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Results 451 - 500 of 728
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Jacobsen J - - 1993
Effects of ileus on cardiovascular and hormonal responses to haemorrhage were evaluated in 10 anaesthetized pigs. Ileus was induced and the bleeding sequence repeated on the following day. Before ileus, a resting heart rate (HR) of 105 (range 83-140) beats min-1 remained unchanged until haemorrhage amounted to 15% of the ...
Smith R J - - 1993
Primary aldosteronism due to an adrenal tumor is rare. When found, it can be treated surgically and cured. This is a case report of a 41-year-old man with a long history of severe hypertension who complained of weakness and weight loss. Laboratory studies revealed hypokalemia and marked elevation of the ...
Masters R G - - 1993
OBJECTIVE: The neuroendocrine response to heart transplantation was characterized in 11 patients with special reference to long term effects on plasma hormone concentration. DESIGN: Multiple serial measurements of preload, ejection fraction, plasma renin activity (PRA), aldosterone, atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) and catecholamines were made over time. SETTING: Tertiary care cardiac ...
Veglio F - - 1993
In the present study we estimated the periodic profiles and variance structure of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, heart rate and mean arterial pressure by using an autoregressive model of power spectrum, Maximum Entropy Method (MEM) in 8 patients with primary aldosteronism, during long-term therapy with nicardipine slow release. ...
Jespersen B - - 1993
In order to evaluate the role of the hyperparathyroid state for blood pressure and volume homeostasis, eight patients with primary hyperparathyroidism were studied before and after corrective surgery. Neither noradrenaline induced blood pressure changes nor basal blood pressure were affected by the operation, and the values were the same as ...
Richards A M - - 1993
AIM: To determine the renal, endocrine and haemodynamic effects of an orally active inhibitor of the neutral endopeptidase EC 3.4.24.11 in essential hypertension. METHODS: Two groups of 12 white male patients with essential hypertension were treated with candoxatril at 25 mg every 12 h (group 1) or at 200 mg ...
Wacker J - - 1993
Pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) is a frequent cause of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. In the present study we focused on the pathophysiology of PIH, mainly on the role of mineralocorticoids, reversed blood pressure patterns, and the resulting necessity of continuous monitoring of the preeclamptic mother. Problems of antihypertensive therapy ...
Maillet A - - 1993
The aim of this study was to determine what effects social isolation and confinement stress had on the volume regulating hormones. In six healthy male subjects, during a 28-d isolation and confinement study (ESA-ISEMSI'90), hematocrit, blood pressure and resting heart rate, plasma cortisol, renin, aldosterone, arginine vasopressin levels besides the ...
Blumenfeld J D - - 1993
Abnormalities of adrenal cortical and medullary function are important causes of hypertension in adults. Mineralocorticoid hypertension, characterized by spontaneous hypokalemia with excessive kaliuresis and low plasma renin activity, is most commonly caused by aldosterone-producing adenoma or, less frequently, by nonadenomatous adrenal hyperplasia. However, recent evidence indicates that this classification oversimplifies ...
Ruby S T - - 1993
Hypokalemia is an uncommon presentation of renovascular hypertension. Although renal artery stenosis has been associated with hypokalemia secondary to hyperreninemic hyperaldosteronism, few reports have actually evaluated the pathophysiologic changes in such a patient with renovascular hypertension. We studied a patient before and after surgical revascularization who presented with severe hypertension ...
Liel Y - - 1993
In its classical form, congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 11 beta-hydroxylase deficiency is characterized by hypertension and abnormal sexual development. Suppression of ACTH secretion by means of administering glucocorticoids fulfills the therapeutic goal of reducing blood pressure and decreasing androgen production. The present report describes the case of a patient ...
Brilla C G - - 1993
Activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in arterial hypertension can lead to remodeling of the myocardial collagen network, with progressive collagen accumulation in the cardiac interstitium. This reactive myocardial fibrosis, which is not secondary to myocyte necrosis, appears to be an important determinant of diastolic dysfunction and thus of pathologic hypertrophy. ...
Marenzi G - - 1993
PURPOSE: We investigated the mechanisms involved in the regulation of salt and water metabolism in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). Extracorporeal ultrafiltration was utilized as a nonpharmacologic method for withdrawal of body fluid. PATIENTS, METHODS, AND RESULTS: In 32 consecutive patients with CHF (New York Heart Association functional class ...
