Search Results
Results 501 - 550 of 1336
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Fink G D - - 2000
The purpose of the present study was to identify mechanisms that contribute to increased venous smooth muscle tone in desoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertension in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were uninephrectomized, received subcutaneous implants of DOCA, and drank 1% sodium chloride/0.2% potassium chloride solutions. Sham-operated rats received only uninephrectomy and drank ...
Zhang H - - 1999
The present study investigated the effects of Sinitang (Japanese name: Shigyaku-to--a traditional Chinese medicine), on microcirculatory disturbances induced by endotoxin in rat mesentery. The changes of arteriolar diameter, the velocity of red blood cells in arterioles and venular microcirculation after endotoxin injection (6 mg x kg(-1), i.v.) were observed by ...
Michelakis E D - - 1999
Appetite suppressants, such as dexfenfluramine (dex), are associated with primary pulmonary hypertension, valvular heart disease, and systemic vascular complications, such as coronary, cerebral, or mesenteric ischemia. These drugs suppress appetite by enhancing release and inhibiting reuptake of serotonin in the central nervous system. The effects of dex on the systemic ...
Rhiouani H - - 1999
Experiments were performed on male and female spontaneously hypertensive rats weighing 310-340 g (10 animals per group). The oral administration of 200 mg/kg/day of saponins from Herniaria glabra for 30 days, resulted in a significant decrease in blood pressure in hypertensive rats. The systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased significantly ...
Del Bigio M R - - 1999
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Hypertension is a major risk factor for ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke and may also cause more chronic and subtle brain injury. Progressive brain changes in a rat model of renal hypertension have been assessed to better understand the pathogenesis of hypertensive brain damage. METHODS: Young adult rats ...
Blanc J - - 1999
METHODS: Blood pressure variability was evaluated in conscious Wistar control rats and rats with established L-NAME hypertension (20 mg/kg per 24 h, 4 weeks). RESULTS: Final systolic arterial pressure was 185+/-5 and 132+/-4 mm Hg in the Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)-treated and control rats, respectively. The standard deviation of systolic ...
Collister J P - - 1999
There are several ways to assess the sympathetic nervous system (i.e. , nerve recording, sympathectomy, etc.), each of which has its own limitations. The present study was conducted to establish a standard, testable chronic ganglionic blockade protocol with a fixed level of adrenergic vasomotor tone. Rats were instrumented with radio ...
Grimm D - - 1999
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of both angiotensin II type I receptor antagonism using losartan (LOS) and beta-receptor blockade by metoprolol (MP) in isoproterenol-induced cardiac injury in the rat. Two weeks after isoproterenol (ISO) application, 90 ISO and 30 control (CTRL) rats were examined. ISO ...
Matsubara T - - 1999
Methylripariochromene A (MRC) was isolated from the leaves of Orthosiphon aristatus (Lamiaceae) and subjected to the examination of several pharmacological actions related to antihypertensive activity. The following four findings were revealed from the present study: 1) MRC caused a continuous decrease in systolic blood pressure and a decrease in heart ...
Oliveira V L - - 1999
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the sensitivity of the cardiopulmonary receptors in experimental diabetes induced by streptozotocin by the use of 2 different methods: (1) administration of increasing doses of serotonin to analyze peak changes of arterial pressure and heart rate for each given dose in ...
Bol C J - - 1999
This study characterizes the anesthetic profile of dexmedetomidine on the basis of steady-state plasma concentrations using defined stimulus-response, ventilatory, and continuous electroencephalographic (EEG) and cardiovascular effect measures in rats. At constant plasma concentrations of dexmedetomidine (range, 0.5-19 ng/ml), targeted and maintained by target-controlled infusion, the whisker reflex, righting reflex, startle ...
Schiffrin E L - - 1999
Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is overexpressed in the vascular wall in certain models of experimental hypertension: deoxycorticosterone acetate salt-treated rats, deoxycorticosterone acetate salt-treated spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), stroke-prone SHR, Dahl salt-sensitive rats, angiotensin II-infused rats, and 1-kidney 1 clip Goldblatt rats; it is not overexpressed in SHR, 2-kidney 1-clip hypertensive rats, or ...
