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Frantz Robert P - - 2011
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive disease that results in elevation of the pulmonary artery pressure and ultimately development of right ventricular failure. Baseline and periodic invasive hemodynamics via right heart catheterization are generally obtained in order to characterize and follow the extent of hemodynamic derangement, response to therapy, ...
Kostka-Jeziorny Katarzyna - - 2011
Abstract Background. Arterial hypertension is commonly associated with hyperuricemia. Several studies have shown that allopurinol reduces arterial blood pressure in animal models and in adolescent patients with newly diagnosed hypertension. Moreover, allopurinol has shown beneficial effects on endothelial function and arterial wave reflection in contrast to uricosuric agents. Antihypertensive drugs ...
Flynn Joseph T - - 2011
The prevalence of hypertension among all adolescents is approximately 3.5%, with somewhat higher rates of prehypertension. Obesity affects approximately 20% of adolescents in the United States, and the prevalence of hypertension is much higher among obese adolescents compared with nonobese adolescents. As in other populations, the evaluation of elevated blood ...
Agarwal Daniel R - - 2012
To evaluate corneal hysteresis (CH) and intraocular pressure (IOP) before and after IOP lowering with prostaglandin analogue (PGA) therapy in medication-naïve eyes. In this retrospective study, we included records from 57 consecutive patients with open angle glaucoma who were initiated on PGA. Patients underwent ocular response analyser measurement with IOP ...
Holtkamp Frank A - - 2011
Aims The long-term cardioprotective effect of angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) is associated with the short-term lowering of its primary target blood pressure, but also with the lowering of albuminuria. Since the individual blood pressure and albuminuria response to an ARB varies between and within an individual, we tested whether the ...
Ng Maria M - - 2011
Hypertension is a highly prevalent disorder in the United States. Of particular concern is resistant hypertension, which by definition is hypertension that cannot be adequately treated by conventional 3-drug regimens. The Rheos Baroreflex Hypertension Therapy System is a new implantable device that can treat patients with hypertension resistant to multidrug ...
Brook Robert D - - 2011
The absolute number of patients with uncontrolled hypertension is growing worldwide. Many factors may be involved, including physician inertia and patient nonadherence. In this context, we reviewed published studies related to the efficacy and efficiency of starting combination antihypertensive treatment versus mono-therapy. The overall evidence supports that initial combination therapy ...
Meyers Kevin Ec - - 2011
Hypertension affects up to 5% of school-aged children and is defined by an average systolic or diastolic blood pressure greater than the 95th percentile for age, sex and height. In prepubertal children a secondary cause for hypertension including renal disease, coarctation of the aorta or endocrine disease should be excluded ...
Ferdinand Keith C - - 2011
Minority patients with hypertension generally require combination therapy to reach blood pressure (BP) goals. We examined the BP-lowering efficacy and safety of combination aliskiren/amlodipine therapy in self-identified minority patients in the United States with stage 2 hypertension and the impact of adding hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) to this combination. In this 8-week ...
Lohmeier Thomas E - - 2011
Recent technical advances have renewed interest in device-based therapy for the treatment of drug-resistant hypertension. Findings from recent clinical trials regarding the efficacy of electric stimulation of the carotid sinus for the treatment of resistant hypertension are reviewed here. The main goal of this article, however, is to summarize the ...
Dousty Mehdy - - 2011
INTRODUCTION: Research indicates that music can affect heart rate, blood pressure, and skin conductance. Music can stimulate central emotions in the brain and release biochemical materials that change the physiologic state. We sought to compare changes in the electrical function of the heart in response to music. METHOD: Subjects were ...
Mookerjee Rajeshwar P - - 2011
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: During acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF), the marked systemic inflammatory response and rapid deterioration in liver function are associated with a significant deterioration in organ perfusion and an appreciable rise in portal pressure. Indeed, the development of sepsis and multiorgan dysfunction that commonly follows presentation in these patients ...
Mukhtar Nizar A - - 2011
The development of pulmonary arterial hypertension in the setting of portal hypertension is known as portopulmonary hypertension. Portal hypertension is thought to predispose patients to disturbances in the homeostatic regulation of numerous neurohumoral and vasoactive mediators that induce the development of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Portopulmonary hypertension is pathologically indistinguishable from ...
