Search Results
Results 751 - 800 of 2373
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Jones K L - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether slowing of gastric emptying and glucose absorption with guar gum would reduce the fall in blood pressure after an oral glucose load in older subjects. DESIGN: A randomized, experimental, cross-over study. SETTING: Department of Nuclear Medicine, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, SA, Australia. PARTICIPANTS: Ten healthy subjects, ...
Sønksen J - - 2001
PURPOSE: We investigate internal and external sphincter responses during penile vibratory stimulation and electroejaculation in men with spinal cord injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ejaculation induction with simultaneous recording of external and internal sphincter pressures was performed in 9 spinal cord injured men. Of the patients with upper motor neuron lesions ...
Lysy J - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Anal fissure is perpetuated by high sphincter pressures and secondary local ischaemia. Pharmacological approaches include topical nitrates and botulinum toxin (BT) which act to reduce anal pressure. BT lowers anal pressure by preventing acetylcholine release from nerve terminals while topical nitrates act by donating nitric oxide (NO). The aims ...
Bower A L - - 2001
BACKGROUND: The physiologic competency of intrathoracic fundoplications remains controversial. This study compared the physiologic qualities of intra-abdominal Nissen fundoplications (IAF) with those of intrathoracic Nissen fundoplications (ITF) in a porcine model. METHODS: The lower esophageal sphincter (LES) length (cm), LES resting pressure (mm Hg), and intragastric pressure (mm Hg) necessary ...
Swift G L - - 2001
Assessment of the effect of balloon dilation of the lower esophageal sphincter in achalasia currently relies on symptom scores, radiologic studies, or manometry. We have used vector volume analysis which constructs a three-dimensional (3D) pressure profile to examine the effects of balloon dilation on the sphincter. Studies were performed in ...
Patti M G - - 2001
Esophageal achalasia is a primary esophageal motility disorder of unknown etiology, characterized by absence of esophageal peristalsis and increased resting pressure of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES), which fails to relax appropriately in response to swallowing. Treatment is palliative and is directed toward elimination of the outflow resistance caused by ...
Bollard R C - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: Anorectal manometry is an established important investigation in a number of disorders. The specialist ano-rectal laboratory is not always available, and a hand held manometer may be a useful tool in the outpatient setting to avoid an unnecessary visit to the anorectal physiology laboratory. Our aims were to determine ...
Marks J M - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Botulinum toxin A (Botox) functionally paralyzes the sphincter of Oddi in both animals and humans, resulting in reduced pressures. No study, however, has specifically addressed common bile duct (CBD) pressures after Botox injection into the sphincter of Oddi with regard to treating biliary leaks and fistulae. The goals of ...
Raut V V - - 2001
The influence of food bolus consistency on the pharyngeal wave during swallowing was investigated using a four-sensor manometry probe in 22 healthy volunteers. Pharyngeal pressures were recorded for 5 ml boluses of water, pudding and buttered bread via a manometry probe placed transnasally. The distal sensor was sited within the ...
Katsanos K H - - 2001
Although swallowing difficulties have been described in patients with Kearns-Sayre syndrome (KSS), the spectrum of manometric characteristics of dysphagia is not yet well known. Moreover, it is conceivable that a combination of various degrees of swallowing difficulties with different patterns in manometric studies exist, each playing a major role in ...
Petersen P - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Visceral pain is a major clinical problem. The aim of the present study was to compare the pain and biomechanical responses to standardized distension of the human colon. METHODS: The relation between pain intensity and pressure, cross-sectional area (CSA) and tension-strain relations of the rectum and sigmoid colon were ...
Królczyk G - - 2001
Nonpharmacologic regulation of gastrointestinal motility may become competitive to actually applied methods in the nearest future. The Aim of this study was to evaluate effect of vagal stimulation on gastric motility and emptying. Experiments were performed on 30 male Wistar rats in vivo. Electrodes (120 um O Cr/Mo Microfil Industries) ...
