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Results 901 - 950 of 2373
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Zou S - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-OP), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and substance P (SP) on the dynamics of the biliary system and cardiovascular system, and the relationship between the dynamics of the biliary system and cardiodynamics. METHODS: In 91 anesthetized guinea pigs, a triple-lumen, side-hole perfusion catheter ...
Hirsch D P - - 1998
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Nitric oxide (NO) is well accepted as an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the gastrointestinal tract; however, its role in the triggering of transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations (TLESRs) in humans remains to be determined. Therefore, the effect of NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), a specific NO synthase blocker, on gastric distention-induced ...
Feinle C - - 1998
Both distension of the stomach and activation of small intestinal chemoreceptors by nutrients have been implicated in the induction of postprandial sensations. Studies were performed in healthy human subjects to investigate the roles of gastric distension and activation or inhibition of small intestinal chemoreceptors in the generation of pleasant (fullness) ...
Kapur K C - - 1998
Gastro-oesophageal reflux is more common in the right than in the left lateral position but the reasons why are not well understood. We have therefore studied the mechanisms underlying reflux in the lateral decubitus positions in patients with reflux disease. Fifteen patients with symptomatic reflux and excessive oesophageal acid exposure ...
Mearadji B - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Somatostatin affects gastrointestinal motility and secretion and visceral sensation, but little is known about its effects on the proximal stomach. AIM: To evaluate the effects of somatostatin on proximal gastric motor function and perception of symptoms. METHODS: Six healthy subjects participated in two experiments performed in random order during ...
Wong R F - - 1998
The purpose of this study was to use simultaneous anal manometry and high-frequency endoluminal ultrasonography (EUS) to determine the relationship between resting anal pressure and cross-sectional area of the internal and external anal sphincters. Eleven normal subjects underwent simultaneous anal EUS and manometry using catheters containing both pressure ports and ...
Adamek R J - - 1998
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In previous manometric investigations, we observed that patients with chest pain and arterial hypertension frequently tend to display oesophageal motility abnormalities. Therefore, we set out to study this systematically. METHODS: Patients with chest pain and normal coronary angiogram (n=40) and healthy controls (n=20) were studied prospectively in ...
Omari T I - - 1998
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to characterize the motor events responsible for gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and esophageal acid clearance in a cohort of healthy preterm infants. STUDY DESIGN: Esophageal motility was recorded for 2 to 3 hours after a feeding in 24 preterm infants, 31 to 38 weeks' ...
Sun W M - - 1998
The effects of the nitric oxide donor nitroglycerin on gastric emptying and antropyloroduodenal motility were evaluated in nine healthy male subjects (ages 19-36 yr). Antropyloroduodenal pressures were recorded with a manometric assembly that had nine side holes spanning the antrum and proximal duodenum and a pyloric sleeve sensor; gastric emptying ...
Siproudhis L - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Somatostatin is localized in the intestinal and pelvic nerves of the anorectum and it seems to act as an important neurotransmitter. However, previous analyses of octreotide (a somatostatin analog) effects on anal function showed conflicting results. By use of a dynamic model in healthy subjects, with comparison to the ...
Mason R J - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To develop selection criteria based on the mechanical properties of pharyngoesophageal swallowing that indicate when patients with pharyngeal dysphagia will benefit from a myotomy. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The pathophysiology of pharyngoesophageal swallowing disorders is complex. The disorder is of interest to several medical specialists (gastroenterologists, otorhinolaryngologists, general and thoracic ...
Clouse R E - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Intraluminal pressures from the gastrointestinal tract are conventionally analyzed from a set of two-dimensional tracings. We hypothesized that more information could be extracted by considering spatial relationships of pressure data. METHODS: A system was developed for recording pressure from up to 21 sites and analyzing the results using two- ...
Dua K - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is known to affect adversely the defence mechanisms against gastro-oesophageal reflux. The effect of smoking on the supraoesophageal reflexes that prevent aspiration of gastric contents has not been previously studied. AIMS: To elucidate the effect of cigarette smoking on two of the supraoesophageal reflexes: the pharyngo-upper oesophageal ...
