Search Results
Results 801 - 850 of 2374
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Thomas P D - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Endoscopic biliary manometry is useful in the assessment of patients with types II and III sphincter of Oddi dysfunction, but it is time consuming and invasive. AIM: To investigate the role of (99m)Tc-DISIDA scanning, with and without morphine provocation, as a non-invasive investigation in these patients compared with endoscopic ...
Pitt J - - 2000
PURPOSE: Patients with chronic anal fissures are known to have high resting anal pressures that return to normal after successful surgical treatment. Internal anal sphincter activity is increased by sympathetic excitatory innervation via alpha adrenoceptors. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of alpha-1 adrenoceptor blockade on ...
Shafik A - - 2000
Magnetic stimulation (MS) has been used to activate the neuromuscular tissue by inducing an electric field. Based on the results of a recent study on a canine model (Eur Surg Res 1998;30:268-72), which demonstrated that sacral MS effected a rectal and vesical pressure rise and a drop of rectal neck ...
Savoye G - - 2000
BACKGROUND: This study investigated the relationship between functional clinical results after artificial bowel sphincter implantation and manometric assessment in 12 consecutive patients. METHODS: A postoperative manometric study was performed in 12 patients, including measurement of resting and squeeze pressures, opening characteristics and pressure during straining. The relationship between postoperative findings, ...
Dantas R O - - 2000
The most important component of the upper esophageal sphincter (UES) is the cricopharyngeal muscle. During the measurement of sphincter pressure the catheter passed through the sphincter affects the pressure value. In Chagas' disease and primary achalasia there is an esophageal myenteric plexus denervation which may affect UES pressure. We measured ...
Arendt T - - 2000
Reflux of biliary secretions into the pancreatic duct following gallstone obstruction of the common biliary pancreatic ampulla has been implicated as a cause of acute pancreatitis. However, the pancreatic duct pressure is higher than the biliary pressure and, therefore, the simple obstruction of the choledochoduodenal junction by one gallstone does ...
Kajimoto T - - 2000
We studied the pharmacology of the neural pathways mediating the responses of ileo- and coloileo-colonic junction (ICJ) to regional distension in ten anaesthetized pigs. Using manometric pullthroughs and a sleeve sensor, we found the ICJ demonstrated sustained tone that was resistant to tetrodotoxin. Ileal distension decreased ICJ pressure by 22.2 ...
Meyer G W - - 2000
Using a low-compliance pneumohydraulic infusion system, we mapped the entire esophagus of nine volunteers with no history of esophageal disease, centimeter by centimeter, to see if there was pressure symmetry throughout the esophagus during 5 mL wet swallows. We found that esophageal length varied from 21-25 cm. The esophageal low-pressure ...
Sun Y - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Neuromodulation may be a new therapeutic approach in inflammatory bowel disease, but very little is known about neural control of colonic secretion in vivo. We therefore determined the effects of neural blockade on colonic motor activity and mucosal secretion in anaesthetized rats. METHODS: A proximal and a distal colonic ...
Van Herwaarden M A - - 2000
BACKGROUND: ABT-229, a motilin agonist without antibacterial activity, has been shown to enhance both lower oesophageal sphincter pressure in cats and gastric emptying in humans. AIM: To investigate the effect of oral treatment with ABT-229 10 mg b.d., ABT-229 5 mg b. d. and cisapride 10 mg q.d.s. on gastro-oesophageal ...
Shafik A - - 2000
PURPOSE: To present 10 patients who complained of passage of frequent loose stools which was found to be due to sigmoid colon hyperreflexia, a condition that, to our knowledge, has not been described before. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Ten patients (6 women, 4 men, mean age 46.6 years) complaining of frequent ...
Kalanovic D - - 2000
An adequate fundic wrap is fundamental to the success of conventional and laparoscopic Nissen fundoplications. Nevertheless, up to now there has been no standardized method for the surgeon to determine intraoperatively the width and tension of the fundic wrap according to objective criteria. With the support of Rüsch (Kernen, Germany), ...
