Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 2374
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Cantù P - - 2008
Few data exist on the effect of upper gut stimuli on the cardiovascular system. Aim of our study was to evaluate the cardiovascular effects of gastric intubation and distension. Eleven healthy subjects (eight men, aged 21-30 years) were studied and a non-invasive beat-to-beat cardiovascular monitoring system was used. After 15-min ...
Andersen Inge S - - 2007
PURPOSE: Manometry and pressure-volume measurements are commonly used to study anorectal physiology. However, the methods are limited by several sources of error. Recently, a new impedance planimetric system has been introduced in a porcine model. It allows simultaneous determination of anorectal pressures and multiple rectal luminal cross-sectional areas. This study ...
Chuah Seng-Kee - - 2007
BACKGROUND AND AIM: There are limited reports on esophageal motility pressures in aged patients with achalasia and these are inconclusive. The aim of the present retrospective study was to understand the changes of esophageal motility in aged achalasia patients among the Taiwan population. METHODS: Manometric studies of 49 patients with ...
Niedringhaus Mark - - 2008
The sphincter mechanism at the esophagogastric junction includes smooth muscle of the lower esophagus and skeletal muscle of the crural diaphragm (CD). Smooth muscle is known to be under the control of the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV), while central nervous system (CNS) control of the CD is ...
van den Berg M M - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: A subgroup of children with functional constipation (FC) are unresponsive to conventional treatment. Abnormal rectal function due to increased distensibility (compliance) might be an underlying mechanism of therapy-resistant FC. It is hypothesised that rectal compliance is normal in patients who are successfully recovered from FC (RC). METHODS: Using a ...
Titi M A - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Female faecal incontinence (FI) is largely because of sphincter injury at childbirth. Sphincter assessment aims to identify surgically correctable defects. We aimed to identify endoanal ultrasonography (EAUS) parameters that correlate with sphincter function. METHOD: One hundred females with FI and 28 healthy asymptomatic females were prospectively assessed. Wexner FI ...
Shafik Ahmed - - 2007
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The effect of ileal distension on the jejunal motor activity and ofjejunal distension on the ileal motility have been poorly addressed in the literature. We investigated the hypothesis that distension of either ileum or jejunum would affect the motile activity of the other. METHODOLOGY: Response of jejunal pressure to ...
Shafik Ahmed - - 2007
BACKGROUND: How afferent activity in the gut achieves the required ingestion control has not been established. The authors hypothesized that gastric overdistension effects an increase in pharyngo-esophageal and lower esophageal sphincter activity aimed at inhibiting ingestion. MATERIAL/METHODS: The study comprised 16 mongrel dogs. Under anesthesia, one balloon-tipped catheter was placed ...
Hosseini Seyed Vahid - - 2007
Anal canal dilatation and sphincterotomy have been recommended besides hemorrhoidectomy to overcome the anal pressures in the management of hemorrhoids. The aim of this study to compare internal sphincterotomy and hemorrhoidectomy with hemorrhoidectomy alone with respect to manometric and clinical measures. One hundred twenty patients with hemorrhoids were randomly assigned ...
Pandolfino John E - - 2008
AIM: This study aimed to devise a scheme for the systematic analysis of esophageal high-resolution manometry (HRM) studies displayed using topographic plotting. METHODS: A total of 400 patients and 75 control subjects were studied with a 36-channel HRM assembly. Studies were analyzed in a stepwise fashion for: (a) the adequacy ...
Fox M R - - 2008
Manometry measures pressure within the oesophageal lumen and sphincters, and provides an assessment of the neuromuscular activity that dictates function in health and disease. It is performed to investigate the cause of functional dysphagia, unexplained "non-cardiac" chest pain, and in the pre-operative work-up of patients referred for anti-reflux surgery. Manometric ...
Ghosh Sudip K - - 2007
Successful esophageal emptying depends on the generation of a sustained intrabolus pressure (IBP) sufficient to overcome esophagogastric junction (EGJ) obstruction. Our aim was to develop a manometric analysis paradigm that describes the bolus driving pressure difference and the flow permissive time for esophageal bolus transit. Twenty normal subjects were studied ...