Al Badarin Firas J - - 2011
Diuretics are among the most commonly prescribed cardiovascular (CV) medications. The strength of evidence supporting the effectiveness of diuretics in lowering blood pressure and for preventing major adverse CV events in patients with hypertension varies considerably among diuretic classes and even among agents within the same class. Unfortunately, common prescribing ...
Taylor Addison A - - 2011
Treatment strategies to improve blood pressure control, reduce end-organ damage, and improve cardiovascular outcomes are more important today than ever before. Most patients will require combination therapy to achieve target blood pressure; early initiation of combination therapy may help patients achieve blood pressure control more rapidly. Low-dose combinations may be ...
Durand Marion - - 2011
A 63-year-old male with a history of cancer, and who had undergone a left pneumonectomy seven years before, presented with deterioration in his general status and recent dyspnea [stage III (New York Heart Association) NYHA]. Imaging revealed a contralateral mediastinal shift and cardiac compression caused by pneumonectomy cavity enlargement and ...
Hommer Anton - - 2011
The first-line option for lowering intraocular pressure (IOP) is a single hypotensive agent, but patients frequently require additional IOP-lowering agents to reach their target pressures. Disadvantages of this multi-therapy approach include washout effect, inconvenience and poor adherence. Fixed combinations (FCs) combine two or more hypotensive agents in a single bottle, ...
Milner Ross - - 2011
Few would argue with the need for long-term follow-up after endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms. A small risk of reintervention persists and the challenge remains to identify those patients that will require additional procedures to prevent subsequent complications. The ideal follow-up regimen remains elusive. Up until this point, most ...
Filippone Edward J - - 2011
At least 16 treatment trials have been done in which patients were randomly assigned different blood pressure goals in an attempt to better define specific target pressures. We critically review the data.
Toraldo Domenico M - - 2011
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is an independent and modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular diseases; however, the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this association are not yet fully understood. Intermittent hypoxemia, one of the physiological markers of OSAS, is characterized by transient periods of oxygen desaturation followed by reoxygenation. The hypoxia-reoxygenation cycles ...
Wang Tzu-Yin - - 2011
The goal of this study is to develop a focal zone sharpening strategy that produces more precise lesions for pulsed cavitational ultrasound therapy, or histotripsy. Precise and well-confined lesions were produced by locally suppressing cavitation in the periphery of the treatment focus without affecting cavitation in the center. The local ...
Hari Pankaj - - 2011
Hypertensive emergencies, though uncommon in children, are potentially life threatening. While targeting blood pressure reduction to below the 90th percentile for age, gender and height, mean arterial blood pressure should be gradually lowered by one-fourth of the planned reduction over 8-12 h, a further fourth over the next 8-12 h, and the ...
Basile Jan - - 2011
Patients with stage 2 systolic hypertension require sizable blood pressure (BP) reductions to achieve recommended targets. This randomized double-blind study compared a single-pill combination of the direct renin inhibitor aliskiren and hydrochlorothiazide (aliskiren/HCTZ) with HCTZ monotherapy in older patients (older than 55 years) with systolic BP ≥160 mm Hg and <200 mm Hg. ...
Deeks Emma D - - 2011
The antihypertensive agents olmesartan medoxomil, amlodipine and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) are now available as a fixed-dose combination tablet (olmesartan medoxomil/amlodipine/HCTZ). In a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, multicentre trial (TRINITY) in adults with moderate to severe hypertension, olmesartan medoxomil + amlodipine + HCTZ triple combination therapy produced significantly greater least squares mean reductions from baseline in seated ...
Stankiewicz Andrzej - - 2011
Acta Ophthalmol. 2011: 89: e57-e63 ABSTRACT.: Aims:  This prospective, multicenter, single-masked study evaluated the additive effect of dorzolamide hydrochloride 2% on the diurnal intraocular pressure (IOP) curve and retinal and retrobulbar hemodynamics in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) treated with morning-dosed bimatoprost 0.03%. Methods:  Eighty-nine patients (aged, 60.7 ± 11.8 years, range ...
