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Arendt T - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: The mechanism whereby gallstone passage through the choledochoduodenal junction initiates acute pancreatitis is not known. We mimicked different patterns of stone impaction at the choledochoduodenal junction in a rabbit model and studied whether these result in biliary pancreatic reflux and the initiation of pancreatic inflammation. METHODS: In rabbits, catheters ...
Alonso P - - 1999
Although manometry is used with increasing frequency to evaluate the effectiveness of different treatments for achalasia, the criteria for a successful manometric response have not been well defined. Manometric responses were collected before and after 43 treatments in 35 patients with achalasia in order to determine manometric changes after different ...
Montedonico S - - 1999
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is frequently recognized after surgical repair of esophageal atresia. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that one or more components of the gastroesophageal pressure barrier are weakened by esophageal anastomosis under tension. METHODS: Lower esophageal sphincter pressure (LESP), crural sling pressure (CSP), ...
Dinning P G - - 1999
This study aimed to determine whether a sustained high-pressure zone exists at the human ileocolonic junction (ICJ) and whether the motor responses of ICJ are consistent with sphincteric function. In 10 subjects with temporary ileostomies, a high-pressure zone was identified using a manometric pull-through with a mean pressure of 9. ...
Sifrim D A - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: We previously developed a technique to study the effect of inhibitory innervation in the human oesophageal body, by creating an artificial high pressure zone (artificial HPZ) using an intra-oesophageal balloon. Swallowing provokes a fall in pressure in the artificial HPZ that precedes the peristaltic contraction. We aimed to prove ...
Middelfart H V - - 1999
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: In animal studies cholecystectomy has been found to alter the normal effect of cholecystokinin (CCK) on sphincter of Oddi (SO) function. This could be of importance with regard to the development of postcholecystectomy biliary pain. We therefore investigated the effect of laparoscopic cholecystectomy on SO motility ...
Farrell T M - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Antireflux operations restore lower esophageal sphincter (LES) function and hiatal anatomy; however, the relative contributions are unclear. METHODS: We measured the competency of fundoplications, exclusive of in vivo variables, in gastroesophageal explants from 8 cadavers. Using a multichannel manometer, esophageal, LES, and intragastric pressures were recorded during transpyloric distension. ...
Carapeti E A - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Phenylephrine is an alpha1-adrenergic agonist which causes contraction of human internal anal sphincter muscle in vitro. Its intra-arterial administration in animals has been shown to increase resting sphincter pressure in vivo. In this study the effect of topical application of phenylephrine on resting anal pressure in healthy human volunteers ...
Cuche G - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) found in the ileum after caecoileal reflux might trigger a physiologic ileal brake similar that induced by ileal nutrient infusion. This study evaluates gastric emptying and motility after ileal administration of SCFA. METHODS: In eight conscious pigs gastric emptying was evaluated by double dilution (liquids) ...
Richardson W S - - 1999
BACKGROUND: The antireflux capacity of various gastric fundoplications combines the creation of a valve (flapper or nipple) with recreation of a sharp cardioesophageal angle. Experimental comparison of valve competency and appropriate valve geometry is incomplete despite wide application of these techniques. Our primary aim was to compare the competency of ...
Kohjitani A - - 1999
PURPOSE: The effects of sevoflurane and enflurane on the intraluminal pressure of the lower esophagus (LE), lower esophageal sphincter (LES), and stomach were investigated in paralyzed and mechanically ventilated children under general anesthesia. METHODS: A total of 14 children, ASA physical status class I without risk factors for regurgitation, scheduled ...
Soffer E E - - 1999
Acute hyperglycemia has been shown to affect gastric motor function and colonic peristaltic reflex, but little is known about its effects on the small bowel. Our aim was to determine the effect of experimentally induced acute hyperglycemia on small bowel compliance and peristaltic reflex. Ten healthy subjects were studied during ...
Topart P - - 1999
Eighty-eight consecutive patients with antireflux fundoplication had manometry and pH recording pre- and post-operatively at 6 months and 1, 3 and 5 years for a mean follow-up of 30.6 months. Failure occurred in nine patients (11.4%). For the whole group of patients, surgery produced a significant increase in the lower ...
