Search Results
Results 701 - 750 of 2393
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Cuomo R - - 2001
The rapid pull-through (RPT) technique during esophageal manometry helps to identify various pressure profiles of hiatal hernia (HH), based on the presence of two high pressure zones: the diaphragmatic crura (DC) and the lower esophageal sphincter (LES). Our aim was to correlate different HH profiles with frequency of reflux episodes ...
Jonas M - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Topical 0.2 per cent glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) lowers resting anal pressure (RAP) and heals two-thirds of chronic anal fissures. Over 50 per cent of patients experience headache, presumably through systemic absorption, but the pharmacokinetics of GTN ointment are unknown. This study evaluated the systemic absorption profile of GTN, and ...
Dutta H K - - 2001
Symptoms related to esophageal dysmotility are common following successful repair of esophageal atresia (EA) and tracheo-esophageal fistula (TEF). Esophageal manometry was performed in 27 survivors of EA/TEF at a mean age of 30.5 +/- 30.3 months and in 25 age-matched controls (mean age 36.8 +/- 22.6 months). The patients were ...
van Herwaarden M A - - 2001
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Conventional short term manometry is a valuable tool in the diagnosis of achalasia but the technique may fail to detect intermittent motor events. The aim of this study was to investigate the pattern of lower oesophageal sphincter (LOS) and oesophageal pressures during prolonged recording in patients with ...
Easter D W - - 2001
HYPOTHESIS: Endoscopically delivered prostheses are safe, durable, and may augment a defective lower esophageal sphincter (LES). METHODS: Pigs were studied as normal-LES or LES-weakened animals. A novel endoscopic delivery system was developed in order to place multiple hydrogel prostheses into the LES submucosa. Histopathology sections evaluated ultimate durability and the ...
Morren G L - - 2001
PURPOSE: Electrical sacral root stimulation induces defecation in spinal cord injury patients and is currently under examination as a new therapy for fecal incontinence. In contrast to electrical stimulation, magnetic stimulation is noninvasive. To gain more insight into the mechanism of action of sacral root stimulation, we studied the effects ...
Shafik A - - 2001
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Rectal sensation seems to originate from mechanoreceptors which are stimulated by passive rectal filling or active contraction. We investigated the effect of temperature on rectal function. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A balloon was introduced into the rectum of 28 healthy volunteers, filled with 50 ml saline at various ...
Steens J - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Functional impairments are frequently observed in patients with an ileoanal pouch. Meal ingestion increases pouch tone and motility. Little is known, however, about the influence of meal-stimulated pouch characteristics on pouch function. The aim was to characterize basal and postprandial pouch motor and sensory characteristics in relation to clinical ...
Williams R B - - 2001
We applied high-resolution manometry with spatiotemporal data interpolation and simultaneous videofluoroscopy to normal pharyngeal swallows to correlate specific features in the space-time intraluminal pressure structure with physiological events and normal deglutitive transsphincteric bolus flow to define normal biomechanical properties of the pharyngo-esophageal (PE) segment. Pressures were recorded by microperfused catheter, ...
Jonas M - - 2001
PURPOSE: Glyceryl trinitrate ointment applied to the anal verge lowers anal resting pressure, but its duration of action is uncertain. This study investigated the effect and duration of action of 0.2 percent glyceryl trinitrate on anal resting pressure and hemodynamic parameters. METHODS: A total of 15 volunteers, 9 male, with ...
Straathof J W - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication effectively reduces acid reflux and reflux symptoms. Little is known about the effect on reflux mechanisms, especially on transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations (TLOSRs). METHODS: Twenty-seven patients were studied prospectively before and after laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication, by simultaneous recording of pH and lower oesophageal sphincter (LOS) ...
Bortolotti M - - 2001
Sildenafil shows an intense and prolonged inhibitory effect on the smooth muscle cells of corpus cavernosum arterioles by blocking phosphodiesterase type 5 that inactivates the nitric oxide-stimulated cyclic guanosine monophosphate. We investigated if this inhibitory effect is also displayed on smooth muscle cells of the esophagus. In 16 normal subjects ...
Faas H - - 2001
Understanding of the control mechanisms underlying gastric motor function is still limited. The aim of the present study was to evaluate antral pressure-geometry relationships during gastric emptying slowed by intraduodenal nutrient infusion and enhanced by erythromycin. In seven healthy subjects, antral contractile activity was assessed by combined dynamic magnetic resonance ...
Nylander O - - 2001
In anesthetized rats, the cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor indomethacin induces duodenal motility, increases duodenal mucosal alkaline secretion (DMAS), and evokes a transient increase in duodenal paracellular permeability (DPP). To examine whether enteric nerves influence these responses, the duodenum was perfused with lidocaine. Motility was assessed by measuring intraluminal pressure, and DPP ...
Shafik A - - 2001
BACKGROUND/AIMS: A recent study has demonstrated that rectal balloon distension effected inhibition of jejunal and ileal motility (Shafik, Hepatogastroenterology, 2000). It was hypothesized that rectal distension occurring in rectal inertia constipation might cause enteric hypotonia. This hypothesis was investigated. METHODOLOGY: Twenty-three patients with rectal inertia constipation (18 women, 5 men ...
