Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 2373
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Bharucha Adil E - - 2006
Anal manometry measures circumferential pressures but not axial forces that are responsible for defecation and contribute to fecal continence. Our aims were to investigate these mechanisms by measuring axial rectoanal forces with an intrarectal sphere or a latex balloon fixed at 8, 6, or 4 cm from the anal verge ...
Pandolfino John E - - 2006
Our aim was to define normal esophagogastric junction (EGJ) morphology and relaxation characteristics using high-resolution manometry (HRM). To this end, 75 asymptomatic controls underwent HRM with a solid-state manometric assembly incorporating 36 circumferential sensors spaced at 1-cm intervals positioned to record from the hypopharynx to the stomach. Ten 5-ml water ...
Bredenoord Albert J - - 2006
BACKGROUND & AIMS: In small hiatal hernias, the size of the hernia is variable. Intermittent complete reduction can be observed with high-resolution manometry as a transition from a double-peak (hernia) to a single-peak (reduced) high-pressure zone. The aim of this study was to investigate whether intermittent separation of the diaphragm ...
Andersen I S - - 2006
We investigated the effect of efferent stimulation of the pelvic (PN), hypogastric (HGN) and pudendal (PuN) nerves on ano-rectal motility in Göttingen minipigs using an impedance planimetry probe. Changes in the rectal cross-sectional area (CSA) at five axial positions and pressures in the rectum and anal canal were investigated simultaneously. ...
Arvidsson Susanne - - 2006
Recently, a new manometric method has been proposed to quantify visceromotor responses (VMR) to colorectal distension (CRD) in rats. This method is based on monitoring pressure changes within the distending balloon during CRD. This study assesses the applicability of such a technique to the quantification of VMRs to CRD in ...
Tipnis Neelesh A - - 2006
An increase in intraesophageal pressure during transient lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxation [referred to as common cavity (CC) pressure] is thought to be a marker of gastroesophageal reflux (GER). Multiluminal impedance (MII) measurement is a sensitive marker of reflux entry into the esophagus during GER. We recorded GER using esophageal ...
Gentilcore, Diana
This thesis presents studies relating to the role of the gastrointestinal tract in postprandial blood pressure regulation. The areas that have been addressed include : ( i ) the methodological approaches to the evaluation of gastric emptying, blood pressure, splanchnic blood flow, intraluminal manometry and gut hormones and ( ii ...
Andrade C G - - 2006
Due to the introduction of computer technology into manometry laboratories, three-dimensional manometric images of the lower esophageal sphincter can be constructed based on radially oriented pressures, a method termed 'computerized axial manometry.' Calculation of the sphincter pressure vector volume using this method is superior to standard manometric techniques in assessing ...
Lohsiriwat S - - 2006
Caffeine affects many aspects of body function including the gastrointestinal system. A single-blinded experimental study was performed to evaluate the effect of caffeine on lower esophageal sphincter (LES) and esophageal peristaltic contractions in healthy Thai adults. The volunteers were six men and six women aged 19-31 years. Subjects drank 100 ...
Massey Benson T - - 2006
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation is the main mechanism for gastroesophageal reflux. Although there is evidence that transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations are neurally mediated, another school of thought is that transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations result from gastric distention, which shortens the sphincter to the point ...
Hogan Jennifer A - - 2006
Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common cause of chronic cough. However, a low-cost diagnostic tool for linking GERD and cough in a cause and effect relationship is still lacking. In the present study, an intra-esophageal cough detection probe that comprises a miniature white-light interferometric fiber optic pressure sensor is ...
Fritscher-Ravens Annette - - 2006
Endoluminal operations for reflux are currently limited by the inability to visualise and manipulate structures outside the wall of the gut. This may be possible using endoscopic ultrasound (EUS). The aim of this study was to define EUS-anatomy of structures outside the gut which influence reflux; to place stitches in ...
Korcek J - - 2006
Authors operated on their Surgical departement 67 years old women with incomplete evacuation, and digital support during defecation, giant rectocele and massive vaginal vault prolaps. Authors realized cinedefecography and detected giant rectocele, depth was 8 cm, anorectal angle was 120 degrees. They stated Resting pressure 40 cm H2O, and Maximum ...