Monk D N - - 1998
BACKGROUND: The strength-duration curve of a muscle is thought to be a measure of its innervation. This study was designed to evaluate the ability of the strength-duration curve of the external anal sphincter to discriminate between controls and patients with faecal incontinence. METHODS: Forty-three women with faecal incontinence due to ...
Ghoshal U C - - 1998
Endoscopic injection sclerotherapy (EIS) is known to produce oesophageal structural and motility changes; however, alterations in frequency and severity of gastro-oesophageal reflux (GER) following EIS have not been investigated in detail. We studied 22 patients with cirrhosis and oesophageal varices before EIS and 26 after variceal eradication with intravariceal EIS ...
Bustorff-Silva J M - - 1998
AIM: The aim of this paper is to describe a simple technique of extended hiatoplasty to achieve intraabdominal placement of the distal esophagus and evaluate it manometricaly. METHODS: Twelve mongrel dogs were submitted to esophageal manometry using a balloon system and continuous pull-through technique, before and after being submitted to ...
Ratjen F - - 1998
To assess whether flow limitation can be achieved during rapid thoracoabdominal compressions (RTC), we performed esophageal pressure measurements in 11 healthy infants less than 3 months of age. Recordings of esophageal pressure were obtained with an esophageal balloon placed in the lower esophagus. RTCs were started at 20 cm H2O ...
Kahrilas P J - - 1998
A balance of aggressive forces (reflux, caustic gastric juice) and defensive forces (acid clearance, epithelial defense) determine the occurrence of GERD. Guarding against reflux, the gastroesophageal junction is composed of both a smooth muscle element (the LES) and a diaphragmatic element, which normally supplement each other in both a static ...
Ulualp S O - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Earlier studies have shown that stimulation of the human pharynx by injection of minute amounts of water stimulates the pharyngo-UES contractile reflex. It has been suggested that this reflex may be activated during pharyngeal reflux of gastric and/or esophageal content, thus increasing the UES pressure and possibly preventing further ...
Reber P U - - 1998
BACKGROUND: In humans with chronic pancreatitis (CP), pancreatic interstitial pressure (IP) is elevated and pancreatic blood flow (PBF) is reduced. The efficacy of surgical decompression (SD) of the pancreatic duct (ie, pancreaticojejunostomy) is believed to be due to its ability to decrease IP and pancreatic vascular resistance (Rp), which increases ...
Wechsung E - - 1998
The effect of i.v. infusion of gastrin (CCK-4), cholecystokinin (CCK-8) and pancreatic polypeptide (PP), 20 and 200 ng/kg/min for 1 h, on gastrointestinal electrical activity and arterial pressure was studied in conscious miniature pigs. During infusion of CCK-8 a transient hypertension was observed. In the antrum, the 3 peptides provoked ...
Bittinger M - - 1998
BACKGROUND: In achalasia the incidence of autonomic neuropathy is increased, indicating that achalasia is not a disease of the oesophagus only. Little information is available concerning the function of the stomach in achalasia. We compared the postprandial gastric fundus relaxation in patients with achalasia to that of healthy controls. METHODS: ...
Clavé P - - 1998
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Exogenous cholecystokinin (CCK) decreases lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure and increases transient LES relaxations (TLESRs) in humans. The aims of this study were to determine whether endogenous CCK increases gastroesophageal reflux in humans and whether this is a direct effect on the LES. METHODS: Esophageal pH, LES ...
Montgomery M - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Patients with repaired esophageal atresia often show persistent motility disorders of the esophagus. METHODS: In this study, the authors used a newly developed method, videomanometry, to study intraluminal pressures and function of the pharynx and upper esophagus in such a group of patients and compared the results with those ...
Tack J - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Delayed gastric emptying, impaired gastric accommodation to a meal and hypersensitivity to gastric distension have been implied in the pathophysiology of functional dyspepsia. Dyspeptic patients are often treated with the prokinetic drug cisapride. AIM: To assess the effects of cisapride on perception of gastric distension and gastric accommodation to ...
