Search Results
Results 851 - 900 of 2396
< 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 >
Shafik A - - 2000
PURPOSE: The sigmoid colon (SC) is the site of stool storage. The stools accumulate in the SC until, at a certain volume, the mechanoreceptors in the SC wall are stimulated, evoking the sigmoidorectal junction inhibitory reflex with a resulting SC contraction, rectosigmoid junction (RSJ) relaxation and passage of the stools ...
Liu S - - 2000
To study the changes of anorectal motility in patients with chronic idiopathic constipation, anorectal motility was investigated by water-perfused manometric system in 30 patients with chronic idiopathic constipation and 18 healthy subjects. Our results showed that there was no significant difference between the constipation group and the control group in ...
Shafik A - - 2000
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Although advances in rehabilitation practices, pharmacology, and surgery offer new bowel program alternatives, digital-rectal stimulation is still utilized to facilitate defecation in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). We speculated that defecation induced by such a technique is mediated through a reflex mechanism. METHODS: The study comprised ...
BÅ‚aut U - - 2000
The evidence exists that incomplete sphincterotomy in patients with biliary tract diseases may result in early symptoms reoccurrence or lack of improvement. Sphincter of Oddi manometry (SOM) can be used to verify the completeness of the procedure. The purpose of the study was to investigate the immediate effects of biliary ...
Maruta T - - 2000
Restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch anal anastomosis (IPAA) has become the standard surgical procedure for ulcerative colitis (UC). The purpose of this study was to determine which factors are important to achieve good anal continence after IPAA in terms of the motor activity and pressure-volume relationship. A total of 17 ...
Passaretti S - - 2000
Manometry is an important tool in the diagnosis of oesophageal motility, disorders, but proper instruments and methods are needed to obtain useful clinical information. The authors reviewed the minimal technical requirements, operative aspects, which information the final report should contain as well as indications and contraindications of the text itself. ...
Carapeti E A - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Anal incontinence due to internal sphincter dysfunction is not amenable to simple surgical repair. The alpha-adrenergic agonist phenylephrine produces contraction of the internal sphincter and raises resting pressure when applied topically in healthy volunteers. The effect of topical phenylephrine in the treatment of faecal incontinence due to internal sphincter ...
Shafik A - - 2000
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Our earlier studies have demonstrated that sacral magnetic stimulation (MS) in the canine model, in healthy volunteers and in constipated subjects brought about a rise in rectal pressure and a decline in rectal neck (anal canal) pressure as well as rectal evacuation. Based on these results, we studied the ...
Klaus A - - 2000
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The lower esophageal sphincter manometry of patients with hiatal hernia often displays a double hump configuration. It seems that this is due to gastric herniation above the high-pressure zone of the crura. This study examines this manometric phenomenon in patients with hiatal hernia and relates it to the lower ...
Rayner C K - - 2000
Recent studies suggest that the interaction between small intestinal nutrient stimulation and the blood glucose concentration is important in the regulation of gastric motility and appetite. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the effects of cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8) on antropyloric motility and appetite are influenced by changes ...
Shafik A - - 2000
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of rectal distension with a balloon simulating fecal mass, on the motile activity of the esophagus and stomach. METHOD: Nine healthy volunteers (7 men, 2 women, mean age 46.6 +/- 4.7 years) were studied. A manometric tube was introduced into the stomach and a balloon-tipped ...
Shafik A - - 2000
PURPOSE: To demonstrate the effect of sacral magnetic stimulation (MS) on the uninhibited rectal detrusor aiming at suppression of unstable rectal contractions. METHODS: The study was comprised of 6 patients (3 women, 3 men, ages between 32 and 49 years) with supraconal spinal cord injury who complained of fecal incontinence. ...
Cox M R - - 2000
BACKGROUND: A canine model was used to define whether Nissen fundoplication inhibits gastro-oesophageal reflux by inhibiting transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations (TLOSR) or by creating a pressure barrier at the gastro-oesophageal junction. METHODS: Four surgical models were studied pre-operatively and postoperatively. These were: (i) the surgical mobilization required for fundoplication ...
