosterone belong to the polygenic spectrum of ...
Lebrasseur Nathan K - - 2007
Hypertension and cardiac remodeling are associated with myocardial fibrosis, left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, and diastolic heart failure. Fenofibrate suppresses aldosterone-mediated increases in myocyte matrix metalloproteinase activity and extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation. It is unknown whether the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha agonist, fenofibrate, improves cardiac remodeling in a model of aldosterone-induced hypertension ...
Holaj Robert - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Aldosterone contributes to the accumulation of collagen fibers and extracellular matrix in arterial wall. The aim of this study was to compare intima-media thickness (IMT) of the common carotid artery and carotid bifurcation in patients with primary aldosteronism, essential hypertension and healthy controls. METHODS: Carotid ultrasound studies were carried ...
Park Sungha - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: The aldosterone-renin ratio (ARR) is widely used to screen for primary aldosteronism, and may reflect a relative excess of aldosterone secretion compared with renin secretion. Excess aldosterone may have a detrimental effect on vascular stiffness. We therefore hypothesized that ARR and aldosterone are independently correlated with pulse wave velocity ...
Petramala L - - 2007
Cushing's Syndrome (CS) may sometimes lead to dilated cardiomyopathy, even though this condition can be partially or completely reversed after treatment. In this article we report the case of a 28-yr-old woman with CS secondary to adrenal adenoma who exhibited congestive heart failure as an initial symptom. Two weeks before ...
Nyirenda Moffat J MJ Endocrinology Unit, The Queen's Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, - - 2007
Evidence from clinical trials suggests that refractory hypertension is increasingly common. The underlying mechanisms are largely unknown but recent data have implicated increased aldosterone activity as an important mediator of resistance to routinely used antihypertensive agents. Epidemiological studies have suggested a significant rise in the prevalence of primary aldosteronism among ...
Takei Yoshio - - 2007
Vertebrates expanded their habitats from aquatic to terrestrial environments during the course of evolution. In parallel, osmoregulatory and cardiovascular systems evolved to counter the problems of desiccation and gravity on land. In our physiological studies on body fluid and blood pressure regulation in various vertebrate species, we found that osmoregulatory ...
Stas Sameer - - 2007
The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system contributes to cardiac remodeling, hypertrophy, and left ventricular dysfunction. Angiotensin II and aldosterone (corticosterone in rodents) together generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) via reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase, which likely facilitate this hypertrophy and remodeling. This investigation sought to determine whether cardiac oxidative stress and ...
Young William F - - 2007
Great strides have been made in our understanding of the pathophysiology of primary aldosteronism syndrome since Conn's description of the clinical presentation of a patient with an aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) more than 50 years ago. It is now recognized that the APA is just one of the seven subtypes of ...
Epstein Murray - - 2007
Resistant hypertension constitutes an increasingly common medical disorder. Although the exact incidence is not precisely known, estimates derived from recent outcome studies emphasize that resistant hypertension is much more common than previously thought. A major advance in our understanding of its pathogenesis and management is the recent recognition of the ...
Tubek SÅ‚awomir - - 2007
In the present study, differences between selected zinc parameters in healthy women and arterial hypotension patients were compared. The patients had baseline systolic blood pressure that did not surpass 100 mm Hg. During the orthostatic test, a decrease of over 20 mm Hg was seen and the patients reported dizziness, ...
Dubourg Olivier - - 2008
CONTEXT: The epidemic of heart failure (HF) in France has not been fully investigated and data on both the systolic and diastolic forms are limited. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence, aetiology and treatments of both forms in French patients over 65 with HF (NYHA grade II-IV). PARTICIPANTS: Cross-sectional study of ...
Messerli Franz H - - 2007
President Eisenhower experienced an acute heart attack in September 1955 and died of ischemic cardiomyopathy 14 years later. The autopsy revealed, unexpectedly, a 1.5-cm pheochromocytoma in the left adrenal gland. In view of these hitherto unreported findings, the investigators analyzed the blood pressure pattern of the president throughout his life. ...