Shaker R - - 2000
The upper esophageal sphincter (UES) and lower esophageal sphincter (LES) comprise the basal mechanisms against entry of gastric content into the aerodigestive tract and the airway. There are, however, other mechanisms referred to here as "response mechanisms" that become activated after certain stimulation, such as distention of the esophagus or ...
Mellander A - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Motor disturbances are sometimes associated with diarrhoea by unknown mechanisms. AIM: To determine if there is a quantitative link between intestinal motility and epithelial secretion. SUBJECTS: Experiments were performed in 21 healthy volunteers and three patients with villus atrophy. METHODS: Duodenal and jejunal motor activities were registered in the ...
Clouse R E - - 2000
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Esophageal double-peaked waves occur with increased frequency in patients with functional esophageal symptoms. This study was undertaken to further understand the mechanisms responsible for their production. METHODS: Topographic methods that consider temporal and spatial relationships of pressure data were used to examine 74 double-peaked waves detected in ...
Yokoyama M - - 2000
OBJECTIVES: Describe contribution of laryngeal movement to pressure changes at the upper esophageal sphincter (UES) and the effect of aging on the swallowing function. STUDY DESIGN: Manofluorography on 56 nondysphagic adults divided into three age groups: the 21- to 31-year-old group (n = 32), the 61- to 74-year-old group (n ...
Shafik A - - 2000
We recently studied the effect of sacral magnetic stimulation (MS) on the rectal mechanical activity. The current communication investigates its effect on the rectal electric activity. Twelve mongrel dogs (weight 15.2 +/- 3.2 kg, 7 male, 5 female) were anesthetized, the abdomen was opened, and three electrodes were sutured to ...
Izzo A A - - 2000
The effect of cannabinoid drugs on peristalsis in the guinea-pig ileum was studied. Peristalsis was induced by delivering fluid into the oral end of an isolated intestinal segment. Longitudinal muscle reflex contraction, threshold pressure and threshold volume to trigger peristalsis, compliance of the intestinal wall during the preparatory phase (a ...
Delattre J F - - 2000
The study of the functional anatomy of the gastroesophageal junction allows for the demonstration of a double mechanism that combats the conflict of pressures that tends to lead to gastroesophageal reflux. On one hand, the LES, an intrinsic structure, is directly related to the muscle fibers of the organ and ...
Willis S - - 2000
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the motor function of the ileoanal pouch and to evaluate its coordination with proximal small-intestine motility. METHODS: Proctocolectomy and ileal J pouch-anal anastomosis were performed in 12 dogs. Motility was recorded by serosal electrodes and strain gauge transducers. RESULTS: Transmission of ...
Kahrilas P J - - 2000
OBJECTIVES: This study compared the pressure topography after laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication to that of normal subjects and patients with hiatal hernia and reflux disease. METHODS: Seven patients with fundoplication, 7 normal subjects and 7 patients with hiatal hernia, were studied. The squamocolumnar junction and intragastric margin of the esophagogastric junction ...
Wei Jing-Guo - - 2000
AIM:To study the relationship between pre-formation of gallstone and the kinetics and ultra-structure of sphincter of Oddi.METHODS:Adult female rabbits were used and divided into 3 groups,and fed with either normal or high cholesterol diet for four or eight weeks.Each group contained eight rabbits. The manometry of sphincter of Oddi, biliary ...
Hananoki M - - 2000
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to establish a method to determine lower oesophageal sphincter (LOS) pressure using an endoscopic manometric sleeve assembly. METHODS: We used a 250-cm, three-lumen, 2.2-mm external diameter silicon catheter with a 3-cm sleeve sensor that was passed easily through the biopsy channel (2.8 mm ...
Bortolotti M M Department of Internal Medicine and Gastroenterology, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy. - - 2000
Sildenafil shows an intense and prolonged inhibitory effect on the smooth muscle cells of the human corpus cavernosum by blocking phosphodiesterase type 5 that destroys nitric oxide-stimulated cyclic guanosine monophosphate. We investigated if sildenafil possesses a similar effect on the esophageal musculature of patients with achalasia, where there is an ...