Alhan E - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of dopexamine on pancreatic tissue oxygen tension (PtO2) and the extent of acinar injury in rats with acute necrotising pancreatitis DESIGN: Laboratory study. SETTING: Medical school, Turkey. ANIMALS: 68 Sprague Dawley rats. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Cardiorespiratory measurements, pancreatic PtO2, effects on activity of serum amylase ...
Shafik A - - 2001
In spite of voluminous literature that has been written on defecation, the exact mechanism has not yet been fully cleared up. The current study investigated the effect of sigmoid colon (SC) distension on anal motile activity and of anal distension on SC motility. Sixteen healthy volunteers (age 36.2 +/- 11.6 ...
Nussbaum M S - - 2001
Surgery for gastroesophageal reflux disease and achalasia is performed to alleviate symptoms by improving esophagogastric junction (EGJ) function. Intraoperative manometry was used to evaluate the pressure-length characteristics of the reconstructed EGJ during laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication and laparoscopic Heller myotomy. Intraoperative manometry was performed in 37 consecutive patients undergoing laparoscopic Nissen ...
Wehrmann T - - 2001
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Intraductal ultrasonography (IDUS) makes it possible to study sphincter of Oddi morphology during endoscopy. Two recent IDUS studies have described the sphincter of Oddi as a circumferential hypoechoic layer in the papilla, but there have as yet been few published data from patients with suspected sphincter ...
Lin J K - - 2001
BACKGROUND: This is a prospective study designed to confirm a simple, effective method of hemorrhoidectomy that can be accomplished by simple local anesthesia with good preservation of anal sphincter function both clinically and manometrically. METHODS: Eighty consecutive patients with prolapsed mixed hemorrhoids were operated with standard closed hemorrhoidectomy under local ...
Schwartz M P - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: Abnormal gastroduodenal motility and visceral hypersensitivity to intraduodenal acid have recently been recognized as pathophysiological factors in functional dyspepsia. The aim of this study was to assess whether these abnormalities in functional dyspepsia depend on the chemical composition of the stimulus. METHODS: In 17 patients with functional dyspepsia and ...
Wolf C - - 2001
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: It has been shown that gastro-oesophageal reflux plays a role in the pathogenesis of intestinal metaplasia (IM) limited to the oesophagogastric junction (OGJ), similar to the pathogenesis of IM in long segments of columnar lined oesophagus. The aim of this study was to examine lower oesophageal sphincter ...
Jenkinson A D - - 2001
Little is known about the effect of achalasia and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) on compliance of the esophageal body and the lower esophageal sphincter (LES). Twenty-two patients with achalasia, 14 with GERD, and 14 asymptomatic volunteers were assessed. Recording apparatus consisted of a specially developed PVC bag tied to a ...
Trudgill N J - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Postprandial acid reflux is thought to be mediated by the increase in transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations (TLOSR) frequency and fall in lower oesophageal sphincter (LOS) pressure seen after ingestion of a meal. Studies in animals and healthy volunteers suggest that cholecystokinin (CCK) may play a role. AIM: To ...
Zbar A P - - 2001
Some authors divide rectoceles into those with chronic evacuatory difficulty and normal genital position (type 1) and those with associated pelvic organ prolapse (type 2). This study assessed whether there are physiological differences between these two clinical rectocele types. Female patients were assessed by conventional anorectal manometry, vector manometry, parametric ...
Wang E Q - - 2001
1. Recent studies indicate that nitroglycerin (NTG) can produce beneficial clinical effects in healing anal fissures through the relaxation of the internal anal sphincter. The in vivo relaxation effects of NTG on the anorectal smooth muscle have not been studied and it is not known whether this tissue may also ...
Polyakov V V - - 2001
Significant changes of thermogomeostatic parameters was obtained by thermotopometric method using the techniques simulate of microgravity effects: bed rest, pressurized isolation, suit immersion (SI). However, each of ground models made rectal temperature (T) trend downward. The autothermometric study (24 and 12 sessions, 2-13th and 6-174th flight days) was carried out ...
Jonas M - - 2001
INTRODUCTION: Chemical sphincterotomy has proved effective in treating chronic anal fissure. Glyceryl trinitrate is the most widely used agent, and topical 0.2 percent glyceryl trinitrate ointment heals up to two thirds of chronic anal fissures. Unfortunately, however, many patients experience troublesome headaches as a side effect of this treatment. This ...
Nabae T - - 2001
PURPOSE: We previously reported significant changes in sphincter of Oddi cyclic motility after proximal duodenal transection and anastomosis. However, the role of intrinsic myoneural continuity between the antrum and duodenum in this respect is not understood. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of prepyloric gastric transection ...
Schröder W - - 2001
The formation of a gastric tube after esophagectomy with ligation of the left gastric artery and resection of the lesser curvature is associated with microcirculatory changes, especially in the anastomotic region of the fundus. This influences the healing of the esophagogastrostomy. The presented prospective protocol was designed to assess continuous ...