Emblem Ragnhild - - 2007
AIM: This study aimed to develop and evaluate a scoring system for anal endosonography to assess anal canal structures after repair of anorectal malformations (ARM). METHODS: Forty patients with ARM aged 16 years (range, 1-22 years) and 20 controls aged 17 years (range, 0.5-20 years) were examined. Anal function was ...
Miller Larry - - 2007
The use of high-frequency ultrasound transducers combined with manometry in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract has yielded important findings concerning the anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology of the high-pressure zone of the gastroesophageal junction and the sphincteric muscles within. These transducers have made previously invisible portions of the GI tract accessible to ...
de Godoy Márcio A F - - 2007
The role of phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) in the genesis of basal tone in the internal anal sphincter (IAS) is not known. We determined the effects of PLA(2) and inhibitors on the basal tone and intraluminal pressures (IASP) in the rat IAS vs. rectal smooth muscles (RSM). In addition, we determined ...
Pandolfino John E - - 2007
AIM: This study aimed to localize the gastric-to-esophageal pH transition point relative to the squamocolumnar junction (SCJ) and esophagogastric junction (EGJ) high-pressure zone in controls and GERD patients. METHODS: Ten controls and 10 GERD patients were studied. Subjects had an endoclip placed at the SCJ prior to a pH catheter ...
Shafik Ahmed - - 2007
AIM: To investigate the hypothesis that duodeno-jejunal dyssynergia existed at the duodeno-jejunal junction. METHODS: Of 112 patients who complained of epigastric distension and discomfort after meals, we encountered nine patients in whom the duodeno-jejunal junction did not open on duodenal contraction. Seven healthy volunteers were included in the study. A ...
Lundin E - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis for slow transit constipation (STC) is being challenged by other operations, such as segmental resections. The importance of preoperative anorectal physiology testing may therefore be increased. The aim of this study was to identify anorectal abnormalities in patients with STC, which may influence the surgical ...
Jenkins J T - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: The pathogenesis of chronic anal fissure (CAF) remains incompletely understood but most are associated with a high resting anal pressure and reduced perfusion at the fissure site. To date, no major distinction has been made between anterior and posterior anal fissures and their aetiology and treatment. We compared anterior ...
Chen Chien-Lin - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Combined multichannel intraluminal impedance and manometry (MII-EM) allow simultaneous measurement of both pressure and bolus transit. The aim of this study was to establish normative data in Chinese subjects for combined MII-EM and to correlate liquid and viscous bolus transit by impedance with esophageal contractions by manometry. METHODS: Eighteen ...
Varadarajulu Shyam - - 2008
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Performance of sphincter of Oddi manometry (SOM) at endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatogram (ERCP) is technically demanding and requires that the patient be well sedated. Droperidol is used as an adjunctive agent in patients who are difficult to sedate. Concerns regarding the safety profile of droperidol and its effects ...
Storkholm Jan Henrik - - 2008
Partial obstruction of the small intestine results in dysmotility and morphometric changes proximal to the site of obstruction. However, our understanding of the relation between the morphometric remodeling and change in the motility pattern during chronic obstruction is sparse. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ...
Mainie Inder - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Achalasia and scleroderma are esophageal motility abnormalities characterized by severely impaired bolus transit. Combined multichannel intraluminal impedance and manometry (MII-EM) enables the simultaneous measurement of intraesophageal pressures and bolus transit at various levels within the esophagus. AIM: The aim of the study was to evaluate and characterize regional pressure ...
Tjandra J J - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Some haemorrhoids are associated with high resting anal canal pressures. The aim of this study was to assess if Rectogesic, a topical glyceryl trinitrate 0.2% ointment was effective in relieving symptoms of early grade haemorrhoids associated with high resting anal canal pressures. METHOD: This was a prospective, two-centre, open ...