Allen M L - - 2000
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Two ways popularly used to measure lower esophageal sphincter pressure are the mid-respiratory and end-expiratory methods. The aim of this study was to compare the suitability of these methods in the manometric assessment of patients with endoscopically documented esophagitis. METHODS: Manometry was performed on 22 consecutive patients to determine ...
Schuster T - - 2000
There are several totally different definitions of the so-called ectopic anus. To determine whether computerized eight-channel manometry helps to define the entity of the ectopic anus, ten patients (nine females) were operated upon for an ectopic anus by the anal transposition technique (perineal pull-through procedure). Besides the software-supported manometric data, ...
Sun W M - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the long term effects of pyloromyotomy for infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) on gastric emptying and pyloric motility. METHODS: Concurrent measurements of gastric emptying and antropyloroduodenal pressures were performed in six volunteers (aged 24-26 yr) who had had pyloromyotomy performed in ...
Akao S - - 2000
The tight junction of pancreatic exocrine cells is thought to regulate paracellular permeability, and is a possible reflux route of pancreatic juice into the blood flow. Morphological changes in the tight junction of canine pancreatic acinar cells following intraductal hypertension and secretin stimulation were morphometrically analyzed to obtain evidence of ...
Shafik A - - 2000
PURPOSE: The sigmoid colon (SC) is the site of stool storage. The stools accumulate in the SC until, at a certain volume, the mechanoreceptors in the SC wall are stimulated, evoking the sigmoidorectal junction inhibitory reflex with a resulting SC contraction, rectosigmoid junction (RSJ) relaxation and passage of the stools ...
Liu S - - 2000
To study the changes of anorectal motility in patients with chronic idiopathic constipation, anorectal motility was investigated by water-perfused manometric system in 30 patients with chronic idiopathic constipation and 18 healthy subjects. Our results showed that there was no significant difference between the constipation group and the control group in ...
Shafik A - - 2000
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Although advances in rehabilitation practices, pharmacology, and surgery offer new bowel program alternatives, digital-rectal stimulation is still utilized to facilitate defecation in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). We speculated that defecation induced by such a technique is mediated through a reflex mechanism. METHODS: The study comprised ...
BÅ‚aut U - - 2000
The evidence exists that incomplete sphincterotomy in patients with biliary tract diseases may result in early symptoms reoccurrence or lack of improvement. Sphincter of Oddi manometry (SOM) can be used to verify the completeness of the procedure. The purpose of the study was to investigate the immediate effects of biliary ...
Maruta T - - 2000
Restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch anal anastomosis (IPAA) has become the standard surgical procedure for ulcerative colitis (UC). The purpose of this study was to determine which factors are important to achieve good anal continence after IPAA in terms of the motor activity and pressure-volume relationship. A total of 17 ...
Passaretti S - - 2000
Manometry is an important tool in the diagnosis of oesophageal motility, disorders, but proper instruments and methods are needed to obtain useful clinical information. The authors reviewed the minimal technical requirements, operative aspects, which information the final report should contain as well as indications and contraindications of the text itself. ...
Carapeti E A - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Anal incontinence due to internal sphincter dysfunction is not amenable to simple surgical repair. The alpha-adrenergic agonist phenylephrine produces contraction of the internal sphincter and raises resting pressure when applied topically in healthy volunteers. The effect of topical phenylephrine in the treatment of faecal incontinence due to internal sphincter ...
Shafik A - - 2000
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Our earlier studies have demonstrated that sacral magnetic stimulation (MS) in the canine model, in healthy volunteers and in constipated subjects brought about a rise in rectal pressure and a decline in rectal neck (anal canal) pressure as well as rectal evacuation. Based on these results, we studied the ...
Klaus A - - 2000
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The lower esophageal sphincter manometry of patients with hiatal hernia often displays a double hump configuration. It seems that this is due to gastric herniation above the high-pressure zone of the crura. This study examines this manometric phenomenon in patients with hiatal hernia and relates it to the lower ...
Rayner C K - - 2000
Recent studies suggest that the interaction between small intestinal nutrient stimulation and the blood glucose concentration is important in the regulation of gastric motility and appetite. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the effects of cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8) on antropyloric motility and appetite are influenced by changes ...
