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Wray D Walter - - 2010
Aldosterone receptor blockade and thiazide therapy effectively lower blood pressure in geriatric hypertension. Their impact on sympathetic nervous system function has not been evaluated. In a double-blind, randomized study, 36 patients with stage 1 hypertension underwent 6 months of therapy with either aldosterone receptor blockade (spironolactone, n=19; 68+/-1 years) or ...
Börgel Jan - - 2010
Hypertensive urgency/emergency occurs frequently, yet no prospective data on common secondary causes, including sleep apnea (SA), renal artery stenosis (RAS), and hyperaldosteronism, are available. Patients presenting to the emergency room for over 1 year with systolic blood pressure > or =180 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure > or =100 mmHg ...
Martinez-Aguayo Alejandro - - 2010
Aldosterone plays an important role in blood pressure homeostasis, the regulation of circulating volume, and the maintenance of the sodium-potassium balance by binding to the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR). Primary aldosteronism (PA) states are associated with an increased cardiovascular risk, mediated not only by hypertension but also by the action of ...
Gaddam Krishna - - 2010
We have shown previously that patients with resistant hypertension and hyperaldosteronism have increased brain natriuretic peptide suggestive of increased intravascular volume. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that hyperaldosteronism contributes to cardiac volume overload. Thirty-seven resistant hypertensive patients with hyperaldosteronism (urinary aldosterone > or = 12 microg/24 hours ...
Chapman Arlene B - - 2010
Hypertension is common and occurs in a majority of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) patients before the loss of kidney function. Hypertension relates to progressive kidney enlargement and is a significant independent risk factor for progression to ESRD. The pathogenesis of hypertension in ADPKD is complex and dependent on ...
Catena C - - 2010
Recent evidence indicates a greater frequency of primary aldosteronism (PA) among patients with hypertension than the previously accepted prevalence. PA was once considered a relatively benign form of hypertension associated with low incidence of organ complications. Recent views, however, suggest that long-term exposure to increased aldosterone levels might result in ...
Trésallet Christophe - - 2010
Primary hyperaldosteronism (PHA) is potentially curable by laparoscopic unilateral adrenalectomy (LUA). Pre-operative assessment rarely differentiates adrenal adenoma from hyperplasia. This study aimed to evaluate the results of LUA for PHA according to pathologic findings when an adrenal mass was identified unequivocally on a CT scan. A retrospective analysis of LUA ...
Quinkler M - - 2010
Patients presenting with primary aldosteronism experience more cardiovascular events than patients with essential hypertension independent of blood pressure. Therefore, the presence of primary aldosteronism should be detected, not only to determine the cause of hypertension, but also to prevent such complications. This review focuses on human data regarding increased end-organ ...
Nishiyama Akira - - 2010
The role of angiotensin II in mediating hypertension and renal diseases is well documented, and inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system elicits antihypertensive and renoprotective effects. There is increasing evidence implicating aldosterone, in addition to angiotensin II, in the pathogenesis of hypertension and renal diseases. Beneficial effects of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) ...
Siragy Helmy M - - 2010
Hypertension is characterized by endothelial dysfunction and increased risk for adverse cardiovascular outcomes. In addition to lowering blood pressure, the calcium-channel blocker amlodipine and blockers of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers) may further reduce cardiovascular risk by improving endothelial function when used ...
Sumino Hiroyuki - - 2010
AIM: An increase in blood pressure after menopause has been documented. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a central role in the regulation of blood pressure and in the pathophysiology of hypertension. This study investigated the effects of raloxifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, on components of the RAAS and blood ...
Amar Laurence - - 2010
Surgically correctable forms of primary aldosteronism are characterized by unilateral aldosterone hypersecretion and renin suppression, associated with varying degrees of hypertension and hypokalemia. Unilateral aldosterone hypersecretion is caused by an aldosterone-producing adenoma (also known as Conn's adenoma and aldosteronoma), primary unilateral adrenal hyperplasia and rare cases of aldosterone-producing adrenocortical carcinoma. ...
Salgado Diamantino Ribeiro - - 2010
IMPORTANCE OF THE FIELD: Severe sepsis is characterized by relative hypotension associated with a high cardiac output, peripheral vasodilation, and organ dysfunction. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is primarily activated to increase blood pressure, but recently potential pro-inflammatory effects of angiotensin II have attracted interest because of the reported association between ...