Christiansen Jens Juel - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Female adrenal insufficiency implicates reduced production of the adrenal androgen precursor dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and low androgen levels. Oral DHEA restores androgen deficit but the clinical implications and safety of substitution therapy is uncertain. A putative DHEA receptor in vascular endothelium has been described and in vitro studies have shown ...
Pratt-Ubunama Monique N - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and primary aldosteronism are common in subjects with resistant hypertension; it is unknown, however, if the two disorders are causally related. This study relates plasma aldosterone and renin levels to OSA severity in subjects with resistant hypertension, and in those with equally severe OSA but ...
Genazzani A R - - 2007
Drospirenone is a unique progestogen derived from 17alpha-spirolactone, with a pharmacologic profile very similar to that of endogenous progesterone. In contrast with other available progestins, drospirenone is a progestogen with aldosterone receptor antagonism (PARA) through its affinity for the mineralocorticoid receptor. It is thus able to act on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone ...
White W B - - 2007
Hypertension is one of the most important risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease. The prevalence of hypertension increases with age and also after the menopause; therefore, blood pressure monitoring and effective control of elevated blood pressure are very important in postmenopausal women. The knowledge that aldosterone is a ...
Zolk Oliver - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Aldosterone plays a major role in the development of both hypertension and heart failure. As aldosterone is a substrate of the ABCB1 (P-glycoprotein) efflux transporter, whose expression and activity has been shown to be linked to the ABCB1 3435C-->T polymorphism, we tested the impact of the ABCB1 3435C-->T polymorphism ...
Duprez Daniel A - - 2007
The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system appears to be one of the key factors in the development of hypertensive vascular disease. Identification of mineralocorticoid receptors in the heart, vasculature, and brain has raised speculation that aldosterone may directly mediate its detrimental effects in these target organs independent of angiotensin II. Aldosterone increases vascular ...
Epstein Murray - - 2007
Resistant hypertension is a common medical disorder. Although the exact incidence of resistant hypertension is not established, estimates derived from recent outcome studies including the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT), Valsartan Antihypertensive Long-term Use Evaluation (VALUE), and Controlled Onset Verapamil Investigation of Cardiovascular End Points ...
Steigerwalt Susan - - 2007
AIMS: Recently, serum aldosterone levels have been reported to play a significant role in cardiac hypertrophy. One study of Japanese patients correlated aldosterone levels with the degree of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in those undergoing hemodialysis. However, the role of aldosterone in LVH in non-Japanese patients with end-stage renal disease ...
O'Neal Pamela V - - 2007
Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common nosocomial pneumonia that occurs in critically ill patients and results in mortality rates as high as 71%. Subglottic secretions (SSs) are a known risk factor. Several clinical trials have shown that continuous aspiration of subglottic secretions (CASS) reduces the risk of VAP by nearly ...
Parthasarathy Hari K HK Division of Medicine & Therapeutics, Ninewells Hospital & Medical School, University of Dundee, Dundee, UK. - - 2007
High blood pressure is an important determinant of cardiovascular disease risk. Treated hypertensives do not attain a risk level equivalent to normotensives. This may be a consequence of suboptimal blood pressure control to which indiscriminate use of antihypertensive drugs may contribute. Indeed the recent ALLHAT1study suggests that thiazides should be ...
Armando Ines - - 2007
Dysfunction of D2-like receptors has been reported in essential hypertension. Disruption of D2R in mice (D2-/-) results in high blood pressure, and several D2R polymorphisms are associated with decreased D2R expression. Because D2R agonists have antioxidant activity, we hypothesized that increased blood pressure in D2-/- is related to increased oxidative ...
Maule Simona - - 2006
INTRODUCTION: QT interval prolongation increases the risk of sudden death in several medical conditions. Patients with primary aldosteronism and salt-sensitive hypertension experience more cardiovascular events than those with normal-renin essential hypertension. QT interval prolongation might represent one of the risk factors for cardiovascular events in these patients. The aim of ...
Vald?s Gloria - - 2006
Arterial hypertension of adrenal etiology is mainly attributed to primary hyperaldosteronism. However, subtle expressions of hyperadrenergic or glucocorticoid excess can also generate arterial hypertension. The present report describes two hypertensive patients cataloged as resistant essential hypertensives, in whom adrenal masses were found incidentally, who highlight the need to recognize these ...
