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Bjarnason Thordur - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Topical negative pressure (TNP) therapy is increasingly used in open abdomen management. It is not known to what extent this pressure propagates through the dressing to the bowel surface, potentially increasing the risk of bowel fistula formation. The present study in a porcine model was designed to evaluate pressure ...
Holdiness Amber - - 2011
Our understanding of the complexities and inter-related pathways of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system continues to evolve. Which drugs to use, when, and how, are everyday questions faced by clinicians in the ambulatory setting. Combining these classes, for the purpose of enhancing renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade and incremental blood pressure, nephroprotective, and cardioprotective ...
Ziegler Michael G - - 2011
Patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) often have hypertension that is difficult to control. We review the causes of OSA hypertension and evidence supporting specific therapies. Sleep apnea commonly accompanies the metabolic syndrome and renal insufficiency. Apneas stimulate atrial natriuretic peptide release and sympathetic nerve activity, which persists throughout the ...
Brenner R - - 2011
Despite a broad and efficient pharmacological antihypertensive armamentarium, blood pressure (BP) control is suboptimal and heterogeneous throughout Europe. Recent representative data from Switzerland are limited. The goal of the present survey was therefore to assess the actual control rate of high BP in Switzerland in accordance with current guidelines. The ...
Campese Vito M - - 2011
Hypertension in chronic renal disease and renovascular disease is often resistant to therapy. Understanding the pathogenic mechanisms responsible for hypertension in these conditions may lead to improved and more targeted therapeutic interventions. Several factors have been implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension associated with renal disease and/or renal failure. Although ...
Khawaja Z - - 2011
Resistant hypertension is a failure to achieve goal BP (<140/90 mm Hg for the overall population and <130/80 mm Hg for those with diabetes mellitus or chronic kidney disease) in a patient who adheres to maximum tolerated doses of 3 antihypertensive drugs including a diuretic. The kidneys play a critical role in long-term regulation ...
Peeters Andrea - - 2011
To assess the impact of 2 strategies for initiating therapy in ocular hypertension (OH) on drug use, intraocular pressure (IOP), and blindness caused by glaucoma. Using a simulation model, initiating therapy with timolol (strategy 1) and with latanoprost (strategy 2) was simulated for a hypothetic cohort of ocular hypertension patients ...
Nijjar Vikram S - - 2011
A 58-year-old woman with a past medical history significant for tobacco use presented with shortness of breath. Physical examination revealed a 30 mm Hg difference in upper-extremity blood pressures (right arm greater than left), elevated jugular venous pressure, and leg edema. A two-dimensional echocardiogram revealed an ejection fraction of 20%. ...
Lacour Stéphanie P SP University of Cambridge, Cambridge UK. - - 2011
We have developed two fundamental components to manufacture a prosthetic skin: a stretchable pressure sensor formed of piezoelectric elastomer/ferroelectret multilayer sandwiched between stretchable electrodes and stretchable thin-film transistors. The components are prepared and embedded in silicone rubber, a polymer, which mimics the mechanical compliance of human skin. We demonstrate the ...
Thalheimer Ulrich - - 2011
Portal hypertension (PH) is a severe complication of liver cirrhosis. Measurement of the degree of portal hypertension is usually performed by measuring the hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) which is the difference between the free hepatic venous pressure (FHVP) and the wedged hepatic venous pressure (WHPG). The HVPG accurately reflects ...
Brown Angela - - 2010
The purpose of this report is to review available and emerging antihypertensive treatment options in light of current guidelines and evidence from large clinical trials. The published literature was reviewed for evidence regarding first-line options for antihypertensive agents, including thiazide-type diuretics, as monotherapy or as part of combination therapy. Current ...
Brugts Jasper J - - 2010
AIMS: To investigate whether genetic variation in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and kallikrein-bradykinin pathways is related to hypertension and blood pressure (BP) response to angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor therapy in stable coronary artery disease (CAD) patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 8907 stable CAD patients from the EUROPA trial, 52 haplotype-tagging ...
Humpl Tilman - - 2011
OBJECTIVES: We hypothesised that sildenafil would improve hemodynamics in children with pulmonary hypertension and attenuate rebound pulmonary hypertension after inhaled nitric oxide withdrawal.Patients and methodsWe undertook an open-label, single-drug study of sildenafil in patients under 5 years of age with either symptomatic or rebound pulmonary hypertension following inhaled nitric oxide ...