Clouse R E - - 2000
Topographic esophageal manometry utilizes an increased number of pressure sensors and three-dimensional displays to fully reveal the pressure continuum representing peristalsis. The techniques demonstrate that peristalsis is comprised of a chain of pressure segments, beginning at the upper esophageal sphincter and continuing through lower sphincter aftercontraction. Topographic methods have already ...
Lidums I - - 2000
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Transient lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxations are the major mechanism of gastroesophageal reflux in normal subjects and in most patients with reflux disease. gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an important inhibitory neurotransmitter within the central nervous system which is present in regions of the brainstem that are believed ...
Rønholt C - - 1999
PURPOSE: Ambulatory anorectal manometry is usually analyzed by computer analysis only. An in-depth analysis with visual assessment of the recordings combined with computer analysis is presented. METHODS: Recordings of 20 to 24 hours in length were performed on ten healthy subjects. Spontaneous anal canal relaxations were analyzed and related to ...
Schneider J H - - 1999
A sleeve catheter capable of monitoring the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure in four quadrants at right angels has been developed. The present study used this four-quadrant sleeve catheter to assess radial asymmetry in LES in the supine, prone, and upright positions. The results in 37 normal subjects were compared ...
Xue S - - 1999
The present experiments evaluate the effects on oesophageal motility of an o-raffinose cross-linked haemoglobin-based oxygen carrier (HBOC) purified from outdated donated human blood cells (HemolinkTM), with attention to dose-response (0.6-2.4 g kg-1), oxygenation status and low molecular weight components (4.4-36.4% 64 kDa or less). In ketamine-anaesthetized cats, lower oesophageal sphincter ...
Mearadji B B Department of Gastroenterology-Hepatology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The - - 1999
The present study was performed to investigate the effect of gastrin on proximal gastric motor and sensory function. Ten healthy volunteers participated in three experiments performed in random order during: (A) continuous intravenous infusion of saline (control) or (B) gastrin (15 pmol kg-1 h-1) reaching postprandial serum gastrin levels or ...
Carapeti E A - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Topical nitrates lower anal sphincter pressure and heal anal fissures, but a majority of patients experience headache. The internal anal sphincter has a calcium dependent mechanism to maintain tone, and also receives an inhibitory extrinsic cholinergic innervation. It may therefore be possible to lower anal sphincter pressure using calcium ...
Sifrim D - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: Meals increase the rate of transient lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxations, in part by gastric distension. The 5HT1 agonist sumatriptan reduces fasting fundic tone, prolongs the meal-induced fundic relaxation, and delays gastric emptying. We therefore hypothesized that sumatriptan might have a significant effect on the rate of postprandial transient ...
Montedonico S - - 1999
This study tests the hypothesis that either selective or combined destruction of the lower esophageal sphincter and the diaphragmatic crural sling should induce reflux in the rat. Pull-through perfusion manometry was performed before and after lower esophageal myectomy, crural myotomy, or both. pH monitoring was used to detect reflux. Unmanipulated ...
Newton M - - 1999
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The gastric fundus affects afferent control of lower oesophageal sphincter function. Nitric oxide is an important relaxant of the fundus. We postulated that gastric distensibility, compliance and nitric oxide sensitivity may be altered in patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD). METHODS: 9 patients with erosive oesophagitis (6 males; median ...
Eversman D - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Sphincter of Oddi manometry as performed at ERCP is the most accepted method to evaluate for sphincter of Oddi dysfunction. To fully assess for sphincter of Oddi dysfunction, both the pancreatic and the bile ducts must be evaluated. We assessed the frequency of pancreatic and biliary sphincter abnormalities in ...
Shafik A - - 1999
To investigate the reason why, during a mass contraction, the stool moving from the colon to the sigmoid colon stops short of the rectosigmoid junction (RSJ) instead of passing directly to the rectum, and whether the sigmoid colon and RSJ share in the anorectal continent mechanism, 12 mongrel dogs were ...