Villalobos-Molina R - - 1999
Heterogeneity of vascular alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes has been revealed by pharmacological and molecular biology studies (i.e., alpha 1A-, alpha 1B-, and alpha 1D-adrenoceptors). The alpha 1D-adrenoceptor subtype is predominantly involved in the contraction of a variety of vessels and its role in the control of blood pressure has been suggested, ...
Giummelly P - - 1999
The effect of antihypertensive treatment on the development of large-artery remodeling in young animals has been widely studied, but reversal of established changes in older hypertensive animals has been largely ignored, although the latter represents a better paradigm for the human condition. We studied the effect of treatment with captopril ...
Ogino K - - 1999
We determined the contributions of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT(1)) stimulation, adrenergic stimulation, and autonomic activation to pressure overload-induced c-fos expression in the adult rat heart in vivo. c-fos expression was increased in pressure-overloaded hearts created by aortic banding compared with sham-operated rats (458 +/- 100% vs. sham, P ...
Peng W D - - 1999
AIM: To study the effect of tenuifolic saponin (TS) on arterial pressure. METHODS: Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was recorded from left carotid artery in rat which was anesthetized with urethane and then injected i.v. gtt with a transfusion of NaCl 0.15 mol.L-1. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) of conscious rat and ...
Haefliger J A - - 1999
Connexin43 (Cx43), the predominant gap junction protein in vessels and heart, is involved in the control of cell-to-cell communication and is thought to modulate the contractility of the vascular wall and the electrical coupling of cardiac myocytes. We have investigated the effects of arterial hypertension induced by inhibition of nitric ...
Verma S - - 1999
The fructose-induced hypertensive rat is a widely used model to study the inter-relationship between hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance and high blood pressure. Evidence suggests that hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance may be pathogenic in the development of high blood pressure in this model. To determine the contribution of the sympathetic nervous system ...
Hügel S - - 1999
The purpose of this study was to define the dose-dependent effects of 17beta-estradiol on coronary flow and cardiac function in isolated rat hearts and to identify the mechanisms involved in its vasodilator action. Hearts from female and male Wistar rats were perfused at constant pressure (100 mm Hg). Stereoisomer specificity ...
Dobrian A - - 1999
We previously demonstrated remodeling of large and small arteries in angiotensin II-treated rats, paralleled by an increased expression of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-A chain mRNA in large arteries. Both remodeling and PDGF-A expression were associated with elevation of blood pressure rather than a direct effect of angiotensin II. To further ...
Kaide J - - 1999
The importance of increased endogenous digitalis-like factor (EDLF) in volume-expanded hypertension has been generally agreed. To further clarify the role of EDLF on the development of hypertension and renal water-sodium handling in 5/6 reduced renal mass hypertensive rats (RRM), we studied the effects of acute administration of digoxin-specific antibody Fab ...
Rahmouni K - - 1999
Brain mineralocorticoid receptors appear to contribute to mineralocorticoid hypertension and may be involved in blood pressure control in normotensive rats. We examined the effect of blockade of central mineralocorticoid receptors with the use of a selective antagonist (RU28318) on cardiovascular and renal function in conscious normotensive rats. The contribution of ...
Witte K - - 1999
TGR(mREN2)27 (TGR) rats are transgenic animals with an additional mouse renin gene, which leads to overactivity of the renin-angiotensin system. Adult TGR rats are characterized by fulminant hypertension, hypertensive end-organ damage, and an inverse circadian blood pressure pattern. To study the ontogenetic development of cardiovascular circadian rhythms, telemetric blood pressure ...
Laurant P - - 1999
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of dietary Mg deficiency (80 mg/kg versus control diet: 960 mg/kg) on blood pressure and mechanical properties of the rat common carotid artery. The internal diameter and intra-arterial pressure of carotid artery were measured continuously with an echo-tracking device. At ...
Wang J - - 1999
We tested whether ouabain, an inhibitor of the sodium pump, can lead to chronic hypertension in Long-Evans rats using sensitive 24-h measurements of blood pressure. After a control week of vehicle isotonic saline infusion (14.4 mL/day), ouabain was infused intravenously at 30 microg/kg/day in intact (2K) and uninephrectomized (1K) Long-Evans ...