Yeginsu Ali - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of esophagotomy closure techniques on the esophageal bursting pressure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Altogether, 122 freshly dead sheep esophagi received from the local slaughterhouse were prepared for manual closure. After esophagotomy, the specimens were divided into four groups. An interrupted ...
Shafik Ahmed - - 2007
AIM: To investigate the hypothesis that duodenal bulb (DB) inhibition on pyloric antrum (PA) contraction is reflex. METHODS: Balloon (condom)-tipped tube was introduced into 1(st) duodenum (DD) and a manometric tube into each of PA and DD. Duodenal and antral pressure response to duodenal and then PA balloon distension with ...
Pascual Marta - - 2008
Nearly all chronic anal fissures occur in the posterior midline of the anal canal. However, some of them are in the anterior midline and are rarely double or in the lateral anal walls. The aim of this study was to determine if the clinical, manometric and endosonographic characteristics in patients ...
Myers J C - - 2007
Purpose Distal oesophageal ramp pressure upon swallowing results from resistance from the oesophago-gastric junction below and pressure from above (peristaltic wave) with pressure build-up in the distal oesophagus. Ramps are observed during manometry, but the factors which influence the magnitude of ramp pressure have not been elucidated. This study aims ...
Gooneratne Mayoni L - - 2007
PURPOSE: Pudendal neuropathy and fecal incontinence frequently coexist; however, the contribution of neuropathy is unknown. The pudendal nerve innervates the external anal sphincter muscle, anal canal skin, and coordinates reflex pathways. Lateral dominance or a dominantly innervating nerve and its subsequent damage may have major implications in the etiology and ...
Li W G - - 2007
This paper studies two one-dimensional models to estimate the pressure drop in the normal human biliary system for Reynolds number up to 20. Excessive pressure drop during bile emptying and refilling may result in incomplete bile emptying, leading to stasis and subsequent formation of gallbladder stones. The models were developed ...
Lindén Mats - - 2007
In patients with dysphagia and radiologic signs of dysfunction of the upper esophageal sphincter (UES), manometry is helpful in giving a better understanding of muscular activity during swallowing. Traditional manometric methods include use of perfusion catheters or solid-state intraluminal strain gauges. The rapid and asymmetric pressure variations in the UES ...
Jones Michael P - - 2007
INTRODUCTION: High-resolution manometry (HRM) combined with novel interpretive software allows for the interpolation of manometric recordings into highly detailed topographical plots of intraluminal pressure events relative to time and location. To date, HRM has been used primarily in the study of esophageal disorders and has been shown to provide greater ...
Hammer J - - 2007
Intraluminal capsaicin induces perception in the jejunum, but chemosensitivity of proximal gastrointestinal regions is unclear. Our aim was to evaluate the quality of perception induced by intraluminal capsaicin in different regions of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Healthy volunteers received either an oral tube for distension and capsaicin perfusion of the ...
Frenz Markus B - - 2007
Perfusion manometry of the sphincter of Oddi has been the standard for the investigation of patients with presumed sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD). Microtransducer manometry (MTM) of the sphincter of Oddi represents an alternative to perfusion manometry. The technical success and reproducibility of MTM are as good as for perfusion ...
Senel Emrah - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Fecal incontinence is a common problem after reconstructive surgery for anorectal malformations. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of clinical scores and anorectal manometry in patients, who have been operated on for anorectal malformations. METHODS: In total, 18 patients who underwent surgery for anorectal malformation ...
Esfandyari Tuba - - 2007
Cannabinoid receptors (CBR) are located on cholinergic neurons in the brain stem, stomach, and colon. CBR stimulation inhibits motility in rodents. Effects in humans are unclear. Dronabinol (DRO), a nonselective CBR agonist, inhibits colonic motility and sensation. The aim of this study was to compare effects of DRO and placebo ...
Pilichiewicz Amelia N - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: The herbal preparation Iberogast has been reported to improve upper abdominal symptoms in functional dyspepsia (FD) and to decrease fundic tone, increase antral contractility, and decrease afferent nerve sensitivity in experimental animals. The effects of Iberogast on the human gastrointestinal tract have not been evaluated. METHODS: We investigated the ...
