Search Results
Results 851 - 900 of 2373
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Eversman D - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Sphincter of Oddi manometry as performed at ERCP is the most accepted method to evaluate for sphincter of Oddi dysfunction. To fully assess for sphincter of Oddi dysfunction, both the pancreatic and the bile ducts must be evaluated. We assessed the frequency of pancreatic and biliary sphincter abnormalities in ...
Shafik A - - 1999
To investigate the reason why, during a mass contraction, the stool moving from the colon to the sigmoid colon stops short of the rectosigmoid junction (RSJ) instead of passing directly to the rectum, and whether the sigmoid colon and RSJ share in the anorectal continent mechanism, 12 mongrel dogs were ...
Flum D R - - 1999
Laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication is an effective technique for the symptomatic relief of the manifestations of gastroesophageal reflux disorder but is associated with a 0.8-1% rate of gastroesophageal perforation. Early detection and repair of these injuries is critical to patient outcome, but occult injuries occur and may be missed. Gastric insufflation ...
Vordermark D - - 1999
In 22 colostomy-free survivors of curative-intent radiation therapy or chemoradiation for anal carcinoma, measurement of the Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index (GIQLI) revealed a mean 114 of a maximum 144 points, as compared to 121 in healthy volunteers (n = 150) and 113 in patients with benign anorectal diseases (n ...
Yamana T - - 1999
PURPOSE: The aims of this study were to correlate postoperative defecatory function after low anterior resection with clinical factors and physiologic parameters and to explore the possibility of predicting early postoperative defecatory function after low anterior resection. METHODS: Thirty-two patients who underwent low anterior resection for rectal cancer were studied. ...
Jiang J K - - 1999
PURPOSE: Although it is generally believed that warm perineal baths reduce pain resulting from anal fissure, complicated hemorrhoids, or anal surgery, the exact mechanisms remain unclear. Because hypertonicity of the internal anal sphincter contributes to increasing pain in these conditions, it has been postulated that warm perineal baths could help ...
Cuomo R - - 1999
The pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is considered multifactorial, but alterations of the esophagogastric junction (EGJ) and hiatal hernia play a prominent role. The correlations between hiatal hernia and the other pathogenetic factors are as yet unclear, and they need to be investigated by a methodological approach based on ...
Chen C Y - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of bile duct obstruction on biliary secretion of ciprofloxacin and to look for useful parameters to guide clinical use of antibiotics in patients with acute cholangitis. METHODS: Twenty-five Landrace piglets were used in this study. Their common bile ducts ...
Pehlivanov N - - 1999
The sphinctometer is a solid-state device system for prolonged ambulatory recordings of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure. The aims of this study were to determine 1) the pressure sensitivity and the latency of sphinctometer responses in vitro, 2) if the sphinctometer can record transient LES relaxations (TLESR) in vivo, ...
Dantas R O - - 1999
Laryngectomy for treatment of laryngeal-pharyngeal carcinomas may impair the sensation in the larynx and epiglottis, with consequent impairment of esophageal motility. Our aim in the present study was to investigate the esophageal motility of laryngectomized patients. Esophageal manometry was performed on 17 patients submitted to laryngectomy 2 to 71 months ...
Garrigues V - - 1999
A 52-year-old man with idiopathic diffuse esophageal spasm and hypertensive lower esophageal sphincter presented with dysphagia for several years. After unsuccessful therapy with forceful pneumatic dilation of the cardia, a myotomy of the cardia and distal esophagus was performed. The patient became asymptomatic, lower esophageal sphincter pressure diminished to less ...
Iwakiri K - - 1999
This study examined the effect of body position on lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure. In 36 healthy subjects and 31 patients with reflux esophagitis, LES and intragastric pressures were measured with subjects in the supine and sitting positions by the intraluminal microtransducer method. LES pressure was significantly lower in the ...