Panteleev S - - 2000
In experiments on urethane anaesthetised rats the influence of electrical stimulation of ventral areas of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) on spontaneous and vagally-mediated gastric motility were studied. Stimulation of the mPFC resulted in gastric relaxation manifested as a fall in intragastric pressure from a baseline value of 5.0 +/- ...
Williams A B - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Anal canal squeeze pressure is assumed to be due to external sphincter contraction, but the contribution of other muscles has not been explored. METHODS: Ten male and ten nulliparous female asymptomatic subjects had three-dimensional anal endosonography and manometry. Incremental squeeze pressures at 0. 5-cm intervals, expressed as a percentage ...
Ciccaglione A F - - 2000
Controversial data are available on the duration of action of glyceryl trinitrate after acute and chronic application on anal canal pressure. Our aim was to assess the effect of glyceryl trinitrate at 0.2% and 2% on anal canal pressure before and after eight weeks of treatment. Anal canal pressure was ...
van Herwaarden M A - - 2000
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Esophageal acid exposure is higher in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) patients with hiatus hernia than in those without. We investigated the effect of a sliding hiatus hernia on the mechanisms underlying spontaneous gastroesophageal reflux over 24 hours. METHODS: Twelve GERD patients with and 10 GERD patients without ...
Riedy L W - - 2000
The objective of this study was to determine if short periods of electrical stimulation with perianal electrodes could increase anal pressures. Anorectal responses to electrical stimulation were evaluated in five healthy SCI patients. Anorectal pressures were recorded with a small pressure-recording balloon before, during, and immediately following stimulation. A battery-powered ...
Bardan E - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of ageing on length and resting pressure of the upper and lower oesophageal sphincters (UOSs, LOSs). BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of upper and lower oesophageal sphincters (UOSs and LOSs, respectively) in the control of retrograde trans-sphincteric flow is influenced by sphincteric pressure and length. METHODS: Nine ...
Takahata S - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Endoscopic balloon dilation is under investigation as a treatment modality for bile duct stones. It may have an advantage of preserving the sphincter of Oddi function, but little is known about sphincter of Oddi cyclic motility after dilation. METHODS: Four dogs with a duodenal cannula underwent sphincter of Oddi ...
Martinez-Serna T - - 2000
BACKGROUND: The transoral, endoscopic route has been suggested as a possible approach for the correction of severe gastroesophageal reflux. Such a procedure would involve no mobilization of the cardia or other structures. The optimal placement, number, and configuration of sutures remains undefined. METHODS: With the use of a previously developed ...
Jorge J M - - 2000
We tested the value of the sphincter asymmetry index (SAI), an adjunct study of vectormanometry for detecting sphincter defects of difficult clinical diagnosis, in patients with anal incontinence referred for anal manometry. Patients were prospectively classified as having no previous anal trauma (group I, n = 13), those with possible ...
Adachi M - - 2000
The motor in the outer hair cell converts electrical energy directly into mechanical energy. There are two possible mechanisms for such a motor: one depends on changes in the membrane area ("area motor") and the other on changes in the stiffness ("stiffness motor"). These two mechanisms, which are not mutually ...
Simrén M - - 2000
The propagation pattern of individual pressure waves in the gastroduodenal area in IBS is unexplored. We performed antroduodenojejunal manometry on 26 patients with IBS--13 with diarrhea predominant IBS (IBS-D) and 13 with constipation predominant IBS (IBS-C)--and 32 healthy controls. Neuropathic-like motor abnormalities were found in 38% of the patients with ...
Shafik A - - 2000
Mass movements of the left-sided colon bring the colonic material contained in it to the sigmoid colon. The cause why the colonic contents do not pass directly to the rectum but stop short of the rectosigmoid junction (RSJ) was studied. The study comprised 10 healthy volunteers (mean age 39.2 +/- ...
Sweeney K J - - 2000
The hypertensive lower oesophageal sphincter (HLOS) is a distinct clinical entity defined by a lower oesophageal sphincter (LOS) pressure > or = 30mmHg and normal LOS relaxation and oesophageal peristalsis. The clinical, physiological, and radiological details of 27 patients with HLOS diagnosed in a 3-year period were reviewed. The reasons ...