Henry M A - - 1999
Ten patients with progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS) and esophageal symptoms (group 1) and 10 control subjects were studied. Esophageal electromanometry using the intermittent pull-through technique and catheter perfusion with distilled water were performed in all patients and individuals. The variables studied were pressure amplitude in the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) ...
Lanas A - - 1999
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The lack of appropriate animal models might explain the paucity of information on the mechanisms of mucosal damage and defense in reflux esophagitis. The aim of this study was to develop a model of esophagitis in rabbits mimicking human reflux esophagitis. METHODS: New Zealand white rabbits underwent ...
Peters AJ - - 1999
Antiischemic effectiveness of long-term urokinase therapy and isovolemic hemodilution therapy has been reported in patients with symptomatic coronary artery disease, but both interventions have never been compared. In patients with refractory angina pectoris and end-stage coronary artery disease (clinical functional class III), isovolemic hemodilution (n = 9) (hydroxyethyl starch solution ...
Miura M - - 1999
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) represents one of the most common gastrointestinal-related diagnoses. Although the precise etiologic basis of IBS is not known, a common presenting symptom is abdominal pain or discomfort that is thought to develop, at least in part, from a heightened awareness of visceral nociceptive input. Agents capable ...
Petersen J A - - 1999
Previous studies have demonstrated regional differences in pressure-cross-sectional area relations, compliance and tension-strain relations of the oesophagus in vivo. The measurements and the variation in axial direction may reflect not only intrinsic oesophageal properties but can also be influenced by the adjacent organs. Four pigs were thoracotomised and the oesophagus ...
Olsson C - - 1999
In this study, we describe new methods for recording gastric emptying and in vivo measurements of intragastric pressure in fish. Using these methods, we investigated the effects of the sulphated octapeptide of cholecystokinin (CCK8) on gastric emptying and on stomach motility in vivo and in vitro. Gastric emptying of 99Tcm-labelled ...
Uvo S A - - 1999
The usefulness of ileocolic sphincter (ICS) transplantation to the neck after a total laryngopharyngectomy was investigated in 12 mongrel dogs. The authors aimed to evaluate the influence of the transplantation on ICS pressure amplitude and ICS length, and on ICS resistance to intracecal pressure increase. Electromanometric measurements showed that ICS ...
Musial F - - 1999
Interactions between visceral, intestinal stimulation and autonomic cardiovascular function have received increasing attention over the last years. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of long-term continuous rectal distention on rectal tone and cardiovascular function at the threshold for first sensation of distention and moderate urge to ...
Hajivassiliou C A - - 1998
BACKGROUND: An artificial anal sphincter has been developed which aimed to simulate the normal physiology of the anorectum. As a prelude to human implantation the present study reports the effect of inflation of this device on colonic perfusion in patients undergoing colectomy, which was assessed by using a laser Doppler ...
Shi G - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: We undertook this study to determine the characteristics of swallow-induced lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxation in the setting of clinical manometry using a standardized methodology. METHODS: We reviewed 170 manometric recordings performed using a perfused manometric assembly with a sleeve sensor and a computer polygraph. Patients were categorized as ...
Zou S - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-OP), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and substance P (SP) on the dynamics of the biliary system and cardiovascular system, and the relationship between the dynamics of the biliary system and cardiodynamics. METHODS: In 91 anesthetized guinea pigs, a triple-lumen, side-hole perfusion catheter ...
Feinle C - - 1998
Both distension of the stomach and activation of small intestinal chemoreceptors by nutrients have been implicated in the induction of postprandial sensations. Studies were performed in healthy human subjects to investigate the roles of gastric distension and activation or inhibition of small intestinal chemoreceptors in the generation of pleasant (fullness) ...