Flum D R - - 1999
Laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication is an effective technique for the symptomatic relief of the manifestations of gastroesophageal reflux disorder but is associated with a 0.8-1% rate of gastroesophageal perforation. Early detection and repair of these injuries is critical to patient outcome, but occult injuries occur and may be missed. Gastric insufflation ...
Vordermark D - - 1999
In 22 colostomy-free survivors of curative-intent radiation therapy or chemoradiation for anal carcinoma, measurement of the Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index (GIQLI) revealed a mean 114 of a maximum 144 points, as compared to 121 in healthy volunteers (n = 150) and 113 in patients with benign anorectal diseases (n ...
Yamana T - - 1999
PURPOSE: The aims of this study were to correlate postoperative defecatory function after low anterior resection with clinical factors and physiologic parameters and to explore the possibility of predicting early postoperative defecatory function after low anterior resection. METHODS: Thirty-two patients who underwent low anterior resection for rectal cancer were studied. ...
Jiang J K - - 1999
PURPOSE: Although it is generally believed that warm perineal baths reduce pain resulting from anal fissure, complicated hemorrhoids, or anal surgery, the exact mechanisms remain unclear. Because hypertonicity of the internal anal sphincter contributes to increasing pain in these conditions, it has been postulated that warm perineal baths could help ...
Cuomo R - - 1999
The pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is considered multifactorial, but alterations of the esophagogastric junction (EGJ) and hiatal hernia play a prominent role. The correlations between hiatal hernia and the other pathogenetic factors are as yet unclear, and they need to be investigated by a methodological approach based on ...
Chen C Y - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of bile duct obstruction on biliary secretion of ciprofloxacin and to look for useful parameters to guide clinical use of antibiotics in patients with acute cholangitis. METHODS: Twenty-five Landrace piglets were used in this study. Their common bile ducts ...
Pehlivanov N - - 1999
The sphinctometer is a solid-state device system for prolonged ambulatory recordings of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure. The aims of this study were to determine 1) the pressure sensitivity and the latency of sphinctometer responses in vitro, 2) if the sphinctometer can record transient LES relaxations (TLESR) in vivo, ...
Dantas R O - - 1999
Laryngectomy for treatment of laryngeal-pharyngeal carcinomas may impair the sensation in the larynx and epiglottis, with consequent impairment of esophageal motility. Our aim in the present study was to investigate the esophageal motility of laryngectomized patients. Esophageal manometry was performed on 17 patients submitted to laryngectomy 2 to 71 months ...
Garrigues V - - 1999
A 52-year-old man with idiopathic diffuse esophageal spasm and hypertensive lower esophageal sphincter presented with dysphagia for several years. After unsuccessful therapy with forceful pneumatic dilation of the cardia, a myotomy of the cardia and distal esophagus was performed. The patient became asymptomatic, lower esophageal sphincter pressure diminished to less ...
Iwakiri K - - 1999
This study examined the effect of body position on lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure. In 36 healthy subjects and 31 patients with reflux esophagitis, LES and intragastric pressures were measured with subjects in the supine and sitting positions by the intraluminal microtransducer method. LES pressure was significantly lower in the ...
Smith A B - - 1999
Sliding hiatal hernias are a common condition thought to occur with increasing age secondary to a degenerative process. The incidence of sliding hiatal hernias in the general population is 0.5%. Although the prevalence in the Western world is thought to be significantly higher, with approximately 60% of geriatric patients in ...
Schulze-Delrieu K - - 1999
How the movements of the intestinal walls relate to luminal pressures and outflow remains incompletely understood. We triggered the peristaltic reflex in the isolated ileum of the guinea pig and quantified wall movements through computerized measurements of diameter changes. Contractions developed as indentations close to the upstream end of the ...