Bjarnason Thordur - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Topical negative pressure (TNP) therapy is increasingly used in open abdomen management. It is not known to what extent this pressure propagates through the dressing to the bowel surface, potentially increasing the risk of bowel fistula formation. The present study in a porcine model was designed to evaluate pressure ...
Holdiness Amber - - 2011
Our understanding of the complexities and inter-related pathways of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system continues to evolve. Which drugs to use, when, and how, are everyday questions faced by clinicians in the ambulatory setting. Combining these classes, for the purpose of enhancing renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade and incremental blood pressure, nephroprotective, and cardioprotective ...
Ziegler Michael G - - 2011
Patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) often have hypertension that is difficult to control. We review the causes of OSA hypertension and evidence supporting specific therapies. Sleep apnea commonly accompanies the metabolic syndrome and renal insufficiency. Apneas stimulate atrial natriuretic peptide release and sympathetic nerve activity, which persists throughout the ...
Brenner R - - 2011
Despite a broad and efficient pharmacological antihypertensive armamentarium, blood pressure (BP) control is suboptimal and heterogeneous throughout Europe. Recent representative data from Switzerland are limited. The goal of the present survey was therefore to assess the actual control rate of high BP in Switzerland in accordance with current guidelines. The ...
Campese Vito M - - 2011
Hypertension in chronic renal disease and renovascular disease is often resistant to therapy. Understanding the pathogenic mechanisms responsible for hypertension in these conditions may lead to improved and more targeted therapeutic interventions. Several factors have been implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension associated with renal disease and/or renal failure. Although ...
Khawaja Z - - 2011
Resistant hypertension is a failure to achieve goal BP (<140/90 mm Hg for the overall population and <130/80 mm Hg for those with diabetes mellitus or chronic kidney disease) in a patient who adheres to maximum tolerated doses of 3 antihypertensive drugs including a diuretic. The kidneys play a critical role in long-term regulation ...
Peeters Andrea - - 2011
To assess the impact of 2 strategies for initiating therapy in ocular hypertension (OH) on drug use, intraocular pressure (IOP), and blindness caused by glaucoma. Using a simulation model, initiating therapy with timolol (strategy 1) and with latanoprost (strategy 2) was simulated for a hypothetic cohort of ocular hypertension patients ...
Nijjar Vikram S - - 2011
A 58-year-old woman with a past medical history significant for tobacco use presented with shortness of breath. Physical examination revealed a 30 mm Hg difference in upper-extremity blood pressures (right arm greater than left), elevated jugular venous pressure, and leg edema. A two-dimensional echocardiogram revealed an ejection fraction of 20%. ...
Thalheimer Ulrich - - 2011
Portal hypertension (PH) is a severe complication of liver cirrhosis. Measurement of the degree of portal hypertension is usually performed by measuring the hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) which is the difference between the free hepatic venous pressure (FHVP) and the wedged hepatic venous pressure (WHPG). The HVPG accurately reflects ...
Brown Angela - - 2010
The purpose of this report is to review available and emerging antihypertensive treatment options in light of current guidelines and evidence from large clinical trials. The published literature was reviewed for evidence regarding first-line options for antihypertensive agents, including thiazide-type diuretics, as monotherapy or as part of combination therapy. Current ...
Brugts Jasper J - - 2010
AIMS: To investigate whether genetic variation in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and kallikrein-bradykinin pathways is related to hypertension and blood pressure (BP) response to angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor therapy in stable coronary artery disease (CAD) patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 8907 stable CAD patients from the EUROPA trial, 52 haplotype-tagging ...
Humpl Tilman - - 2011
OBJECTIVES: We hypothesised that sildenafil would improve hemodynamics in children with pulmonary hypertension and attenuate rebound pulmonary hypertension after inhaled nitric oxide withdrawal.Patients and methodsWe undertook an open-label, single-drug study of sildenafil in patients under 5 years of age with either symptomatic or rebound pulmonary hypertension following inhaled nitric oxide ...
Kato Johji - - 2011
The blood pressure goals set for the treatment of hypertensive patients have been lowered in recent guidelines. To reduce blood pressure levels sufficiently, combination therapies are often needed, but there is little evidence about which combination should be chosen. The present study was carried out to compare the effects of ...