Kawahara H - - 2000
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: To define the clinical role of laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication (LNF) in children with gastroesophageal reflux (GER), an appropriate understanding of its functional effects is required. The aim of this study was to investigate the motor function of the esophageal body and the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) with special reference ...
Blaut U - - 2000
BACKGROUND: When sphincter of Oddi manometry (SOM) and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography are performed at the same session, SOM is usually performed immediately before ductography because of concern about the accuracy of the manometric recording after contrast medium injection. However, it would be preferable to inject contrast medium first to identify ...
Bassotti G - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Chronic anal fissure is a frequent and troubling condition, that may need surgical sphincterotomy for relief of symptoms. However, this approach may yield minor incontinence in up to 30% of cases. Interest has, therefore, recently increased in "chemical sphincterotomy" by using topical glyceryl trinitrate ointment. Unfortunately, there is, to ...
Carapeti E A - - 2000
PURPOSE: Topical glyceryl trinitrate heals anal fissures, but a majority of patients experience headache. Topical gels of the calcium channel blocker diltiazem and the cholinomimetic bethanechol significantly lower anal sphincter pressure in volunteers. This study investigated the use of these two new pharmacologic agents in the treatment of patients with ...
Lynch A C - - 2000
Spinal cord injured (SCI) patients have delayed colonic motility and anorectal dysfunction resulting in functional obstruction and constipation. This may be caused by changes in descending modulation from the central or sympathetic nervous systems. Anorectal dyssynergy may demonstrate similarities to that seen in the bladder following SCI. Anorectal manometry was ...
Stotzer P O - - 2000
According to animal experiments, postprandial gastric emptying of indigestible solids is mainly related to the antral phase III activity of the migrating motor complex. Gastric emptying of indigestible solids in humans has not been directly correlated to pressure recordings. The aim of the present study was to investigate the postprandial ...
Bhandarkar P V - - 2000
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Nicotine administration is known to decrease lower oesophageal sphincter (LOS) pressure. Although a few studies have assessed the effect of tobacco on the LOS, the effect of acute and long-term oral tobacco use on oesophageal motility is not known. The study was designed to investigate the effect ...
Anvari M - - 2000
Proximal gastric vagotomy (PGV) has little impact on the normal pattern of solid gastric emptying, despite denervation of the proximal two thirds of the stomach and loss of the proximal gastric pump. In four healthy volunteers and four patients with PGV, we investigated the possible compensatory mechanisms that may come ...
Fynes M M - - 2000
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the role of anal vector manometry in the assessment of postpartum anal sphincter injury and to establish the most suitable method of anal vector volume analysis for identifying significant external anal sphincter (EAS) injury in an at-risk parous population. METHODS: A ...
Mwanza A M - - 2000
A method for monitoring oviductal isthmic motility in sows incorporating a computer programme (Polyview) was developed. This method was found to be reliable and easy for recording and analysing data. Isthmic motility patterns were monitored from 11 h prior to and up to 36 h after ovulation in 13 unrestrained ...
Mearin F - - 2000
We have evaluated esophageal tone in two different conditions that, in some cases, similarly impair phasic esophageal motility. Studies were performed in 14 healthy volunteers, 10 patients with total esophageal aperistalsis secondary to gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and 25 untreated achalasia patients. We quantified esophageal compliance and relaxation induced by ...
Torrico S - - 2000
Upper esophageal sphincter (UES) function during gastroesophageal reflux events is not completely elucidated because previous studies addressing this issue yielded conflicting results. We reexamined the UES pressure response to intraluminal esophageal pressure and pH changes induced by reflux events. We studied 14 healthy, asymptomatic volunteers (age 49 +/- 6 yr) ...
Aymerich R R - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Data are scant on the miss rate of sphincter of Oddi dysfunction if basal pressure in both biliary and pancreatic sphincter segments is not measured during manometry. METHODS: Motility tracings with basal pressure measurements of both sphincter segments were retrospectively analyzed. Basal sphincter pressure greater than 40 mm Hg ...