Distrutti E - - 1999
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The primary mechanism that originates symptoms in response to gastric distention remains undefined. The aim of this study was to determine which factor, whether intragastric volume, pressure, or wall tension, determines perception of gastric distention. METHODS: Healthy subjects underwent increasing gastric distentions (2-minute duration at 5-minute intervals) ...
Fang J C - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Atropine, an anticholinergic agent with central and peripheral actions, reduces gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) in normal subjects and patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) by inhibiting the frequency of transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxation (TLOSR). AIMS: To compare the effect of methscopolamine bromide (MSB), a peripherally acting anticholinergic agent, with ...
Merritt A M - - 1999
This article represents an attempt to provide an overview of the current knowledge of equine gastroduodenal secretory and motor activity, with respect to how these functions are controlled and interact. First, the equine gastric mucosal anatomy is discussed in comparison with other monogastric species, with some attention directed at the ...
Kahrilas P J - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Hiatus hernia and lower oesophageal sphincter hypotension are often viewed as opposing hypotheses for gastro-oesophageal junction incompetence. AIMS: To examine the interaction between hiatus hernia and lower oesophageal sphincter hypotension. METHODS: In seven normal subjects and seven patients with hiatus hernia, the squamocolumnar junction and intragastric margin of the ...
Sultan A H - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility of a new technique of primary overlap anal sphincter repair instead of end-to-end repair. SETTING: A teaching hospital and a district general hospital. METHODS: Between June 1995 and November 1996, two obstetricians repaired 32 anal sphincters ruptured during vaginal delivery. A ruptured internal sphincter was ...
Bhatia S J - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Esophageal motility and lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure change with rapid changes in intraabdominal pressure (IAP); the response of these to slow change in IAP is not known. AIMS: To study esophageal body motility and LES pressures in patients with cirrhosis with tense ascites in the basal state and ...
Kroesen A J - - 1999
A constant reduction in anal sphincter pressure follows an ileoanal pouch procedure for ulcerative colitis and familiar adenomatous polyposis. We analyzed whether this reduction is more likely due to neurogenic damage or to direct sphincter trauma. Three-dimensional vector volume manometry was performed in 75 patients prior to the ileoanal pouch ...
Ireland A C - - 1999
INTRODUCTION: In normal subjects, transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations (TLOSRs) and gas reflux during belching are suppressed in the supine position. Supine reflux, however, is a feature of reflux disease. AIMS: To investigate whether postural suppression of TLOSRs and gas reflux is impaired in patients with reflux disease. PATIENTS: Ten ...
Rieger N - - 1999
The commonest cause of faecal incontinence is considered to be childbirth. In this review we consider the available data on the prevalence of faecal incontinence in the community and the incidence of incontinence after childbirth. The results and implications of studies on childbirth using anal manometry, neurophysiological tests and anal ...
Ho K Y - - 1999
Data on oesophageal manometry in normal subjects in the East are limited. The aim of this study was to define standard oesophageal pressure values in a group of healthy adults in Singapore. Standard oesophageal manometry was performed on 26 asymptomatic volunteers (12 males and 14 females, aged 19 to 34 ...
Lingenfelser T - - 1999
Marked hyperglycemia (blood glucose approximately 15 mmol/l) affects gastrointestinal motor function and modulates the perception of gastrointestinal sensations. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of mild hyperglycemia on the perception of, and motor responses to, duodenal distension. Paired studies were done in nine healthy volunteers, during ...
Shafik A - - 1999
PURPOSE: To elucidate the role of the rectosigmoid junction (RSJ) in the mechanism of defecation. METHOD: Fourteen healthy volunteers were enrolled in the study (10 men, 4 women; mean age 38.2 +/- 10.6 years). The pressures in the rectum, anal canal, and RSJ as well as rectal balloon expulsion were ...
Bardan E - - 1999
OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: Sensory impulses from the pharynx induce contraction of the upper esophageal sphincter (UES), relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES), and inhibition of peristalsis. To determine 1) the magnitude of UES contractile response to threshold volume of fluid that induces LES relaxation and 2) the effect of rapid pharyngeal ...
< 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 >