Kato Johji - - 2011
The blood pressure goals set for the treatment of hypertensive patients have been lowered in recent guidelines. To reduce blood pressure levels sufficiently, combination therapies are often needed, but there is little evidence about which combination should be chosen. The present study was carried out to compare the effects of ...
Dinning P G - - 2010
The morphology, motor responses and spatiotemporal organization among colonic propagating sequences (PS) have never been defined throughout the entire colon of patients with slow transit constipation (STC). Utilizing the technique of spatiotemporal mapping, we aimed to demonstrate 'manometric signatures' that may serve as biomarkers of the disorder. In 14 female ...
Barrios Vivencio V Department of Cardiology, University Hospital Ramón y Cajal, Madrid, Spain. - - 2010
Benazepril is a nonsulfhydryl ACE inhibitor with favorable pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, well-established antihypertensive effects and a good tolerability profile. Recent clinical studies have demonstrated that patients treated with benazepril alone or in combination with hydrochlorothiazide or amlodipine may achieve beneficial renal outcomes that extend beyond blood pressure control. Furthermore, ...
Yalçin F - - 2011
Excessive sympathetic activity and stress-induced left ventricular (LV) hypercontractility have been described in hypertensive LV hypertrophy. Recent quantitative data have shown that hypertensive LV hypertrophy is associated with preserved global LV function. However, progression of uncontrolled hypertension have detrimental effects on both the ejection fraction (EF) and LV contractile response ...
Frank Peacock W W - - 2011
Acute and severe hypertension is common, especially in patients with renal dysfunction (RD). Clevidipine is a rapidly acting (t½∼1 min) intravenous (IV) dihydropyridine calcium-channel blocker metabolized by blood and tissue esterases and may be useful in patients with RD. The purpose of this analysis was to assess the safety and ...
Tursi Tammy - - 2010
The purpose of this article is to educate nurse practitioners about the pathophysiology surrounding the development of portal hypertension and the effective use of nonselective ß-blockers to prevent primary bleeding and decrease the mortality risk. The articles included were retrieved via ISI Web of Science using the years 2004-2009 and ...
Mulak Agata - - 2010
To evaluate anorectal function and rectal sensitivity thresholds in patients with celiac disease (CD). In 25 unselected patients with CD (16 female, 9 male; mean age 45, range 24 to 75 y) and 20 controls (12 female, 8 male; mean age 41, range 20 to 65 y) anorectal manometry and ...
Engbaek Mette - - 2010
Our objective was to estimate the effect of addition of low-dose spironolactone to previous antihypertensive therapy in patients with resistant hypertension. Patients had 25 to 50 mg of spironolactone once daily added to the treatment of hypertension that was uncontrolled despite previous treatment with three classes of antihypertensive drugs. The ...
Tack J - - 2011
Abnormalities in gastric sensorimotor function (hypersensitivity to distention and impaired meal accommodation) have been implicated in the pathophysiology of functional dyspepsia (FD). To study the effect of the 5-HT(4) agonist tegaserod on sensitivity to gastric distention and gastric accommodation in FD. Thirty FD patients (7 males, mean age 42 ± ...
Roman Sabine S Department of Medicine, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois 60611-2951, USA. - - 2011
A defining feature of peristalsis is propagation velocity, which determines the timing of the distal contraction relative to the swallow. This study aimed to exploit a coordinate-based strategy to quantify the normal latency of the distal esophageal contraction as a measure of propagation velocity optimized for high-resolution esophageal pressure topography ...
Herbella F A M - - 2011
An unbuffered postprandial proximal gastric acid pocket (PPGAP) has been demonstrated in normal individuals (NI) and patients with gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). The role of gastric anatomy and gastric motility in the physiology of the PPGAP remains elusive. This study aims to analyze the correlation of PPGAP with proximal gastric ...
Smeenk Robert Jan - - 2012
To explore the influence of functional changes and dosimetric parameters on specific incontinence-related anorectal complaints after prostate external beam radiotherapy and to estimate dose-effect relations for the anal wall and rectal wall. Sixty patients, irradiated for localized prostate cancer, underwent anorectal manometry and barostat measurements to evaluate anal pressures, rectal ...