Ritz Eberhard - - 2010
Aldosterone was in the past considered only as a prohypertensinogenic agent. It has recently become clear that apart from the classical endocrine action, i.e. causing blood pressure elevation as a result of salt retention, aldosterone has numerous blood-pressure-independent actions on nonepithelial tissue. Under conditions of high salt concentration, aldosterone is ...
Nishiyama Akira - - 2010
The critical role played by the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) in the regulation of blood pressure and body fluid homeostasis has been well recognized. Angiotensin (Ang) II and aldosterone are the most powerful biologically active products of the RAAS, although there are also other bioactive Ang peptides involved in this system, ...
Kondo Tatsuya - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: In hypertensive patients, primary aldosteronism (PA) is the most prevalent type of secondary hypertension, and screening for PA has become very important. Calcium channel blockers (CCB) are widely used to treat hypertension, but most CCBs stimulate plasma renin activity (PRA) and increase plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC), both of which ...
Ibuki Chikao C Department of Cardiology, Nippon Medical School Chiba Hokusoh Hospital, Inzai, Japan. - - 2010
A 29-year-old woman with refractory hypertension who previously suffered from subarchnoid hemorrhage visited our facility. The diagnosis of renovascular hypertension due to fibromuscular dysplasia was made based on a high level of plasma renin activity (PRA) and aldosterone concentration (AC), and computed tomographic image of bilateral renal artery stenosis/obstruction. Angioplasty, ...
Parthasarathy Hari K HK Department of Cardiology, Papworth Hospital, Cambridge, - - 2010
We hypothesized that the aldosterone: renin ratio (ARR) predicts the antihypertensive response to mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, spironolactone (SPIRO), when compared with bendroflumethiazide (BFZ). We conducted a randomized, crossover, trial on hypertensive patients with either high ARR (HARR defined as >750 and plasma aldosterone >250 pmol/l) or low ARR (LARR defined ...
Tomaschitz Andreas - - 2010
In the setting of primary aldosteronism, elevated aldosterone levels are associated with increased blood pressure. Aldosterone concentrations within the normal range, however, can also alter blood pressure. Furthermore, the aldosterone-to-renin ratio, an indicator of aldosterone excess, is associated with hypertension, even in patients without excessive absolute aldosterone levels. In this ...
Gaddam K - - 2010
Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and hyperaldosteronism are very common in subjects with resistant hypertension. We hypothesized that aldosterone-mediated chronic fluid retention may influence OSA severity in patients with resistant hypertension. We tested this in an open-label evaluation by assessing the changes in the severity of OSA in patients with resistant ...
Vogt Bruno - - 2009
Through its classic effects on sodium and potassium homeostasis, aldosterone, when produced in excess, is associated with the development of hypertension and hence with higher cardiovascular and renal risk. In recent years, experimental and epidemiologic data have suggested that aldosterone also may be linked to high cardiovascular risk independently of ...
Bomback A S - - 2009
BACKGROUND: For some hypertensive patients, conventional blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers does not adequately protect against target organ damage. This may be particularly true for hypertensive patients with obesity, a condition often associated with elevated aldosterone levels. METHODS: We conducted a ...
Seeliger Erdmann - - 2010
1. Total body sodium (TBS) is known as major determinant of arterial blood pressure (ABP) when TBS is increased, but little is known about ABP control following a deficit in TBS. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) controls ABP by controlling TBS via the Na-retaining effects of angiotensin (Ang) II and aldosterone, ...
Ferrari Paolo - - 2010
Cortisol and aldosterone have the same in vitro affinity for the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), although in vivo only aldosterone acts as a physiologic agonist of the MR, despite circulating levels of cortisol in humans and corticosterone in rodents being three orders of magnitude higher than aldosterone levels. In mineralocorticoid target ...
Pisoni Roberto - - 2009
Resistant hypertension is a common medical problem. It carries a significantly increased risk of end-organ damage and cardiovascular events compared with more easily controlled hypertension. Resistant hypertension is most often related to isolated systolic hypertension and is characterized by aldosterone excess and increased intravascular volume. Its diagnosis requires the exclusion ...