Levi R - - 1993
Cardiac output (CO) and peripheral resistance (PR), the two major determinants of systemic arterial blood pressure (BP), are regulated principally by the adrenergic (ADR) and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAA) systems. Antihypertensive medications ultimately decrease CO, PR, or both, by acting at various sites in the ADR and RAA pathways or affecting cardiovascular ...
Masuda A - - 1992
OBJECTIVE: To clarify the pathophysiological role of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in hypertensive diseases. METHOD: Using a sensitive radioimmunoassay established in our laboratory, plasma CGRP levels were evaluated in control subjects and in patients with essential hypertension, phaeochromocytoma or primary aldosteronism. RESULTS: The CGRP levels in the three hypertensive groups ...
Burnier M - - 1992
Diuretics have long been used to lower blood pressure in hypertensive patients or to control body fluid and electrolyte homeostasis in diseases such as congestive heart failure, chronic renal failure or cirrhosis. The initial response to diuretics is a negative sodium and fluid balance. The diuretic-induced loss of salt and ...
Dahlöf B - - 1992
Our study attempted to evaluate the importance of changes in the circulating renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and in hemodynamics in relation to observed changes in cardiovascular structure. We studied previously untreated men (n = 28) with essential nonmalignant hypertension and a supine casual diastolic blood pressure > 95 mm Hg on ...
Mantero F - - 1992
Glucocorticoid (GC) excess (Cushing's syndrome) is associated with hypertension in at least 70% of patients (in our series 89/130), independently of the subtype (pituitary or adrenal) and the duration, but not of the age of the patients. Cardiovascular damage is quite frequent in hypertensives, but is sometimes also present in ...
Sander M - - 1992
The TGR(mREN2)27 is a new monogenetic rat model in hypertension research. As the mouse Ren-2d renin gene is integrated into their genome, they develop fulminant hypertension between 5 and 15 weeks of age, with blood pressure maxima of 300 mm Hg. Their plasma renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is suppressed, but the ...
Brilla C G - - 1992
OBJECTIVE: Myocardial fibrosis is an important determinant of pathological hypertrophy. In two experimental models of arterial hypertension the purpose of the study was (a) to determine total collagen volume fraction and relative contribution of scarring and perivascular/interstitial fibrosis; and (b) to assess the effects of the aldosterone receptor antagonist spironolactone ...
Ando K - - 1992
To clarify the hemodynamic and endocrine mechanisms of the hypotensive effect of amosulalol, an alpha- and beta-adrenoceptor antagonist, 19 patients with essential hypertension received amosulalol (20-80 mg/day; average 48.4 mg/day) for 16 weeks. Mean blood pressure (MBP) was significantly decreased (105 +/- 1 vs. 120 +/- 1 mm Hg, p ...
Agana-Defensor R - - 1992
Few disorders of endocrine function are so sudden and dramatic in their presentation as those caused by a pheochromocytoma. This chromaffin cell tumor arises within the adrenal medulla or within the sympathetic nervous system and causes wide fluctuations in blood pressure, tachydysrhythmias, and manifestations of intense anxiety. The patient experiences ...
Sanders B P - - 1992
Corticosteroids can induce hypertension, which reportedly remits as the drug is withdrawn. We studied nine patients with steroid-requiring asthma, aged 9 to 16 years, who had elevated blood pressures during corticosteroid treatment. Unlike in previous studies, all nine patients developed hypertension during corticosteroid reduction. Diastolic blood pressures were 50 to ...
Tosti-Croce C - - 1992
19-hydroxy-androstenedione (19-OH-A), a C19 steroid, is an amplifier of the sodium retaining action of aldosterone under the control of ACTH and renin-angiotensin system. These findings suggest that 19-OH-A may be involved in the regulation of hydroelectrolyte balance and blood pressure. Aim of the present study was to examine the behaviour ...
Niederberger M - - 1992
The "Peripheral Arterial Vasodilation" hypothesis most completely explains the clinical spectrum of cirrhosis ranging from compensated to decompensated to the hepatorenal syndrome (Figure 15-1). As the systemic peripheral vasodilation increases, the neurohumoral responses to arterial underfilling are stimulated with resultant renal vasoconstriction, sodium and water retention. Hypoalbuminemia and portal hypertension, ...