Roman Sabine S Department of Medicine, The Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois 60611-2951, - - 2011
Esophageal manometry is frequently used to assess for weak peristalsis. Although commonly used clinically, there are currently no validated metrics of weak peristalsis in high-resolution esophageal pressure topography (EPT). This study aimed to develop a classification of weak peristalsis in EPT based on a comparative analysis of control subjects and ...
Babaei A - - 2011
Factors that determine the spread of gastro-esophageal reflux (GER) along the length of the esophagus are not known. We investigated if cardiovascular (CV) compressions on the esophagus may determine the spread of refluxate into the proximal esophagus. High-resolution manometry (HRM) and multi-channel intra-luminal impedance recording (MIIR) were performed simultaneously in ...
Faaborg P M - - 2010
Aim  The increased use of transanal colonic irrigation (TAI) warrants study of its effects on anorectal function after long term use. Method  Anorectal physiology tests were performed in 12 patients with chronic idiopathic constipation (CC) and 10 with idiopathic faecal incontinence (FI) [median 55 years (range 21-70)] before and after a ...
Kwiatek Monika A MA Department of Medicine, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois 60611-2951, USA. - - 2011
This study aimed to analyze the mechanical properties of the esophagus in eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) using the functional luminal imaging probe (EndoFLIP; Crospon Medical Devices, Galway, Ireland). Thirty-three EoE patients (22 male; age range, 23-67 years) and 15 controls (6 male; age range, 21-68 years) were included. Subjects were evaluated ...
Fox Mark - - 2011
This study aimed to identify anal sphincter and rectal factors that determine anorectal filling sensations and continence during rectal filling in health. Measurements of anorectal physiology were collected from 42 continent healthy subjects participating in a prospective trial. Rectal function and capacity were assessed by barostat. Anal sphincter functions were ...
Forni Valentina - - 2010
All major antihypertensive drug classes i.e. diuretics, beta-blockers, calcium antagonists and blockers of the renin-angiotensin system have been shown to effectively lower blood pressure and hence to reduce cardiovascular outcomes in hypertensive patients. These drugs decrease cardiovascular complications in hypertension essentially because they reduce systemic blood pressure. Nevertheless, there is ...
de Leon A - - 2010
Data on esophageal sphincters in obese individuals during anesthesia are sparse. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different respiratory maneuvers on the pressures in the esophagus and esophageal sphincters before and during anesthesia in obese patients. Seventeen patients, aged 28-68 years, with a BMI ...
Pan C - - 2010
The Colonic manometry is an important technique to evaluate human colonic motor functions, which are critical for doctors to understand the pathology of intestinal diseases like slow transit constipation (STC) and colonic inertia (CI). However, in the obtained pressure signals, several patterns of colonic motor activities as well as noises ...
Salvador Renato - - 2010
A new manometric classification of esophageal achalasia has recently been proposed that also suggests a correlation with the final outcome of treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate this hypothesis in a large group of achalasia patients undergoing laparoscopic Heller-Dor myotomy. We evaluated 246 consecutive achalasia patients who ...
Worsøe J - - 2010
INTRODUCTION: Most patients with fecal incontinence have poor anal sphincter function. In patients with idiopathic fecal incontinence no structural abnormality can be identified. The aim of the present study was to compare rectal motility patterns in patients with idiopathic fecal incontinence and in healthy controls. METHODS: Rectal impedance planimetry provides ...
Monnet Xavier - - 2010
Solid evidence exists that fluid therapy must be started as a first-line treatment in all patients with septic shock as soon as hypotension is detected, with the goal of rapidly restoring tissue perfusion. Crystalloids or colloids can be used for initial fluid therapy, and albumin should be reserved for patients ...
Bekki Hisatoshi H ABC Trial Group, Kurume, - - 2010
There is accumulating evidence that blood pressure (BP) control significantly reduces the risk of future cardiovascular events in patients with essential hypertension. However, strict BP control is often difficult to maintain, and half of hypertensive patients fail to attain BP goals on single-drug therapy. Therefore, current guidelines recommend combinations of ...