Sato A A Department of Internal Medicine, International University of Health and Welfare Mita Hospital, Tokyo, Japan. - - 2010
Eplerenone, a selective aldosterone blocker, has become clinically available in Japan since 2007. It has been reported that eplerenone has a potential antihypertensive effect, with a profile slightly different from that of spironolactone, and has fewer adverse reactions, suggesting that it may become a first-line treatment for hypertension. However, clinical ...
Sam Flora - - 2010
Aldosterone infusion results in left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and hypertension and may involve profibrotic and proinflammatory mechanisms. In turn, hypertension is the major cause of diastolic heart failure (HF). Adiponectin, an adipose-derived plasma protein, exerts antiinflammatory and anti-hypertrophic effects and is implicated in the development of hypertension and systolic HF. ...
Sturgis LaShon C - - 2009
Knockout (KO) of IL-6 has been shown to attenuate ANG II hypertension, and mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) have been reported to contribute to the increase in IL-6 during acute ANG II infusion. This study determined whether that MR action is sustained with chronic ANG II infusion and whether it plays a ...
Donner Kati M - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Two variants of the CYP2C9 gene, CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3, have been indicated to have impaired enzyme function, and thus suspected to reduce the formation of the active metabolite of losartan. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes are also involved in eicosanoid biosynthesis and regulation of blood pressure (BP) and sodium homeostasis. ...
Stowasser Michael M Hypertension Unit, University of Queensland School of Medicine, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Woolloongabba Brisbane 4102, Australia. - - 2009
It is now widely recognized that primary aldosteronism (PA) is much more common than previously thought, accounting for up to 5-10% of hypertensives, and that aldosterone excess has adverse cardiovascular consequences that go above and beyond hypertension development. These findings have precipitated a marked resurgence of research activity, most of ...
- - 2009
BACKGROUND: Autonomous secretion of aldosterone in patients with primary aldosteronism increases glomerular filtration rate and causes kidney damage. The influence of a mild decrease in kidney function on residual hypertension after adrenalectomy is unexplored. STUDY DESIGN: Nonconcurrent prospective study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: The study was based on the Taiwan Primary ...
Wilson Richard M - - 2009
Hypertension-induced diastolic heart failure accounts for a large proportion of all heart failure presentations. Hypertension also induces left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy. Fixed-dose isosorbide dinitrate/hydralazine (HISDN) decreased mortality in human systolic heart failure but it is unknown whether it improves maladaptive myocardial remodeling. We sought to test the hypothesis that chronic ...
Watson Timothy - - 2009
INTRODUCTION: Primary aldosteronism (PA) is caused by autonomous hypersecretion of aldosterone from the adrenal cortex, classically from an adenoma, resulting in sodium and water retention, hypokalaemia and raised blood pressure. The sodium and water retention causes suppression of renin release. The possible cardiac sequelae of aldosterone excess are encountered primarily ...
Acelajado Maria Czarina - - 2009
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Resistant hypertension is found in an important and rapidly growing subset of the hypertensive population, and data characterizing this group of patients are limited. The purpose of this review is to present the latest evidence on resistant hypertension, its risk factors, patient characteristics, and approach to diagnosis. ...
Mulatero Paolo - - 2009
Primary aldosteronism (PA) is the most frequent endocrine form of secondary hypertension. The recognition of this disease has dramatically increased with the widespread use of a screening test in most hypertensive patients, including those who are normokalemic. Interest in PA has grown since the demonstration that aldosterone has deleterious effects ...
Murashima Miho - - 2009
Adrenal venous sampling (AVS) remains controversial in the management of primary aldosteronism. Retrospective chart review was conducted at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania from July 2001 to September 2007. A total of 113 patients underwent AVS, 16 patients were excluded as records were unavailable. Among 97 remaining patients, ...
Gradman Alan H - - 2009
The prevalence of heart failure (HF) is high and still on the rise. In 2004, an estimated 5.2 million adults in the United States carried the diagnosis of HF with a mortality rate of >19%. The incidence of HF is higher in individuals 65 years or older. As the US ...
Ubaid-Girioli Samira - - 2009
Aldosterone excess or "escape" can occur after treatment with medications that block the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system or in undiagnosed primary aldosteronism. Spironolactone is thought to be an important addition to resistant hypertension (RH) treatment. In this study, resistant (RH) and controlled (CH) hypertensives and normotensive patients were submitted to echocardiography, flow-mediated ...