Lenz T - - 1992
In a 21-year-old Caucasian women with von Hippel-Lindau disease, norepinephrine-producing adrenal pheochromocytoma was identified as the underlying cause of severe hypertension. She was found to have extremely elevated levels of circulating renin and aldosterone, and she was markedly hypokalemic. Administration of captopril further enhanced renin secretion, while her blood pressure ...
Gibbs J S - - 1991
Continuous ambulatory measurement of pulmonary arterial pressure was used to investigate changes following right heart catheterisation in patients with chronic heart failure. Ten males, mean age 56 years, with chronic heart failure, underwent 24 hour pressure recording using a micromanometer tipped catheter with in vivo calibration and frequency modulated recording. ...
Chan J Y - - 1991
The involvement of the regenerating adrenal gland and kidney, and the contribution of deoxycorticosterone (DOC) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), in the development of adrenal regeneration hypertension (ARH) was evaluated in young female Sprague-Dawley rats. Based on tail-cuff plethysmographic measurement, animals subjected to nephrectomy and adrenalectomy on the right side and ...
Bereiter D A - - 1991
To assess the role of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) within the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis (Vc) on adrenal and autonomic function, microinjections were directed at different laminae of Vc in chloralose-anesthetized cats. Microinjections of CGRP (5 pmol, 100 nl) into laminae I-II increased significantly the adrenal secretion of epinephrine, adrenal blood ...
Lin M - - 1991
The acute efficacy of rapid loading of oral long-acting enalapril in congestive heart failure remains to be established. We evaluated the efficacy of this treatment modality in 22 patients with chronic congestive heart failure N.Y.H.A. functional class ranging from II-IV with Creatinine level less than 2 mg/dl. Following hemodynamic evaluation, ...
Williams G H - - 1991
The level of sodium intake has a reciprocal influence on the vascular and adrenal responses to angiotensin II, with sodium restriction enhancing the adrenal responses and reducing vascular, and particularly renal vascular, responses. In two subgroups of the essential hypertensive population, this relationship is abnormal. Both subgroups have sodium-sensitive hypertension. ...
Gambini G - - 1991
The anti-hypertensive effect of ketanserin, a new antagonist of 5-HT2-serotonergic receptors, was evaluated in 10 patients with uncomplicated essential hypertension. At the end of 2 weeks of placebo wash-out and following 2 and 4 weeks of treatment with ketanserin (20 mg twice daily), blood pressure and heart rate were measured ...
Murai K - - 1991
A forty-two-year-old man was admitted because of chest pain. Electrocardiograms at admission showed horizontal ST depression in leads, II, III, aVF, V4, V5, and V6. Direct blood pressure monitoring revealed cyclic change between 160/100 mmHg and 70/50 mmHg and heart rate between 80/sec and 120/sec at fifteen minute intervals. The ...
Weber K T - - 1991
The myocardium contains myocyte and non-myocyte cells. A disproportionate growth of the nonmyocyte cell population can alter myocardial structure and lead to pathologic hypertrophy. Myocardial fibrosis, the result of cardiac fibroblast growth or abnormal accumulation of fibrillar collagen within the interstitial space, can adversely influence myocardial stiffness and ultimately ventricular ...
Hussain M G - - 1991
The results of a study aimed at the identification of treatment optima for triploidy induction in recently fertilised Oreochromis niloticus L. eggs by altering the intensity, duration and timing of application of pressure, heat and cold shocks are reported. Preliminary, but not directly comparable, trials suggested the following treatments to ...
Imai Y - - 1990
The daily variation in blood pressure (circadian blood pressure rhythm) is characterized by a nocturnal fall and a diurnal rise. The circadian blood pressure rhythm seems to be mediated mainly by the circadian rhythm of sympathetic tone, linked to changes in physical and mental activities, e.g. the waking-sleeping cycle. Statistically ...
Tan S A - - 1990
This study shows that MIT and DIT stimulate aldosterone secretion. This may be due to their tyrosine hydroxylase inhibitory property. Dopamine abolishes the stimulation. Prolonged MIT administration enhances the stimulation of aldosterone secretion and can cause hypokalemia. Volume expansion reverses the hyperaldosteronism. PRA and blood pressure do not change, even ...