Kapur K C - - 1998
Gastro-oesophageal reflux is more common in the right than in the left lateral position but the reasons why are not well understood. We have therefore studied the mechanisms underlying reflux in the lateral decubitus positions in patients with reflux disease. Fifteen patients with symptomatic reflux and excessive oesophageal acid exposure ...
Hirsch D P DP Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The - - 1998
Nitric oxide (NO) is well accepted as an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the gastrointestinal tract; however, its role in the triggering of transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations (TLESRs) in humans remains to be determined. Therefore, the effect of NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), a specific NO synthase blocker, on gastric distention-induced TLESRs was investigated. ...
Mearadji B - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Somatostatin affects gastrointestinal motility and secretion and visceral sensation, but little is known about its effects on the proximal stomach. AIM: To evaluate the effects of somatostatin on proximal gastric motor function and perception of symptoms. METHODS: Six healthy subjects participated in two experiments performed in random order during ...
Wong R F - - 1998
The purpose of this study was to use simultaneous anal manometry and high-frequency endoluminal ultrasonography (EUS) to determine the relationship between resting anal pressure and cross-sectional area of the internal and external anal sphincters. Eleven normal subjects underwent simultaneous anal EUS and manometry using catheters containing both pressure ports and ...
Adamek R J - - 1998
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In previous manometric investigations, we observed that patients with chest pain and arterial hypertension frequently tend to display oesophageal motility abnormalities. Therefore, we set out to study this systematically. METHODS: Patients with chest pain and normal coronary angiogram (n=40) and healthy controls (n=20) were studied prospectively in ...
Omari T I - - 1998
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to characterize the motor events responsible for gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and esophageal acid clearance in a cohort of healthy preterm infants. STUDY DESIGN: Esophageal motility was recorded for 2 to 3 hours after a feeding in 24 preterm infants, 31 to 38 weeks' ...
Sun W M - - 1998
The effects of the nitric oxide donor nitroglycerin on gastric emptying and antropyloroduodenal motility were evaluated in nine healthy male subjects (ages 19-36 yr). Antropyloroduodenal pressures were recorded with a manometric assembly that had nine side holes spanning the antrum and proximal duodenum and a pyloric sleeve sensor; gastric emptying ...
Siproudhis L - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Somatostatin is localized in the intestinal and pelvic nerves of the anorectum and it seems to act as an important neurotransmitter. However, previous analyses of octreotide (a somatostatin analog) effects on anal function showed conflicting results. By use of a dynamic model in healthy subjects, with comparison to the ...
Mason R J - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To develop selection criteria based on the mechanical properties of pharyngoesophageal swallowing that indicate when patients with pharyngeal dysphagia will benefit from a myotomy. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The pathophysiology of pharyngoesophageal swallowing disorders is complex. The disorder is of interest to several medical specialists (gastroenterologists, otorhinolaryngologists, general and thoracic ...
Clouse R E - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Intraluminal pressures from the gastrointestinal tract are conventionally analyzed from a set of two-dimensional tracings. We hypothesized that more information could be extracted by considering spatial relationships of pressure data. METHODS: A system was developed for recording pressure from up to 21 sites and analyzing the results using two- ...
Dua K - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is known to affect adversely the defence mechanisms against gastro-oesophageal reflux. The effect of smoking on the supraoesophageal reflexes that prevent aspiration of gastric contents has not been previously studied. AIMS: To elucidate the effect of cigarette smoking on two of the supraoesophageal reflexes: the pharyngo-upper oesophageal ...
Monk D N - - 1998
BACKGROUND: The strength-duration curve of a muscle is thought to be a measure of its innervation. This study was designed to evaluate the ability of the strength-duration curve of the external anal sphincter to discriminate between controls and patients with faecal incontinence. METHODS: Forty-three women with faecal incontinence due to ...
Ghoshal U C - - 1998
Endoscopic injection sclerotherapy (EIS) is known to produce oesophageal structural and motility changes; however, alterations in frequency and severity of gastro-oesophageal reflux (GER) following EIS have not been investigated in detail. We studied 22 patients with cirrhosis and oesophageal varices before EIS and 26 after variceal eradication with intravariceal EIS ...