Campese Vito M - - 2006
The crucial role of the kidneys in regulation of systemic blood pressure has been known for more than 70 years. A multitude of studies have described the regulatory mechanisms behind this interaction, and elucidate why kidney disease is such a rampant and difficult form of secondary hypertension. Historically, renal hypertension ...
Khosla Neenoo - - 2006
Mineralocorticoid hypertension is hypertension associated with the presence of hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, and suppression of plasma renin. Mineralocorticoid hypertension represents only 10% of patients with essential hypertension. However, its recognition is important because it is a potentially reversible cause of hypertension. Primary hyperaldosteronism is the most common form of mineralocorticoid ...
Pojoga Luminita - - 2006
Two genetic variants of the beta-2 adrenergic receptor, 46G>A and 79C>G, affect agonist-mediated receptor downregulation and vascular reactivity. We determined whether these variants were associated with hypertension, per se, blood pressure response to dietary sodium, 2 forms of salt-sensitive hypertension (low renin and nonmodulation), and the activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone ...
Walker T - - 2006
We report the case of a 75-year-old male patient who underwent bypass surgery. Intraoperatively unstable hemodynamics with excessive arterial blood pressure was observed. This resulted in the tearing of an anastomosis, which subsequently required hemostasis for repeated bleeding. Postoperatively, laboratory findings and diagnostic imaging confirmed the diagnosis made intraoperatively of ...
Strauch Branislav - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Aldosterone has been shown to substantially contribute to the accumulation of collagen fibers and growth factors in the arterial wall, which can increase wall stiffness. This study aimed at comparing arterial stiffness between patients with primary aldosteronism (PA), essential hypertension (EH), and normotensive controls using carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity ...
Ounis-Skali Nadia - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Changes in estradiol and progesterone during the human menstrual cycle may impact vascular and cardiac function. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) hormones increase during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle and may antagonize the vascular effects of estradiol. This study was designed to investigate central arterial changes, cardiac function, and ...
Ceruti Michele - - 2006
The aim of this study was to evaluate ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in patients with essential hypertension and hypertension caused by adrenal pathology. Sixty-six patients with primary aldosteronism, 37 with pheochromocytomas, and 45 with adrenal incidentalomas were included. These patients were compared with 152 essential hypertensive patients and 64 normotensive ...
Rossi Gian Paolo - - 2006
Surgically correctable forms of primary aldosteronism are generally held to be less common than forms requiring medical therapy. However, with the availability of improved diagnostic techniques and the adoption of a systematic and thorough diagnostic work-up they can be identified more commonly than expected. Adrenal vein sampling (AVS) for measurement ...
Hammer Fabian F Division of Medical Sciences, University of Birmingham, Institute of Biomedical Research, Birmingham B15 2TT, - - 2006
Corticosteroids are critically involved in blood pressure regulation. Lack of adrenal steroids in Addison's disease causes life-threatening hypotension, whereas glucocorticoid excess in Cushing's syndrome invariably results in high blood pressure. At a pre-receptor level, glucocorticoid action is modulated by 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (11beta-HSDs). 11Beta-HSD1 activates cortisone to cortisol to facilitate glucocorticoid ...
Monahan Kevin D - - 2007
Animal studies suggest that acute and chronic aldosterone administration impairs baroreceptor/baroreflex responses. We tested the hypothesis that aldosterone impairs baroreflex control of cardiac period [cardiovagal baroreflex sensitivity (BRS)] and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA, sympathetic BRS) in humans. Twenty-six young (25 +/- 1 yr old, mean +/- SE) adults were ...
Zelinka Tomás - - 2006
Pheochromocytomas are catecholamine-producing tumors arising from chromaffin cells. One of the most typical symptoms of the catecholamine-excess state is hypertension either in the sustained or paroxysmal form, and its severity does not depend on the level of circulating catecholamines. On the other hand, hypertension in pheochromocytoma is very often characterized ...