Schrier R W - - 1990
In studies in experimental animals and in edematous patients, the nonosmotic release of vasopressin has been found to be consistently associated with activation of the sympathetic nervous and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone systems. Moreover, the sympathetic nervous system is known to modulate the nonosmotic release of vasopressin and activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. ...
Mann H - - 1990
The correlations between actual blood volume (BV), blood pressure (BP), heart rate, and plasma levels of renin activity (PRA), serum aldosterone (ALD), antidiuretic hormone (ADH), epinephrine (E), norepinephrine (NE), atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), cGMP, and cAMP were investigated in 10 stable patients during HD. HD consisted of four periods of ...
Arafah B M - - 1990
The present studies were designed to test the hypothesis that hyperprolactinemia modulates target tissue responsiveness to angiotensin-II (AII). Adrenal and pressor responses to AII infusions were determined in six patients with PRL-secreting pituitary microadenomas and in five normal controls during defined electrolyte balance. Hyperprolactinemic and normal subjects had similar mean ...
Kraatz C - - 1990
The prevalence of arterial hypertension was evaluated in a retrospective study of 158 patients with acromegaly, and results were compared to control populations, namely, the Munich Blood Pressure Study (MBPS) and the Framingham Study. The prevalence of hypertension (defined according to WHO criteria) was significantly increased in female patients but ...
Williams G H - - 1990
Sodium loading reduces aldosterone responses to angiotensin II (AII) when compared to the sodium restricted state. Recent investigations suggest that dopamine inhibits the aldosterone secretion and may contribute to the alteration in aldosterone response to AII with sodium intake, since administration of the dopamine antagonist, metoclopramide, enhances the aldosterone responses ...
Tresham J J - - 1990
1. Studies in the rat and the dog have shown that infusion of aldosterone for several weeks into the cerebral ventricles (ICV) can produce hypertension at doses that do not have an effect when infused systemically. We have previously shown that a high physiological dose of aldosterone infused intravenously at ...
Roels H A - - 1990
A significant reduction of kallikrein activity in urine (assayed by its amidolytic activity) was found in 64 normotensive workers who had been exposed to cadmium for 11 years on average and whose cadmium concentrations in urine ranged from 2.2 to 33.1 micrograms/g creatinine. The mean (geometric) urinary kallikrein activity (in ...
Gómez-Sánchez E P - - 1990
There is evidence of crucial central nervous system involvement in the pathogenesis of mineralocorticoid-excess salt hypertension, as well as data indicating that corticosterone is the predominant ligand for the type I adrenocorticoid receptor in the brain. Miniosmotic pumps were used to deliver artificial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), aldosterone (10 ng/h), corticosterone ...
Engeland W C - - 1990
Experiments characterized the dynamics of the pituitary and adrenocortical response to noise in awake dogs to determine if a dissociation exists between changes in plasma bioactive (bio) adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and immunoreactive (ir) ACTH. In addition, experiments determined the temporal relationship between cardiovascular, adrenomedullary, and adrenocortical responses induced by the ...
Lin W J - - 1990
Previous research has shown that adrenalectomy suppresses schedule-induced wheelrunning, and that the suppressant effect of adrenalectomy can be totally reversed by the replacement of corticosterone. The present study confirms the role of the hormones of the pituitary adrenocortical axis in the control of schedule-induced wheelrunning by means of hypophysectomy. As ...
Costa F V - - 1990
The effects of 1-year antihypertensive treatment with the diuretic fenquizone were evaluated in 16 patients with mild essential hypertension. During treatment with placebo, after 2, 4, 24, and 52 weeks of treatment we measured blood pressure, heart rate, forearm blood flow (FBF) and vascular resistance (FVR) at rest and after ...
Seino M - - 1990
Failure to visualize either adrenal gland by adrenal imaging was experienced in a patient with biochemical evidence of primary aldosteronism. Visualization of the adrenal glands was not possible after the administration of ACTH-Z (1 mg/day) for 3 days. The administration of ACTH and dexamethasone elicited an increase in blood pressure. ...
van den Berg D T - - 1990
Systolic blood pressure was measured, using an indirect tail method, in conscious male rats at several time intervals after the intracerebroventricular injection of mineralo-and glucocorticoid agonists and antagonists. Intracerebroventricular administration of the antimineralocorticoid RU 28318 (10 ng) decreased blood pressure, while the antiglucocorticoid RU 38486 (10 ng) caused an increase, ...
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