Smith A B - - 1999
Sliding hiatal hernias are a common condition thought to occur with increasing age secondary to a degenerative process. The incidence of sliding hiatal hernias in the general population is 0.5%. Although the prevalence in the Western world is thought to be significantly higher, with approximately 60% of geriatric patients in ...
Schulze-Delrieu K - - 1999
How the movements of the intestinal walls relate to luminal pressures and outflow remains incompletely understood. We triggered the peristaltic reflex in the isolated ileum of the guinea pig and quantified wall movements through computerized measurements of diameter changes. Contractions developed as indentations close to the upstream end of the ...
Distrutti E - - 1999
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The primary mechanism that originates symptoms in response to gastric distention remains undefined. The aim of this study was to determine which factor, whether intragastric volume, pressure, or wall tension, determines perception of gastric distention. METHODS: Healthy subjects underwent increasing gastric distentions (2-minute duration at 5-minute intervals) ...
Fang J C - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Atropine, an anticholinergic agent with central and peripheral actions, reduces gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) in normal subjects and patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) by inhibiting the frequency of transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxation (TLOSR). AIMS: To compare the effect of methscopolamine bromide (MSB), a peripherally acting anticholinergic agent, with ...
Merritt A M - - 1999
This article represents an attempt to provide an overview of the current knowledge of equine gastroduodenal secretory and motor activity, with respect to how these functions are controlled and interact. First, the equine gastric mucosal anatomy is discussed in comparison with other monogastric species, with some attention directed at the ...
Kahrilas P J - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Hiatus hernia and lower oesophageal sphincter hypotension are often viewed as opposing hypotheses for gastro-oesophageal junction incompetence. AIMS: To examine the interaction between hiatus hernia and lower oesophageal sphincter hypotension. METHODS: In seven normal subjects and seven patients with hiatus hernia, the squamocolumnar junction and intragastric margin of the ...
Sultan A H - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility of a new technique of primary overlap anal sphincter repair instead of end-to-end repair. SETTING: A teaching hospital and a district general hospital. METHODS: Between June 1995 and November 1996, two obstetricians repaired 32 anal sphincters ruptured during vaginal delivery. A ruptured internal sphincter was ...
Bhatia S J - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Esophageal motility and lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure change with rapid changes in intraabdominal pressure (IAP); the response of these to slow change in IAP is not known. AIMS: To study esophageal body motility and LES pressures in patients with cirrhosis with tense ascites in the basal state and ...
Kroesen A J - - 1999
A constant reduction in anal sphincter pressure follows an ileoanal pouch procedure for ulcerative colitis and familiar adenomatous polyposis. We analyzed whether this reduction is more likely due to neurogenic damage or to direct sphincter trauma. Three-dimensional vector volume manometry was performed in 75 patients prior to the ileoanal pouch ...
Ireland A C - - 1999
INTRODUCTION: In normal subjects, transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations (TLOSRs) and gas reflux during belching are suppressed in the supine position. Supine reflux, however, is a feature of reflux disease. AIMS: To investigate whether postural suppression of TLOSRs and gas reflux is impaired in patients with reflux disease. PATIENTS: Ten ...
Rieger N - - 1999
The commonest cause of faecal incontinence is considered to be childbirth. In this review we consider the available data on the prevalence of faecal incontinence in the community and the incidence of incontinence after childbirth. The results and implications of studies on childbirth using anal manometry, neurophysiological tests and anal ...
Ho K Y - - 1999
Data on oesophageal manometry in normal subjects in the East are limited. The aim of this study was to define standard oesophageal pressure values in a group of healthy adults in Singapore. Standard oesophageal manometry was performed on 26 asymptomatic volunteers (12 males and 14 females, aged 19 to 34 ...
Lingenfelser T - - 1999
Marked hyperglycemia (blood glucose approximately 15 mmol/l) affects gastrointestinal motor function and modulates the perception of gastrointestinal sensations. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of mild hyperglycemia on the perception of, and motor responses to, duodenal distension. Paired studies were done in nine healthy volunteers, during ...