Shafik A - - 2000
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of rectal distension with a balloon simulating fecal mass, on the motile activity of the esophagus and stomach. METHOD: Nine healthy volunteers (7 men, 2 women, mean age 46.6 +/- 4.7 years) were studied. A manometric tube was introduced into the stomach and a balloon-tipped ...
Shafik A - - 2000
PURPOSE: To demonstrate the effect of sacral magnetic stimulation (MS) on the uninhibited rectal detrusor aiming at suppression of unstable rectal contractions. METHODS: The study was comprised of 6 patients (3 women, 3 men, ages between 32 and 49 years) with supraconal spinal cord injury who complained of fecal incontinence. ...
Cox M R - - 2000
BACKGROUND: A canine model was used to define whether Nissen fundoplication inhibits gastro-oesophageal reflux by inhibiting transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations (TLOSR) or by creating a pressure barrier at the gastro-oesophageal junction. METHODS: Four surgical models were studied pre-operatively and postoperatively. These were: (i) the surgical mobilization required for fundoplication ...
Clouse R E - - 2000
Topographic esophageal manometry utilizes an increased number of pressure sensors and three-dimensional displays to fully reveal the pressure continuum representing peristalsis. The techniques demonstrate that peristalsis is comprised of a chain of pressure segments, beginning at the upper esophageal sphincter and continuing through lower sphincter aftercontraction. Topographic methods have already ...
Lidums I - - 2000
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Transient lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxations are the major mechanism of gastroesophageal reflux in normal subjects and in most patients with reflux disease. gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an important inhibitory neurotransmitter within the central nervous system which is present in regions of the brainstem that are believed ...
Rønholt C - - 1999
PURPOSE: Ambulatory anorectal manometry is usually analyzed by computer analysis only. An in-depth analysis with visual assessment of the recordings combined with computer analysis is presented. METHODS: Recordings of 20 to 24 hours in length were performed on ten healthy subjects. Spontaneous anal canal relaxations were analyzed and related to ...
Schneider J H - - 1999
A sleeve catheter capable of monitoring the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure in four quadrants at right angels has been developed. The present study used this four-quadrant sleeve catheter to assess radial asymmetry in LES in the supine, prone, and upright positions. The results in 37 normal subjects were compared ...
Xue S - - 1999
The present experiments evaluate the effects on oesophageal motility of an o-raffinose cross-linked haemoglobin-based oxygen carrier (HBOC) purified from outdated donated human blood cells (HemolinkTM), with attention to dose-response (0.6-2.4 g kg-1), oxygenation status and low molecular weight components (4.4-36.4% 64 kDa or less). In ketamine-anaesthetized cats, lower oesophageal sphincter ...
Mearadji B - - 1999
The present study was performed to investigate the effect of gastrin on proximal gastric motor and sensory function. Ten healthy volunteers participated in three experiments performed in random order during: (A) continuous intravenous infusion of saline (control) or (B) gastrin (15 pmol kg-1 h-1) reaching postprandial serum gastrin levels or ...
Carapeti E A - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Topical nitrates lower anal sphincter pressure and heal anal fissures, but a majority of patients experience headache. The internal anal sphincter has a calcium dependent mechanism to maintain tone, and also receives an inhibitory extrinsic cholinergic innervation. It may therefore be possible to lower anal sphincter pressure using calcium ...
Sifrim D - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: Meals increase the rate of transient lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxations, in part by gastric distension. The 5HT1 agonist sumatriptan reduces fasting fundic tone, prolongs the meal-induced fundic relaxation, and delays gastric emptying. We therefore hypothesized that sumatriptan might have a significant effect on the rate of postprandial transient ...
Montedonico S - - 1999
This study tests the hypothesis that either selective or combined destruction of the lower esophageal sphincter and the diaphragmatic crural sling should induce reflux in the rat. Pull-through perfusion manometry was performed before and after lower esophageal myectomy, crural myotomy, or both. pH monitoring was used to detect reflux. Unmanipulated ...
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