McCray W H WH - - 2000
The purpose of this investigation was to separate the high pressure zone (HPZ) of the distal esophagus into its two components, the intrinsic lower esophageal sphincter (LES) and the extrinsic crural diaphragm (CD), using simultaneous esophageal manometry and high-resolution endoluminal sonography. Five normal subjects were studied during end inspiration using ...
González-Correa C A - - 2000
It has previously been shown that it is possible to differentiate between squamous and columnar epithelia in rat and resected human tissues using an impedance probe to make in vitro measurements. This probe can be passed down an endoscope allowing measurements to be made in patients. However, the probe emerges ...
del Pino Porres F J - - 2000
We present 98 patients operated on by two techniques of 360-degree fundoplication due to gastroesopagheal reflux disease and divided in two groups: Group I comprised those who were given a conventional valve 5 cm in length, and group II underwent a short fundoplication that did not surpass 1.5 cm. All ...
Mearin F - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Manometric assessment of the gastro-esophageal junction (GEJ) is deceptive in that ignores key dynamic properties of the junction, such as resistance to flow and compliance. Our aim was to investigate the mechanical properties of the GEJ comprising intraluminal pressure (measured by manometry), resistance to flow and compliance (measured by ...
Korn O - - 2000
Anatomic and clinical data suggest that the gastroesophageal junction or cardia in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease GERD) may be dilated. We hypothesized that anatomic dilatation of the cardia induces a lower esophageal sphincter dysfunction that may be corrected by narrowing the gastroesophageal junction (i.e., calibration of the cardia). We ...
Utley D S - - 2000
BACKGROUND: An endoscopic technique that eliminates gastroesophageal reflux disease would be of benefit to patients. The endoscopic delivery of radiofrequency energy to the porcine gastroesophageal junction was investigated and its effect on lower esophageal sphincter pressure, gastric yield pressure, and histology was assessed. METHODS: Twenty pigs underwent esophageal manometry and ...
Madácsy L - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: In the present study, the diagnostic efficacy of quantitative hepatobiliary scintigraphy (QHBS) was compared with that of endoscopic sphincter of Oddi (SO) manometry (ESOM) in patients with a suspected SO dysfunction (SOD) of biliary type II or III. METHODS: Twenty cholecystectomized patients with SOD biliary types II and III ...
Shafik A - - 2000
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To study the effect of rectal distension on jejunal and ileal motility aiming at the assessment of the possible role of rectal distension induced by constipation on the transport of the material in the gut. METHODOLOGY: The rectum of 16 healthy volunteers (mean age: 38.6 +/- 11.7 years, 10 ...
van Petersen A S - - 2000
During acute hyperglycaemia, gastric emptying is delayed and the compliance of the proximal stomach is increased significantly. It is not known whether the effect of hyperglycaemia on proximal gastric motor function in healthy volunteers results from endogenous hyperinsulinaemia. Therefore we studied the effects of acute hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia on proximal ...
Hasegawa H - - 2000
PURPOSE: Fecal diversion for sphincter repair is controversial. This randomized trial assessed whether fecal diversion would improve primary wound healing and functional outcome after sphincter repair. METHODS: Thirty-three patients with fecal incontinence requiring sphincter repair were recruited, but only 27 agreed to be randomly assigned to a defunctioning stoma (n ...
Castedal M - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Late duodenal phase III is characterized by retroperistalsis. The physiologic function of this phenomenon is unknown. Our aim was to study the relationship between duodenal motility and the transport of duodenal contents from the biliary tract and the duodenum by using a double-isotope technique. METHODS: Manometric analysis of the ...
Thomas P D - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Endoscopic biliary manometry is useful in the assessment of patients with types II and III sphincter of Oddi dysfunction, but it is time consuming and invasive. AIM: To investigate the role of (99m)Tc-DISIDA scanning, with and without morphine provocation, as a non-invasive investigation in these patients compared with endoscopic ...
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