Bustorff-Silva J M - - 1998
AIM: The aim of this paper is to describe a simple technique of extended hiatoplasty to achieve intraabdominal placement of the distal esophagus and evaluate it manometricaly. METHODS: Twelve mongrel dogs were submitted to esophageal manometry using a balloon system and continuous pull-through technique, before and after being submitted to ...
Ratjen F - - 1998
To assess whether flow limitation can be achieved during rapid thoracoabdominal compressions (RTC), we performed esophageal pressure measurements in 11 healthy infants less than 3 months of age. Recordings of esophageal pressure were obtained with an esophageal balloon placed in the lower esophagus. RTCs were started at 20 cm H2O ...
Kahrilas P J - - 1998
A balance of aggressive forces (reflux, caustic gastric juice) and defensive forces (acid clearance, epithelial defense) determine the occurrence of GERD. Guarding against reflux, the gastroesophageal junction is composed of both a smooth muscle element (the LES) and a diaphragmatic element, which normally supplement each other in both a static ...
Ulualp S O - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Earlier studies have shown that stimulation of the human pharynx by injection of minute amounts of water stimulates the pharyngo-UES contractile reflex. It has been suggested that this reflex may be activated during pharyngeal reflux of gastric and/or esophageal content, thus increasing the UES pressure and possibly preventing further ...
Reber P U - - 1998
BACKGROUND: In humans with chronic pancreatitis (CP), pancreatic interstitial pressure (IP) is elevated and pancreatic blood flow (PBF) is reduced. The efficacy of surgical decompression (SD) of the pancreatic duct (ie, pancreaticojejunostomy) is believed to be due to its ability to decrease IP and pancreatic vascular resistance (Rp), which increases ...
Wechsung E - - 1998
The effect of i.v. infusion of gastrin (CCK-4), cholecystokinin (CCK-8) and pancreatic polypeptide (PP), 20 and 200 ng/kg/min for 1 h, on gastrointestinal electrical activity and arterial pressure was studied in conscious miniature pigs. During infusion of CCK-8 a transient hypertension was observed. In the antrum, the 3 peptides provoked ...
Bittinger M - - 1998
BACKGROUND: In achalasia the incidence of autonomic neuropathy is increased, indicating that achalasia is not a disease of the oesophagus only. Little information is available concerning the function of the stomach in achalasia. We compared the postprandial gastric fundus relaxation in patients with achalasia to that of healthy controls. METHODS: ...
Clavé P - - 1998
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Exogenous cholecystokinin (CCK) decreases lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure and increases transient LES relaxations (TLESRs) in humans. The aims of this study were to determine whether endogenous CCK increases gastroesophageal reflux in humans and whether this is a direct effect on the LES. METHODS: Esophageal pH, LES ...
Montgomery M - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Patients with repaired esophageal atresia often show persistent motility disorders of the esophagus. METHODS: In this study, the authors used a newly developed method, videomanometry, to study intraluminal pressures and function of the pharynx and upper esophagus in such a group of patients and compared the results with those ...
Tack J - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Delayed gastric emptying, impaired gastric accommodation to a meal and hypersensitivity to gastric distension have been implied in the pathophysiology of functional dyspepsia. Dyspeptic patients are often treated with the prokinetic drug cisapride. AIM: To assess the effects of cisapride on perception of gastric distension and gastric accommodation to ...
Siproudhis L - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Despite their potential therapeutic benefit, the effects of cholinergic agents on anal function have been poorly investigated. AIM: To analyse the effects of neostigmine and atropine on anorectal responses to rectal isobaric distension. METHODS: This was a placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind crossover study, performed in 12 healthy volunteers who received ...
Shafik A - - 1998
BACKGROUND: The sphincter of Oddi (SO) may undergo functional disorders. The mechanism of action of this sphincter is as yet not fully explored; the current study aims at studying some aspects of this mechanism. METHODS: Twelve mongrel dogs (mean weight 15.3 +/- 2. 9 SD kg, 8 male, 4 female) ...
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