Berni Andrea - - 2011
A major contributor to poor blood pressure (BP) control is nonadherence to therapy, which remains poorly recognized by physicians. The prevention of hypertension-induced changes in arterial wall, namely increased arterial stiffness and peripheral vascular resistance, is a reasoned adequate end-point of hypertension treatment. Indirect measurement of these arterial factors can ...
Palmer Phyllis M - - 2010
This prospective investigation evaluates oral weakness and its impact on swallow function, weight, and quality of life in patients with oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD). Intraoral pressure, swallow pressure, and endurance were measured using an Iowa Oral Performance Instrument in participants with OPMD and matched controls. Timed water swallow, weight, and ...
Salcedo Levilester - - 2010
PURPOSE: The goal of this research was to study the chronic effects of pudendal nerve transection and sphincterotomy on the anal sphincter, because there is no good animal model investigating anal sphincter injury. Clinically, anal sphincter dysfunction impacts a cohort of women who have fecal incontinence; conclusions from the study ...
Hori Kazuhiro - - 2011
The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of chin-down posture and bolus size on tongue pressure during swallowing. Eleven healthy volunteers (7 men, 4 women; age range = 26-59 years) participated in the experiments. Tongue pressure during dry and 5- and 15-ml water swallows in neutral and chin-down postures was ...
Butler Susan G - - 2011
The reasons for aspiration in healthy adults remain unknown. Given that the pharyngeal phase of swallowing is a key component of the safe swallow, it was hypothesized that healthy older adults who aspirate are likely to generate less pharyngeal peak pressures when swallowing. Accordingly, pharyngeal and upper esophageal sphincter pressures ...
Ayazi Shahin - - 2010
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The lower esophageal sphincter (LES) in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease often has a low resting pressure and a short abdominal length. The mechanism by which this occurs is unknown. We hypothesize that gastric distension causes progressive effacement of the abdominal portion of the LES, exposing it ...
Chen Ji-Hong - - 2010
Distention of the proximal colon may have inhibitory or excitatory effects on the rectum and vice versa. The reflexes between the proximal colon and the rectum have not been well studied due to difficulties in accessing the proximal colon. The aim of this study was to investigate the reflex responses ...
de Leon Alex - - 2010
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically in recent decades. The gastrointestinal changes associated with obesity have clinical significance for the anesthesiologist in the perioperative period. The lower esophageal sphincter and the upper esophageal sphincter play a central role in preventing regurgitation and aspiration. The effects of increased intra-abdominal ...
McCulloch Timothy M TM Department of Surgery, Division of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin, - - 2010
We quantified the effect of swallowing maneuvers on pharyngeal pressure events using high-resolution manometry. Seven subjects swallowed multiple 5-mL water boluses in 3 different postural conditions: neutral, head turn, and chin tuck. Pressure and timing events were recorded with a 36-sensor high-resolution manometry catheter. We analyzed the regions of the ...
Lindsey I - - 2011
Aim  A subset of low-pressure fissures is not associated with typical internal anal sphincter hypertonia and may involve a different pathophysiological mechanism. We aimed to assess the manometric response of the internal anal sphincter to botulinum toxin in low-pressure fissures compared to high-pressure fissures. Method  Twenty five units of botulinum ...
Raizada Varuna V Pelvic Floor Function and Disease Group, Division of Gastroenterology, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA, - - 2010
We used a novel technique, high-definition manometry (HDM) that utilizes 256 tactile sensitive microtransducers to define the characteristics of vaginal high-pressure zone. Sixteen nullipara asymptomatic women were studied using HDM, transperineal 2-dimensional dynamic ultrasound and dynamic magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Vaginal high-pressure zone revealed higher contact pressures in anterior and ...
Kiebles J L - - 2010
Globus sensation is a bothersome and difficult symptom to treat. The aims of this study were to evaluate the acceptability and utility of hypnotically-assisted relaxation (HAR) in decreasing the perception of globus sensation and the effect of HAR on interdeglutitive upper esophageal sphincter (UES) pressure. Sixteen subjects with persistent globus ...
Blaut U - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Guide wires are commonly utilized to facilitate endoscopic procedures. However, their use may adversely influence the results of sphincter of Oddi manometry, thereby leading to erroneous diagnosis and therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of guide wires on the basal pressure of the biliary ...
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