Siproudhis L - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Despite their potential therapeutic benefit, the effects of cholinergic agents on anal function have been poorly investigated. AIM: To analyse the effects of neostigmine and atropine on anorectal responses to rectal isobaric distension. METHODS: This was a placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind crossover study, performed in 12 healthy volunteers who received ...
Shafik A - - 1998
BACKGROUND: The sphincter of Oddi (SO) may undergo functional disorders. The mechanism of action of this sphincter is as yet not fully explored; the current study aims at studying some aspects of this mechanism. METHODS: Twelve mongrel dogs (mean weight 15.3 +/- 2. 9 SD kg, 8 male, 4 female) ...
Rao S S - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: The pathophysiology of obstructive defecation is unclear. We investigated whether impaired rectoanal coordination causes obstructive defecation and if this dysfunction can be corrected by biofeedback therapy. METHODS: We prospectively studied 25 healthy subjects and 35 consecutive patients with constipation (>1 year) with anorectal manometry and balloon expulsion test. Symptoms ...
Corso M J - - 1998
Globus sensation (globus) is best described as a constant feeling of a lump or fullness in the throat. Although the etiology of globus remains unclear, it has been attributed to a hypertensive upper esophageal sphincter (UES) resting pressure and to gastroesophageal reflux (GER). The aim of this study was, therefore, ...
Yeoh E K - - 1998
AIM: The incidence of anorectal symptoms after radiotherapy (RTH) for localised pelvic malignant disease is unclear. In addition, the effects of pelvic irradiation on both anorectal motility and sensory function are poorly defined. A prospective study was therefore performed on 35 patients (55-82 years of age) with localised prostatic carcinoma ...
Barrioz T - - 1998
We investigated the effects of octreotide infusion on the contractile activity of the esophageal body and lower esophageal sphincter in cirrhotic patients with esophageal varices. Esophageal manometry was performed in 36 alcoholic cirrhotic patients. They were randomly allocated to three groups and received the following treatments blindly for 90 min: ...
Hällgren A - - 1998
Neurokinin A (NKA) induces duodenal motility and increases mucosal permeability and bicarbonate secretion in the in situ perfused duodenum in anesthetized rats. In the present study, the NKA-induced increase in mucosal permeability was potentiated by luminal perfusion with lidocaine and diminished by vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) but unaltered by elevated ...
Rühl A - - 1998
The afferent input from the rectum to the central nervous system (CNS) has yet to be thoroughly characterized. The characteristics of mechanoreceptive rectal afferents have been studied in unanaesthetized decerebrate cats. Following lumbo-sacral laminectomy, single-unit activity (occasionally multi-unit activity) was recorded from centrally cut filaments of the sacral dorsal roots ...
Schiano T D - - 1998
Our objective in this study was to use high resolution endoluminal sonography to compare the size of esophageal varices within 5 cm of and at the esophageal high pressure zone. We carried out the study in 36 patients with endoscopically proven esophageal varices. A 20-MHz 6.2F ultrasound catheter was passed ...
Castedal M - - 1998
MMC-related retroperistalsis is a cyclical phenomenon in the duodenum linked to phase III. The aim of this study was to elucidate the direction of propagation of juxtapyloric duodenal pressure waves in the postprandial state in healthy humans and to compare with the contractions in the interdigestive phase II. Antroduodenal manometry ...
Ledeboer M - - 1998
Fat meals are known to decrease lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure, possibly through postprandial CCK release. Dietary fat consists mainly of long-chain triglycerides (LCT), which potently stimulate CCK secretion. This effect contrasts with that of medium-chain triglycerides (MCT), which do not induce CCK release. We recorded LES pressure and gallbladder ...
Bonten M J - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: The spread of nosocomial multiresistant microorganisms is affected by compliance with infection control measures and antibiotic use. We hypothesized that "colonization pressure" (ie, the proportion of other patients colonized) also is an important variable. We studied the effect of colonization pressure, compliance with infection control measures, antibiotic use, and ...
Shafik A - - 1998
Renal or ureteral diseases are often associated with gastrointestinal symptoms. In this communication, we studied the effect of renal pelvic or ureteric distension on the anorectal function in 12 healthy volunteers. A 3F balloon-tipped catheter was introduced into the renal pelvis. The balloon was filled with saline in increments of ...