Shafik Ahmed - - 2006
HYPOTHESIS: At mass contraction of the descending colon, the colonic contents stop at the sigmoid colon (SC) and do not pass directly to the rectum. We investigated the hypothesis that a continent mechanism seems to exist at the rectosigmoidal junction (RSJ), preventing the direct passage of stools from the descending ...
Shafik Ahmed - - 2006
Current evidence suggests that there are three sphincters that regulate the flow of chyme from stomach to the duodenum. We investigated the hypothesis whether a fourth 'physiologic sphincter' exists at the duodeno-jejunal junction. The pressure response of the jejunum, duodeno-jejunal junction and duodenum to individual balloon distension of the jejunum ...
de Jong J R - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Alterations in esophageal motility may occur after placement of an adjustable gastric band as treatment for morbid obesity, near the gastro-esophageal junction. It causes an outlet obstruction, especially during follow-up after the band is filled. METHODS: 29 morbidly obese patients underwent conventional manometry preoperatively, 6 weeks postoperatively before and ...
Zimmerli E J - - 2006
Bulimia nervosa (BN) is a psychiatric illness characterized by eating binges followed by inappropriate behavioral attempts to compensate for the binges, usually vomiting or laxative abuse. Patients with BN have disturbances in the development of satiety during a meal as well as disturbances in functions of the upper gastrointestinal tract ...
Scheffer Robert C H - - 2005
BACKGROUND & AIMS: This study was conducted to explore the role of proximal gastric volume and transsphincteric pressure on acid reflux during transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation (TLESR) in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) both before and after laparoscopic fundoplication. METHODS: Twenty GERD patients were studied before and after ...
Cremonini F - - 2005
We assessed reproducibility of measurements of rectal compliance and sensation in health in studies conducted at two centres. We estimated samples size necessary to show clinically meaningful changes in future studies. We performed rectal barostat tests three times (day 1, day 1 after 4 h and 14-17 days later) in ...
Moschos John - - 2005
AIM: To investigate the relationship between Helicobacter pylori and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease according to manometric and pHmetric findings. METHOD: Fifty-nine consecutive patients with reflux symptoms and endoscopic evidence of mild oesophagitis, were recruited. Manometry and ambulatory pHmetry were performed in all patients, as well as the 3-hour postprandial pHmetry, as ...
Nisar P J - - 2005
BACKGROUND: This study examined the effect of a single local application of L-erythro methoxamine, an alpha(1)-adrenoceptor agonist, on mean anal resting pressure (MARP) and cardiovascular variables in healthy volunteers. METHODS: L-Erythro methoxamine gel was administered in a single-blind manner; 0.3-3 per cent gels were applied perianally (n = 12), 1-3 ...
Gregersen H - - 2006
The aims of this study were to evaluate gastric antral mechanical behavior and distension-induced sensorimotor responses in the human gastric antrum using transabdominal ultrasound scanning. Ten healthy volunteers underwent volume-controlled ramp inflation of a bag located in the antrum with volumes up to 125 ml. The active and passive circumferential ...
Huckabee Maggie-Lee - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of 2 swallowing maneuvers on anterior suprahyoid surface electromyographic measurement and pharyngeal manometric pressure. DESIGN: Correlational analysis of biomechanic measures of swallowing. SETTING: Research laboratory in a community hospital. PARTICIPANTS: A consecutive volunteer sample of 22 healthy subjects (mean, 29.7y). INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME ...
AteĊŸ Oguz - - 2005
Although there are many studies evaluating the effect of elevated gastric pressure in total wrap and partial anterior and posterior wrap fundoplications, there are no ex vivo manometric studies evaluating the contribution of elevated gastric pressure to prevention of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) in Collis and uncut Collis procedures without fundoplication. ...
Alper Dan - - 2005
PURPOSE: The role of high anal pressure in the pathophysiology of hemorrhoids and anal fissures is debated. We compared resting anal pressures following left lateral sphincterotomy and hemorrhoidectomy in a prospective manometric study with emphasis on the recovery of the internal anal sphincter activity. METHODS: Included in the study were ...