Shafik A - - 1999
PURPOSE: To elucidate the role of the rectosigmoid junction (RSJ) in the mechanism of defecation. METHOD: Fourteen healthy volunteers were enrolled in the study (10 men, 4 women; mean age 38.2 +/- 10.6 years). The pressures in the rectum, anal canal, and RSJ as well as rectal balloon expulsion were ...
Bardan E - - 1999
OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: Sensory impulses from the pharynx induce contraction of the upper esophageal sphincter (UES), relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES), and inhibition of peristalsis. To determine 1) the magnitude of UES contractile response to threshold volume of fluid that induces LES relaxation and 2) the effect of rapid pharyngeal ...
Arendt T - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: The mechanism whereby gallstone passage through the choledochoduodenal junction initiates acute pancreatitis is not known. We mimicked different patterns of stone impaction at the choledochoduodenal junction in a rabbit model and studied whether these result in biliary pancreatic reflux and the initiation of pancreatic inflammation. METHODS: In rabbits, catheters ...
Alonso P - - 1999
Although manometry is used with increasing frequency to evaluate the effectiveness of different treatments for achalasia, the criteria for a successful manometric response have not been well defined. Manometric responses were collected before and after 43 treatments in 35 patients with achalasia in order to determine manometric changes after different ...
Montedonico S - - 1999
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is frequently recognized after surgical repair of esophageal atresia. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that one or more components of the gastroesophageal pressure barrier are weakened by esophageal anastomosis under tension. METHODS: Lower esophageal sphincter pressure (LESP), crural sling pressure (CSP), ...
Dinning P G - - 1999
This study aimed to determine whether a sustained high-pressure zone exists at the human ileocolonic junction (ICJ) and whether the motor responses of ICJ are consistent with sphincteric function. In 10 subjects with temporary ileostomies, a high-pressure zone was identified using a manometric pull-through with a mean pressure of 9. ...
Sifrim D A - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: We previously developed a technique to study the effect of inhibitory innervation in the human oesophageal body, by creating an artificial high pressure zone (artificial HPZ) using an intra-oesophageal balloon. Swallowing provokes a fall in pressure in the artificial HPZ that precedes the peristaltic contraction. We aimed to prove ...
Middelfart H V - - 1999
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: In animal studies cholecystectomy has been found to alter the normal effect of cholecystokinin (CCK) on sphincter of Oddi (SO) function. This could be of importance with regard to the development of postcholecystectomy biliary pain. We therefore investigated the effect of laparoscopic cholecystectomy on SO motility ...
Farrell T M - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Antireflux operations restore lower esophageal sphincter (LES) function and hiatal anatomy; however, the relative contributions are unclear. METHODS: We measured the competency of fundoplications, exclusive of in vivo variables, in gastroesophageal explants from 8 cadavers. Using a multichannel manometer, esophageal, LES, and intragastric pressures were recorded during transpyloric distension. ...
Carapeti E A - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Phenylephrine is an alpha1-adrenergic agonist which causes contraction of human internal anal sphincter muscle in vitro. Its intra-arterial administration in animals has been shown to increase resting sphincter pressure in vivo. In this study the effect of topical application of phenylephrine on resting anal pressure in healthy human volunteers ...
Cuche G - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) found in the ileum after caecoileal reflux might trigger a physiologic ileal brake similar that induced by ileal nutrient infusion. This study evaluates gastric emptying and motility after ileal administration of SCFA. METHODS: In eight conscious pigs gastric emptying was evaluated by double dilution (liquids) ...
Richardson W S - - 1999
BACKGROUND: The antireflux capacity of various gastric fundoplications combines the creation of a valve (flapper or nipple) with recreation of a sharp cardioesophageal angle. Experimental comparison of valve competency and appropriate valve geometry is incomplete despite wide application of these techniques. Our primary aim was to compare the competency of ...