Sukor Norlela - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to examine blood pressure and biochemical responses to unilateral adrenalectomy in patients with bilateral primary aldosteronism (PA) and identify predictive parameters. CONTEXT: PA considered due to bilateral autonomous production of aldosterone is usually treated medically. Unilateral adrenalectomy has been considered ineffective. Because quality ...
Giacchetti Gilberta - - 2009
Primary aldosteronism is the most common cause of secondary hypertension, accounting for about 10% of all forms of high blood pressure. Life-time pharmacological therapy is the treatment of choice for primary aldosteronism due to idiopathic adrenal hyperplasia (IHA), while adrenalectomy is effective in curing most patients with an aldosterone producing ...
Jansen Pieter M PM Division of Pharmacology, Vascular and Metabolic Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The - - 2009
The role of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) in hypertension has since long been recognized and aldosterone has been acknowledged as one of the key hormones in the pathophysiology, not only in primary aldosteronism but also in essential hypertension and drug-resistant hypertension. Aldosterone-receptor antagonists (ARAs) are increasingly used in patients with ...
Giacchetti Gilberta - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: Primary aldosteronism (PA) due to aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) is the most common curable form of secondary hypertension. DESIGN: In order to evaluate blood pressure outcome after adrenalectomy for APA and to identify new favorable prognostic factors, data from 42 consecutive APA patients who underwent adrenalectomy were collected from 2005 ...
Kotsaftis Panagiotis - - 2009
Primary hyperaldosteronism is only rarely caused by unilateral adrenal hyperplasia. A 73-year-old hypertensive Greek man (on 10 mg amlodipine for the last ten years) presented in the emergency department with severe muscle weakness of all limbs. The initial physical and laboratory examination revealed normal blood pressure, muscle weakness, severe hypokalemia, ...
Tsuchiya Kyoichiro - - 2009
Primary aldosteronism (PA) is a secondary hypertension characterized by autonomous aldosterone hypersecretion from adrenocortical adenoma and/or hyperplasia. Recently it has been suggested that aldosterone excess is directly involved in the development of cardiovascular injury in PA independent of its hypertensive effect. The present study was designed to examine the relationship ...
Gonzaga Carolina C - - 2008
Resistant hypertension is defined as blood pressure that remains uncontrolled in spite of >or= 3 antihypertensive medications at effective doses, ideally including a diuretic. Although exact prevalence is unknown, clinical trials suggest that 20% to 30% of study participants are resistant. Hyperaldosteronism, obesity, refractory volume expansion, and obstructive sleep apnea ...
Gekle Michael - - 2009
Aldosterone and its receptor, the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), play a key role in the regulation of reno-cardiovascular function as well as in the regulation of normal and abnormal reno-cardiovascular function, which are responsible for the variety of its functional responses. The underlying mechanisms are of genomic and nongenotropic nature. Prevention ...
Mulatero Paolo - - 2008
Aldosterone is produced not only in the adrenal gland but also in other tissues, including the brain, where it plays an important role in the control of blood pressure and water and electrolyte homeostasis. Aldosterone has also been demonstrated to be a major factor in target organ damage independent of ...
Letavernier Emmanuel - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To assess blood pressure outcome in patients with primary aldosteronism, who were operated on the basis of a unilateral adenoma detected by computed tomography or a lateralized aldosterone hypersecretion detected by adrenal venous sampling, and to analyze the hormonal and nonhormonal factors associated with the outcome. METHODS: A retrospective ...
Mariotti R - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: In randomized clinical trials, aldosterone antagonists have been shown to reduce mortality and morbidity in heart failure (HF). The aim of the present study was to examine the risk-benefit profile of aldosterone antagonists in routine clinical practice. METHODS: A retrospective analysis, extending over a 1-year period, of the clinical, ...
Beaudoin Jonathan - - 2008
BACKGROUND: A 51-year-old woman was referred to the Hypertension Clinic of L'Hôtel-Dieu de Québec Hospital, University of Québec Hospital Centre, with hypertension. Her hypertension had been evolving for approximately 30 years and was refractory to maximum doses of four antihypertensive agents. Routine blood testing revealed mild hypokalemia. INVESTIGATIONS: Physical examination, ...
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