Lefebvre Romain A - - 2005
Selective neuronal NOS (nNOS) inhibitors have been developed for possible application in cerebral ischemia and neurodegenerative disorders. To investigate the degree of interference with peripheral nNOS, the influence of the selective nNOS inhibitor ARL 17477 was studied on electrically induced nitrergic relaxations in pig gastric fundus strips and on gastric ...
Rice Thomas W - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Myotomy for achalasia disrupts the lower esophageal sphincter, improving emptying at the expense of reflux. We hypothesized that surgical palliation of achalasia requires balancing desirable improvement in esophageal emptying with undesirable production of gastroesophageal reflux. Therefore, we objectively studied the physiologic effects of adding Dor fundoplication to Heller myotomy. ...
Dobben Annette C - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Physiotherapy is a common treatment option in patients with fecal incontinence. Although physiotherapy may result in relief of symptoms, to what extent improvement is associated with changes in anorectal function is still unclear. AIM: The aim of the present study was to investigate prospectively how anorectal function changes with ...
Gourcerol Guillaume - - 2005
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the glottis constriction response induced by a sudden and involuntary increase in gastric and oesophageal pressures by Tll-Ll intervertebral magnetic stimulation of the abdominal muscle roots in nine healthy subjects. Twitch flow, twitch gastric, and oesophageal pressures were measured after abdominal muscle ...
Xing J H - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Treatment of obese patients with the implantable gastric stimulator (IGS) was reported to improve reflux symptoms, independent of weight loss. We evaluated the effect of gastric electrical stimulation on LES pressure in conscious dogs. METHODS: 8 dogs were studied. GES with three sets of parameters was randomly applied via ...
Ferens D M - - 2005
We have used spatio-temporal maps derived from video images to investigate propagated contractions of the rat small intestine in vivo. The abdomen, including an exteriorized segment of jejunum, was housed in a humid chamber with a viewing window. Video records were converted to spatio-temporal maps of jejunal diameter changes. Intraluminal ...
Thornton M J - - 2005
PURPOSE: This study was designed to investigate the effect of extracorporeal magnetic stimulation on anorectal function and physiology. METHODS: A pilot study comparing the physiology of ten incontinent (9 females) and five continent (4 females) patients with and without perineal magnetic stimulation (10 Hz and 50 Hz) was performed. The ...
Mariano Edward R - - 2005
A neonate with VACTERL association including tricuspid atresia was scheduled for thoracoscopic esophageal atresia with tracheoesophageal fistula (EA/TEF) repair and laparoscopic gastrostomy tube placement. In addition to standard noninvasive monitoring, arterial blood pressure, central venous pressure, and cerebral oxygen saturation were monitored. Gastric distension resulting from positive pressure ventilation prevented ...
Alonso Oscar - - 2005
The study goal was to ascertain the true value of lower esophageal sphincter measurement in order to establish the risk of presenting gastroesophageal reflux or Barrett's esophagus. Of 671 patients assessed for symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux, 459 were included in a prospective study, practicing esophagogastroscopy, esophageal manometry, and 24-hour pH-metry. ...
Mercado U - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To assess the metoclopramide response in patients with early diffuse systemic sclerosis (dSSc) and the acute effects of intravenous (IV) metoclopramide on the lower esophageal sphincter (LES). METHODS: Twenty-one patients with early dSSc (mean age 41.4 +/- 9.8 yrs., mean disease duration 2.47 +/- 0.75 yrs.) were prospectively evaluated. ...
Carmagnola Stefania - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: To assess the role of tension receptors in gastric perception by pharmacologically modifying gastric contractile activity during isovolumetric distensions of the proximal stomach with the hypothesis that relaxation decreased perception and contraction increased it. METHODS: Fourteen healthy subjects underwent two 30-min isovolumetric (75% of the threshold volume for discomfort) ...
Shafik Ahmed - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: The cause of lower esophageal sphincter incompetence in gastroesophageal reflux disease is not clearly understood. We investigated the hypothesis that the esophagogastric junction incompetence results from failure of the gastric distention to produce the lower esophageal sphincter and crural diaphragm contraction caused by a disordered reflex action. METHODS: The ...