Parellada C M - - 1998
PURPOSE: Fecal incontinence has been a matter of concern for many years, but seepage is poorly understood, especially in men. METHODS: We compared the results of anorectal physiologic tests in a group of 16 male patients who complained of fecal soiling but had no previous history of anorectal surgery or ...
Shafik A - - 1998
To study the effect of gallbladder (GB) distension on the sphincter of Oddi (SO), 9 mongrel dogs (mean weight 15.3+/-3.6 kg) were studied. Under anesthesia, the abdomen was opened and the GB and SO were exposed. A balloon-tipped catheter was introduced into the GB and a manometric catheter into the ...
Takahashi M - - 1998
The aim of this study was to determine whether a jejunal pouch would have a lower resting pressure, be more distensible, and have more interdigestive migrating myoelectric complexes and less fecal bacterial overgrowth than would an ileal pouch after proctocolectomy and pouch-distal rectal anastomosis. In six conscious dogs with a ...
McRorie J - - 1998
The aim of this study was to characterize propagating contractions in the unprepared colon of freely ambulating mini pigs. A telemetric method was used to record colonic motility continuously for six consecutive days in a 40-cm segment of proximal colon. Propagating contractions occurred over a wide range of propagation rates ...
Anggiansah A - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Our aim was to establish normal values for wave characteristics and patterns in long-term ambulatory oesophageal body motility. METHODS: A pressure sensor was positioned in the pharynx or cricopharyngeus for swallow detection. Oesophageal body pressures were recorded 5, 10, and 15 cm above the lower oesophageal sphincter. Contraction patterns ...
Carugno F - - 1998
Dysphagia and recurrent gastroesophageal reflux complicate use of the Angelchik prosthesis. The authors developed an inflatable silicone device, similar to the Angelchik prosthesis, that may allow for the adjustment of the total pressure exerted around the gastroesophageal junction after implantation. To estimate its potential to prevent gastroesophageal reflux in humans, ...
Merritt A M - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect on equine duodenal motility of some analgesic agents commonly used to treat colic. ANIMALS: 4 healthy adult healthy horses--2 mares and 2 geldings--which were carrying an indwelling gastric cannula made of silastic rubber. One horse also carried 2 long-term indwelling bipolar electrodes that had been ...
Ugljesic M - - 1998
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Direct study of the function of the sphincter of Oddi became possible recently with the advent of endoscopic manometry. A dysfunction of the bilio-pancreatic sphincter apparatus has been implicated in some bilio-pancreatic disorders. The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between dysfunction of the sphincter of ...
Straathof J W - - 1998
We have studied the effect of CCK on proximal gastric motor function in humans. Seven healthy volunteers participated in three experiments performed in random order during continuous intravenous infusion of 1) saline (control), 2) 0.5 IDU.kg-1.h-1 CCK, and 3) 1.0 IDU.kg-1.h-1 CCK. Proximal gastric mechanics were measured by an electronic ...
Anderson J A - - 1998
A prospective double-blind randomized trial was initiated to examine two types of laparoscopic fundoplication (Nissen and anterior). Thirty-two patients with proven gastroesophageal reflux disease presenting for primary laparoscopic antireflux surgery were randomized to undergo either Nissen fundoplication (N = 13) or anterior hemifundoplication (N = 19). Postoperative fluoroscopic and manometric ...
Schneider J H - - 1998
In order to determine the endoluminal pressure force distribution, the pressure in the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) and esophageal body was recorded in healthy volunteers and patients with achalasia, using a new waterperfused circular four-channel-sleeve (FCS) manometry catheter. The median lower esophageal sphincter pressure (LESP) and interquartile range in healthy ...
Ohmae Y - - 1998
This study quantified the effects of head rotation on pharyngeal swallowing in healthy subjects. Videofluoroscopic and oropharyngeal manometric examinations of pharyngeal swallowing were performed on seven volunteers with the head in neutral and rotated positions. Videofluoroscopic study revealed that head rotation swallow causes the bolus to lateralize away from the ...
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