Kohjitani A - - 1999
PURPOSE: The effects of sevoflurane and enflurane on the intraluminal pressure of the lower esophagus (LE), lower esophageal sphincter (LES), and stomach were investigated in paralyzed and mechanically ventilated children under general anesthesia. METHODS: A total of 14 children, ASA physical status class I without risk factors for regurgitation, scheduled ...
Soffer E E - - 1999
Acute hyperglycemia has been shown to affect gastric motor function and colonic peristaltic reflex, but little is known about its effects on the small bowel. Our aim was to determine the effect of experimentally induced acute hyperglycemia on small bowel compliance and peristaltic reflex. Ten healthy subjects were studied during ...
Topart P - - 1999
Eighty-eight consecutive patients with antireflux fundoplication had manometry and pH recording pre- and post-operatively at 6 months and 1, 3 and 5 years for a mean follow-up of 30.6 months. Failure occurred in nine patients (11.4%). For the whole group of patients, surgery produced a significant increase in the lower ...
Henry M A - - 1999
Ten patients with progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS) and esophageal symptoms (group 1) and 10 control subjects were studied. Esophageal electromanometry using the intermittent pull-through technique and catheter perfusion with distilled water were performed in all patients and individuals. The variables studied were pressure amplitude in the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) ...
Lanas A - - 1999
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The lack of appropriate animal models might explain the paucity of information on the mechanisms of mucosal damage and defense in reflux esophagitis. The aim of this study was to develop a model of esophagitis in rabbits mimicking human reflux esophagitis. METHODS: New Zealand white rabbits underwent ...
Peters AJ - - 1999
Antiischemic effectiveness of long-term urokinase therapy and isovolemic hemodilution therapy has been reported in patients with symptomatic coronary artery disease, but both interventions have never been compared. In patients with refractory angina pectoris and end-stage coronary artery disease (clinical functional class III), isovolemic hemodilution (n = 9) (hydroxyethyl starch solution ...
Miura M - - 1999
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) represents one of the most common gastrointestinal-related diagnoses. Although the precise etiologic basis of IBS is not known, a common presenting symptom is abdominal pain or discomfort that is thought to develop, at least in part, from a heightened awareness of visceral nociceptive input. Agents capable ...
Petersen J A - - 1999
Previous studies have demonstrated regional differences in pressure-cross-sectional area relations, compliance and tension-strain relations of the oesophagus in vivo. The measurements and the variation in axial direction may reflect not only intrinsic oesophageal properties but can also be influenced by the adjacent organs. Four pigs were thoracotomised and the oesophagus ...
Olsson C - - 1999
In this study, we describe new methods for recording gastric emptying and in vivo measurements of intragastric pressure in fish. Using these methods, we investigated the effects of the sulphated octapeptide of cholecystokinin (CCK8) on gastric emptying and on stomach motility in vivo and in vitro. Gastric emptying of 99Tcm-labelled ...
Uvo S A - - 1999
The usefulness of ileocolic sphincter (ICS) transplantation to the neck after a total laryngopharyngectomy was investigated in 12 mongrel dogs. The authors aimed to evaluate the influence of the transplantation on ICS pressure amplitude and ICS length, and on ICS resistance to intracecal pressure increase. Electromanometric measurements showed that ICS ...
Musial F - - 1999
Interactions between visceral, intestinal stimulation and autonomic cardiovascular function have received increasing attention over the last years. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of long-term continuous rectal distention on rectal tone and cardiovascular function at the threshold for first sensation of distention and moderate urge to ...
Hajivassiliou C A - - 1998
BACKGROUND: An artificial anal sphincter has been developed which aimed to simulate the normal physiology of the anorectum. As a prelude to human implantation the present study reports the effect of inflation of this device on colonic perfusion in patients undergoing colectomy, which was assessed by using a laser Doppler ...
Shi G - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: We undertook this study to determine the characteristics of swallow-induced lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxation in the setting of clinical manometry using a standardized methodology. METHODS: We reviewed 170 manometric recordings performed using a perfused manometric assembly with a sleeve sensor and a computer polygraph. Patients were categorized as ...
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