Dinning P G - - 2010
The morphology, motor responses and spatiotemporal organization among colonic propagating sequences (PS) have never been defined throughout the entire colon of patients with slow transit constipation (STC). Utilizing the technique of spatiotemporal mapping, we aimed to demonstrate 'manometric signatures' that may serve as biomarkers of the disorder. In 14 female ...
Barrios Vivencio V Department of Cardiology, University Hospital Ramón y Cajal, Madrid, Spain. - - 2010
Benazepril is a nonsulfhydryl ACE inhibitor with favorable pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, well-established antihypertensive effects and a good tolerability profile. Recent clinical studies have demonstrated that patients treated with benazepril alone or in combination with hydrochlorothiazide or amlodipine may achieve beneficial renal outcomes that extend beyond blood pressure control. Furthermore, ...
Yalçin F - - 2011
Excessive sympathetic activity and stress-induced left ventricular (LV) hypercontractility have been described in hypertensive LV hypertrophy. Recent quantitative data have shown that hypertensive LV hypertrophy is associated with preserved global LV function. However, progression of uncontrolled hypertension have detrimental effects on both the ejection fraction (EF) and LV contractile response ...
Frank Peacock W W - - 2011
Acute and severe hypertension is common, especially in patients with renal dysfunction (RD). Clevidipine is a rapidly acting (t½∼1 min) intravenous (IV) dihydropyridine calcium-channel blocker metabolized by blood and tissue esterases and may be useful in patients with RD. The purpose of this analysis was to assess the safety and ...
Tursi Tammy - - 2010
The purpose of this article is to educate nurse practitioners about the pathophysiology surrounding the development of portal hypertension and the effective use of nonselective ß-blockers to prevent primary bleeding and decrease the mortality risk. The articles included were retrieved via ISI Web of Science using the years 2004-2009 and ...
Mulak Agata - - 2010
To evaluate anorectal function and rectal sensitivity thresholds in patients with celiac disease (CD). In 25 unselected patients with CD (16 female, 9 male; mean age 45, range 24 to 75 y) and 20 controls (12 female, 8 male; mean age 41, range 20 to 65 y) anorectal manometry and ...
Engbaek Mette - - 2010
Our objective was to estimate the effect of addition of low-dose spironolactone to previous antihypertensive therapy in patients with resistant hypertension. Patients had 25 to 50 mg of spironolactone once daily added to the treatment of hypertension that was uncontrolled despite previous treatment with three classes of antihypertensive drugs. The ...
Tack J - - 2011
Abnormalities in gastric sensorimotor function (hypersensitivity to distention and impaired meal accommodation) have been implicated in the pathophysiology of functional dyspepsia (FD). To study the effect of the 5-HT(4) agonist tegaserod on sensitivity to gastric distention and gastric accommodation in FD. Thirty FD patients (7 males, mean age 42 ± ...
Roman Sabine - - 2011
A defining feature of peristalsis is propagation velocity, which determines the timing of the distal contraction relative to the swallow. This study aimed to exploit a coordinate-based strategy to quantify the normal latency of the distal esophageal contraction as a measure of propagation velocity optimized for high-resolution esophageal pressure topography ...
Herbella F A M - - 2011
An unbuffered postprandial proximal gastric acid pocket (PPGAP) has been demonstrated in normal individuals (NI) and patients with gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). The role of gastric anatomy and gastric motility in the physiology of the PPGAP remains elusive. This study aims to analyze the correlation of PPGAP with proximal gastric ...
Smeenk Robert Jan - - 2012
To explore the influence of functional changes and dosimetric parameters on specific incontinence-related anorectal complaints after prostate external beam radiotherapy and to estimate dose-effect relations for the anal wall and rectal wall. Sixty patients, irradiated for localized prostate cancer, underwent anorectal manometry and barostat measurements to evaluate anal pressures, rectal ...
Roman Sabine - - 2011
Esophageal manometry is frequently used to assess for weak peristalsis. Although commonly used clinically, there are currently no validated metrics of weak peristalsis in high-resolution esophageal pressure topography (EPT). This study aimed to develop a classification of weak peristalsis in EPT based on a comparative analysis of control subjects and ...
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