Karson A B - - 1999
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) plays an important role in both central cardiovascular homeostasis and pathogenesis of epileptic seizures. Previous studies have indicated a critical role of the amygdala in the spread of seizures from brainstem to forebrain and in the regulation of autonomic responses such as blood pressure and heart rate. ...
Schinke M - - 1999
Angiotensin produced systemically or locally in tissues such as the brain plays an important role in the regulation of blood pressure and in the development of hypertension. We have established transgenic rats [TGR(ASrAOGEN)] expressing an antisense RNA against angiotensinogen mRNA specifically in the brain. In these animals, the brain angiotensinogen ...
Sitniewska E - - 1999
The present study was aimed to determine the cardiovascular effects of secretin in healthy rats and rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus. In vivo studies involved measurements of the systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate of rats given secretin at the following doses: 0.75; 1.5; 3.0 mumol/kg. In vitro, ...
Ferrari P - - 1999
A genetic alteration in the adducin genes is associated with hypertension and up-regulation of the expression of renal Na, K-ATPase in Milan-hypertensive (MHS) rats, in which increased ouabain-like factor (OLF) levels are also observed. PST 2238, a new antihypertensive compound that antagonizes the pressor effect of ouabain in vivo and ...
Cicila G T - - 1999
Interval mapping was used to identify putative quantitative trait loci (QTL) for blood pressure and cardiac mass on Chromosome (Chr) 3 in F1(S x R) x S population of 150 rats raised on an 8% NaCl diet. Two genetic markers 95.7 cM apart, D3Wox3 and D3Mco5 (tightly linked to Edn3), ...
Mangos, George Jack
Models of steroid-induced hypertension in man and rat have been well characterized but the mechanisms by which ACTH and glucocorticoids raise blood pressure are not fully understood. Recently described paracrine (eg endothelial nitric oxide) and humoral (eg PHF) factors may be important in human essential hypertension. These factors were examined ...
Mori S - - 1999
The histopathological changes in denture-supporting tissues of streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus rat were studied in relation to continuous mechanical pressure exerted through an experimental denture base. The experimental dentures were designed to load continuous mechanical pressures (3.4, 1.5 or 0.5 kPa) to the hard palate of the molar region of a ...
Hashimoto M - - 1999
Fish oils have been shown to lower blood pressure in hypertensive subjects. To determine the mechanism of this hypotensive effect, we examined the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), one of the (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish oil, on blood pressure and on the release of adenyl purines, such as ...
Törnig J - - 1999
Wall thickening of intramyocardial arteries in patients with chronic renal failure may contribute to the increased susceptibility of the uremic heart to ischemic injury. In this context, the following questions arise: (1) Is intramyocardial wall thickening in experimental renal failure due to hypertrophy, hyperplasia or both? (2) Which stimuli trigger ...
Marmarelis V Z - - 1999
This article presents results of the use of a novel methodology employing principal dynamic modes (PDM) for modeling the nonlinear dynamics of renal autoregulation in rats. The analyzed experimental data are broadband (0-0.5 Hz) blood pressure-flow data generated by pseudorandom forcing and collected in normotensive and hypertensive rats for two ...
Abete P - - 1999
Oxygen radical-mediated injury has been implicated in the process of cardiac aging. We investigated the tolerance to oxidative stress of hearts from rats of different age. Langendorff-perfused hearts from 3-12-month-old rats received a 30 min infusion of the reactive oxygen specie hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, 60 microM), followed by a 15 ...
Holemans K - - 1999
Food restriction during pregnancy in rats induces intrauterine growth retardation with consequences persisting into adulthood. In the present study we have investigated the hypothesis that malnutrition in pregnant rats may lead to altered cardiovascular function in adult female offspring. Perinatal growth retardation was induced by a 50% reduction of normal ...