Yang Wei - - 2007
The peristaltic transport of swallowed material in the esophagus is a neuro-muscular function involving the nerve control, bolus-structure interaction, and structure-mechanics relationship of the tissue. In this study, a finite element model (FEM) was developed to simulate food transport through the esophagus. The FEM consists of three components, i.e., tissue, ...
Pandolfino J E - - 2007
Transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations (tLOSRs) are both a dominant mechanism of reflux and an element of the belch reflex. This study aimed to analyse the interplay between reflux and upper oesophageal sphincter (UOS) activity during meal-induced tLOSRs. Fifteen normal subjects were studied with a solid-state high-resolution manometry assembly positioned ...
Desipio J - - 2007
Manometric recording from the pyloric channel is challenging and is usually performed with a sleeve device. Recently, a solid-state manometry system was developed, which incorporates 36 circumferential pressure sensors spaced at 1-cm intervals. Our aim was to use this system to determine whether it provided useful manometric measurements of the ...
Pandolfino John E - - 2007
AIM: High-resolution manometry (HRM) provides a spatially enhanced, dynamic representation of the esophagogastric junction (EGJ) high-pressure zone making it possible to isolate the crural diaphragm (CD) contraction from expiratory lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure. This study compared CD function of subjects with and without gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). METHODS: A ...
Toyonaga Takayuki - - 2007
PURPOSE: This study compared the clinical and physiological results of non-sphincter splitting fistulectomy (N-SSF) with those of sphincter splitting fistulotomy (SSF) for treatment of high trans-sphincteric fistula-in-ano. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective, observational study was undertaken in 70 consecutive patients with high trans-sphincteric fistula treated by SSF (n = 35) ...
Dent John - - 2007
This article reviews and places into context the development of lower oesophageal sphincter (LOS) manometry, the key technique for researching the mechanics of this region. The first of two major challenges, being able to record sphincter pressure accurately with generally available equipment, was solved by the advent of perfused manometry ...
Günal Omer - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Anal manometry is a useful tool for testing the effectiveness of surgical treatment. However, most techniques for anal pressure measurement are not easily available because of high cost. The aim of the present study was to introduce an easy and reproducible method for measuring anal pressures in testing the ...
Sato Yasunori - - 2007
Gabexate mesilate (GM) relaxes the papilla of Vater in addition to inhibiting the several proteases. We evaluated whether prophylactic administration of GM would prevent the occurrence of acute pancreatitis in endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD). Nineteen patients with common bile duct stones were separated into two groups according to the ...
Andersson M - - 2007
PURPOSE: To describe timed barium esophagogram (TBE) characteristics in patients with newly diagnosed idiopathic achalasia, and to correlate these with clinical and manometric variables. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty-six consecutive patients with newly diagnosed achalasia were examined with TBE. Esophageal emptying was assessed using the height, area, and volume of the ...
Messina M - - 2007
AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the anal manometric changes and the clinical effects after topical application of isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) in patients with persistent constipation after pull-through surgery for Hirschsprung's disease (HD). METHODS: We studied 3 children (2 males and 1 female), aged 2, 3 and ...
Toyonaga Takayuki - - 2007
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: This study was undertaken to determine the incidence of and risk factors for anal incontinence after fistulotomy for intersphincteric fistula-in-ano. We also evaluated the role of anal manometry in preoperative assessment of intersphincteric fistula. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective, observational study was undertaken in 148 patients who ...
Shepherd Kelly L - - 2007
The lower esophageal sphincter (LES) is the primary barrier to gastroesophageal reflux. Reflux is associated with periods of LES relaxation, as occurs during swallowing. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has been shown to reduce reflux in individuals with and without sleep apnea, by an unknown mechanism. The aim of this ...
Karpefors M - - 2007
Controlled distension of hollow organs is an accepted technique for generating reproducible visceral stimuli. We have constructed a new, flexible and intelligent distension system in which discomfort, pain and autonomic responses are recorded online. These responses can be fed back into the system in a regulatory loop and be used ...
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