Montazeri G - - 2005
BACKGROUND: The non-invasive assessment of primary achalasia is not precise. AIM: To compare investigations before and 1 month after balloon dilation in achalasia. METHODS: Fifty-two patients with primary achalasia were enrolled. Subjective and objective variables of oesophageal functions were analysed before and 1 month after balloon dilation. RESULTS: The mean ...
Uriona T J - - 2005
Esophageal structure and function were studied in juvenile American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis). The anatomy of alligators differs from humans in several important aspects: the crocodilian esophagus is more muscular and is composed entirely of smooth muscle. Functionally, the crocodilian esophagus is similar to that of mammals, but alligators have peak ...
Prott G - - 2005
There are conflicting recommendations from consensus groups with regard to the assessment of resting anal sphincter pressure. Our aims were to evaluate and compare the performance of three recognized techniques for the clinical measurement of resting anal sphincter pressure. METHODS: In each of 54 patients presenting for anorectal manometry, and ...
Xing Jinhong - - 2005
This study determined the effect of low-frequency and high-frequency gastric electrical stimulation (GES) on canine lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure and also evaluated the effect of such stimulation on neurohumoral factors that modulate LES pressure. Eight dogs were fitted with stimulation wires along the greater curvature of the stomach. A ...
Tammpere Anna - - 2005
Recordings of electromyographic (EMG) activity in the abdominal musculature are generally used to quantify the pseudo-affective visceromotor response induced by colorectal distension (CRD) in rodents. The present study describes a non-invasive, manometric method to quantify the magnitude of the abdominal contractions evoked by CRD. CRD-induced increases in EMG activity in ...
Jeske Hans-Christian - - 2005
There is controversy regarding optimal body positioning (i.e., head-up, head-down) in awake nonfasting individuals to minimize the risk for pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents as the result of gastroesophageal reflux (GER). In the present study, we investigated GER and intragastric-esophageal barrier pressure by means of multichannel intraluminal impedance measurement and ...
Gabrielli Francesco - - 2005
Minor anorectal diseases affect 4-5% of the adult western population. Operations are performed on an ambulatory or 24-hour-stay basis. The aim of our study was to assess the physiology of anal sphincter relaxation by anal manometry after posterior perineal block during haemorrhoidectomy. We recruited 15 patients with third and fourth ...
Pandolfino John E - - 2005
To study the mechanical characteristics of the esophagogastric junction (EGJ) of postfundoplication patients and compare them with previously reported data on normal subjects and GERD patients. Eight normal subjects, 9 GERD patients, and 8 fundoplication patients were studied with concurrent manometry, fluoroscopy, and stepwise controlled barostat distention of the EGJ. ...
Liang Hualou - - 2005
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is one of the most prevalent gastrointestinal diseases. It is characterized by excessive reflux of gastric content (acid, pepsin, etc.) into the esophagus causing symptoms (heartburn, acid regurgitation, etc.) and mucosal inflammation and injuries. GERD occurs when the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) has a low resting ...
Phua S Y - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Laryngopharyngeal sensitivity (LPS) is important in preventing pulmonary aspiration and may be impaired by anaesthesia and stroke. It has been suggested that gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) may also impair LPS, although the underlying mechanism is unclear. The aim of this study was to compare LPS in patients with chronic ...
Thornton M J - - 2005
INTRODUCTION: The duration of physiologic action of topical glyceryl trinitrate in the management of anal fissure has been the source of some controversy. This study was designed to assess the manometric effect of glyceryl trinitrate on internal sphincter resting tone with continuous monitoring. METHODS: Twenty-seven patients with a chronic anal ...
Römer M - - 2005
Gastric distension causes cardiovascular reactions and enhances gastric compliance. Here, we investigated how these responses are related to each other, whether they change upon repeated distension and which neural mechanisms are involved. Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) in phenobarbital-anaesthetized rats was recorded from a carotid artery and gastric compliance determined ...
Tutuian R - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Current oesophageal manometry systems use either water-perfused or solid-state pressure transducers. Recently developed single-use disposable catheters use small balloons prefilled with air that transmit the pressure of oesophageal contractions to external transducers. AIM: To compare data obtained from single-use disposable balloon catheters to data from solid-state systems. METHODS: Healthy ...
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