Sharkey L C - - 1998
The importance of the loss of ovarian function to the progression of hypertension and heart disease in women is controversial. We investigated whether ovariectomy would accelerate development of hypertension, congestive heart failure, and neurohumoral activation in adult spontaneous hypertension heart failure (SHHF) rats, a genetic model of heart failure. Six ...
Schiffrin E L - - 1998
The endothelins (ET) are potent 21-amino-acid vasoconstrictor peptides produced in many different tissues, particularly in the endothelium of blood vessels. ET-1 is the main endothelin secreted by the endothelium, and acts in a paracrine or autocrine fashion on blood vessels by interacting with ETA or ETB receptors on smooth muscle ...
Martin D S - - 1998
Animals with bilateral cannulas in the paraventricular nucleus were made hypertensive by a one-kidney, figure eight renal wrap procedure or sham operated. Femoral artery and vein catheters were inserted for arterial pressure measurement and plasma catecholamine determination. After recovery and 4 days after hypertension surgery, bicuculline methiodide or muscimol was ...
Nakajima Y - - 1998
To gain better insights into the effect of dehydration on thermal and cardiovascular regulation during hyperthermia, we examined these regulatory responses during body heating in rats under isosmotic hypovolemia and hyperosmotic hypovolemia. Rats were divided into four groups: normovolemic and isosmotic (C), hypovolemic and isosmotic [L, plasma volume loss (DeltaPV) ...
Anderson I K - - 1998
The cardiovascular profile of the angiotensin AT1 receptor antagonist, GR138950, and the influence of potential compensatory homeostatic mechanisms on this profile, were investigated in renal artery ligated hypertensive (RALH) rats. GR138950 caused a marked reduction in blood pressure associated with immediate tachycardia in conscious RALH rats. The antihypertensive action of ...
Masilamani S - - 1998
With advancing age, there is a generalized reduction in the ability of the kidney to generate a natriuretic response and, in addition, the incidence of salt-sensitive hypertension increases. One event that could link these changes is a defect that develops in the pressure natriuresis response of the old kidney. To ...
Zimmer H G - - 1998
After a brief historical account of the methods for pressure measurements in the cardiovascular system, the basic structural elements of a new generation of miniaturized catheter pressure transducers are described. These catheters have an outside diameter at the tip of 0.9 mm (3 French) and have been routinely applied in ...
Talmor D - - 1998
Phenylephrine-induced hypertension (increase of 30-35 mm Hg for 15 min) is reported to increase cerebral perfusion pressure and collateral flow to ischemic areas of the brain in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia. In the present study, we examined whether phenylephrine-induced hypertension of similar magnitude and duration was beneficial ...
Amann K - - 1998
BACKGROUND: In view of the high rate of cardiac death in renal failure, the factors involved in the genesis of structural changes in the heart are of obvious interest. The present study addresses the issue whether growth factors known to be involved in cardiac remodelling are abnormally expressed in rats ...
Van Bergen P - - 1998
In conscious rats, gamma2-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (gamma2-MSH) dose-dependently increases blood pressure and heart rate, whereas adrenocorticotropin-(1-24) [ACTH-(1-24)] dose-dependently decreases blood pressure, an effect which was accompanied by a reflectory tachycardia. As the exact mechanism involved in these cardiovascular effects of the two melanocortins is as yet not known, we undertook a ...
Lee R J - - 1998
Atrioventricular (AV) block is a useful substrate for the study of cardiac physiology. The objective of this investigation was to develop a straightforward and reproducible model of permanent AV block in rats. Working through a sternotomy, we used an epicardial fat pad between the aortic root and the right atrial ...
Chang K C - - 1998
This study was designed to explore the changes of mechanical properties in the rat's arterial system at different ages by using the exponentially tapered T-tube model. Long-Evans male rats at the ages of 6, 12, and 18 months were anesthetized and thoractomized. Rats at the ages of 6, 12, and ...
Chang K C - - 1998
Methoxamine, a specific alpha1-selective adrenoceptor agonist, has proven to be useful in the treatment of hypotension, especially hypotension due to failure of the sympathetic nervous system. This study is to explore the vascular dynamic response to methoxamine in Wistar-Kyoto rats, based on the exponentially tapered T-tube model. The pulsatile aortic ...
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