Rittig Søren - - 2006
PURPOSE: We investigated the circadian rhythm of solute excretion and regulating hormones as well as blood pressure in patients with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included 15 patients with a mean age +/- SE of 13.4 +/- 0.9 years who had monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis with at least 3 ...
Morgante Giuseppe - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Blood pressure, which generally increases after menopause, is one of the best tools to characterize cardiovascular disease. The renin-aldosterone system plays a role in determining cardiovascular risk and the role of estrogen in the regulation of angiotensinogen gene expression and serum levels is well known. Raloxifene can induce endothelium-dependent ...
Tanemoto Masayuki - - 2006
We describe a case of secondary hypertension in which aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) and renal artery stenosis (RAS) coexisted. RAS caused a significant pressure gradient, and successful angioplasty of it improved the affected renal function but did not reduce the systemic blood pressure (SBP). Surgical resection of APA performed several months ...
May Clive N - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Primary aldosteronism is a cause of hypertension in up to 10% of hypertensive patients, but the mechanisms by which excess aldosterone raises arterial pressure remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the systemic and regional haemodynamic changes during the development and maintenance of aldosterone-induced hypertension and the effect of sympathetic and ...
Duprez Daniel A - - 2006
The concept of hypertension as primarily a consequence of altered hemodynamics has changed. Many factors are now implicated in the development of hypertensive vascular disease, and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) appears to be one of the most significant. Angiotensin II, the principal effector peptide of the RAAS, has far-reaching effects ...
Gaddam Krishna K - - 2006
Resistant hypertension is defined as blood pressure that remains above target levels despite treatment with three different antihypertensive agents. Cross-sectional analyses and hypertension outcome studies indicate that it is a common clinical problem, which will undoubtedly become increasingly prevalent with an aging and increasingly overweight population. Secondary causes of hypertension ...
Calhoun David A - - 2006
Resistant hypertension is defined as an elevated blood pressure in spite of treatment with 3 different antihypertensive agents. The prevalence of resistant hypertension is unknown, but recent cross-sectional analyses and hypertension outcome studies suggest it is a common clinical problem and will become even more so with an aging and ...
Rizzoni Damiano - - 2006
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: It has been previously demonstrated that aldosterone may possess a strong profibrotic action in vitro and in animal models of genetic or experimental hypertension. Our aim was to evaluate whether such a profibrotic action is present also in the human microcirculation. DESIGN AND PATIENTS: We investigated 13 ...
Janmohamed Salim - - 2006
Aldosterone is increasingly considered to have a fundamental role in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease. Primary aldosteronism is a much more common cause of secondary hypertension than once suspected, accounting for approximately 10% of cases. Screening for primary aldosteronism should be considered even in the presence of normokalaemia. The non-classical ...
Delgado-Almeida Antonio - - 2006
The assessment of potassium (K) effects in hypertension involves a history of complex research in cell K function and body K homeostasis. These studies provide evidence for the role of K ions in vascular and renal function, insulin resistance, glucose uptake, and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system; and there have been an ...
Tsukamoto Osamu O Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871, - - 2006
Aldosterone promotes cardiovascular inflammation and remodeling, both of which are characteristic changes in hypertensive and failing hearts. Since chronic inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) synthase with N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) induces systemic hypertension associated with cardiovascular inflammation and remodeling, we examined the potential role of aldosterone in this process using ...
Calhoun David A - - 2006
Resistant hypertension, defined as uncontrolled hypertension on three medications, is becoming an increasingly common problem. In most cases, blood pressure remains elevated because of persistently high systolic blood pressure levels. Common characteristics of patients with resistant hypertension include older age, obesity, excessive dietary salt ingestion, and presence of sleep apnea. ...
Chai Wenxia W Department of Pharmacology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The - - 2006
Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism with eplerenone reduces mortality in heart failure, possibly because of blockade of the deleterious effects of aldosterone. To investigate these effects, rat Langendorff hearts were exposed to aldosterone and/or eplerenone. Under normal conditions, aldosterone increased left ventricular pressure and decreased coronary flow. Eplerenone did not block these ...
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