Craig A G - - 2001
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Unavoidable catheter movement during sphincter of Oddi (SO) manometry can produce considerable variations in the basal pressure, due to movement of the recording sidehole. The sleeve sensor is a perfused channel which records the highest pressure point along its length. The aim of the study was ...
Paterson W G - - 2001
The normal antireflux mechanism consists of several components, any one of which may malfunction and render an individual prone to the development of GERD. The LES is clearly the most important component because gastroesophageal reflux almost always occurs when the sphincter pressure equals that of the stomach. Usually, an LES ...
Sato T - - 2001
PURPOSE: Vaginal delivery disturbs pelvic floor innervation, which has previously been studied as a single mechanism. The effects of childbirth on innervation at different levels of the anal sphincter system were studied after childbirth. METHODS: Both anal manometry and motor latencies were measured in 67 females. Twenty-nine females (30.8 +/- ...
Piessevaux H - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Hypersensitivity to distension of the stomach is a frequent finding in functional dyspepsia. During gastric distension studies both wall tension and elongation are increased. AIM: We wished to distinguish changes in wall tension from changes in elongation in the genesis of perception of mechanical stimuli originating from the proximal ...
Zerbib F - - 2001
The role of Helicobacter pylori infection in the control of lower esophageal sphincter (LES) motility, especially the occurrence of transient LES relaxations (TLESRs), was studied in eight H. pylori-positive and eight H. pylori-negative healthy subjects. During endoscopy, biopsy specimens were taken from the cardia, fundus, and antrum for determinations of ...
Drewes A M - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Hyperalgesia to visceral stimuli is a biological marker of the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Abnormal pain processing is probably of most importance, but biomechanical abnormalities of the gut wall may also contribute to the findings. In the current study, we investigated the sensation of the gut to electrical stimuli ...
Hveem K - - 2001
The relationships between gastric wall motion and intraluminal pressure are believed to be major determinants of flows within and from the stomach. Gastric antral wall motion and intraluminal pressures were monitored in five healthy subjects by concurrent antropyloroduodenal manometry and transabdominal ultrasound for 60 min after subjects drank 500 ml ...
Pimentel M - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Diffuse esophageal spasm (DES) is an uncommon condition that results in simultaneous esophageal contractions. Current medical treatment of DES is frequently unsatisfactory. We hypothesized that, as a smooth muscle relaxant, peppermint oil may improve the manometric findings in DES. STUDY: Eight consecutive patients with chest pain or dysphagia and ...
Xie P - - 2001
Pressures generated by the pharyngeal constrictor muscles and proximal esophagus involve acetylcholine-induced muscle contractions. We hypothesized that the pharyngo-esophageal pressure gradient is related to choline acetyltransferase activity. In nine anesthetized cats, hypopharyngeal pressure and proximal esophageal pressure were recorded with a solid state transducer assembly. Enzymatic activities in the thyropharyngeus, ...
Kurbel S - - 2001
This paper was inspired by the reported results of authors from Uppsala and Lund that gastric glands in rats rhythmically contract 3-7 cycles per minute and develop luminal pressures more than 10 mmHg. To ensure that pepsinogen is not retained in the acid-rich section of the gland, ejection fractions would ...
Manes G - - 2001
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Visceral hypersensitivity and impaired gastric relaxation after the ingestion of a meal are frequent features in patients with functional dyspepsia. Cisapride improves dyspeptic symptoms. The study aims to evaluate whether cisapride influences gastric sensitivity to distension as well as gastric compliance and duodenogastric reflexes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: ...
Kligman M D - - 2001
Sphincter of Oddi (SO) dysfunction as a potential cause of chronic acalculous cholecystitis (CAC) has not been studied in cases for which intraoperative SO manometry was used during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. In this study, we evaluated the effects of carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum on laparoscopic transcystic SO manometry. In 27 patients with ...
Marte A - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Fecal incontinence, with or without persistent constipation is often underestimated in children affected by spina bifida. Medullar lesions to the L-S metameres result in a slowing of rectal and/or rectal-sigmoid motility, loss of anal or rectal sensation, deranged external anal sphincter function, altered motility of the anal levator muscles, ...
Diener U - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Although pneumatic dilatation is said to relieve dysphagia in achalasia if it decreases lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure to 10 mmHg (n = 23); group C, no previous balloon dilatation and LES pressure >10 mmHg (n = 25). All patients underwent a laparoscopic Heller myotomy and Dor fundoplication. The ...
Bouin M - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Rectal sensory thresholds are lowered in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), reflecting visceral hyperlagesia, which might be related to subclinical inflammation. AIM: To evaluate the effects of an intraluminal injection of glycerol, a mucosal irritant, on rectal tone and perception of distension in 12 healthy subjects. METHODS: Rectal ...
Mularczyk A - - 2001
PURPOSE: Intermittent distention of the rectum induces internal anal sphincter relaxation, but whether continuous rectal distention might affect the resting pressure of the anal canal and the frequency of internal anal sphincter relaxations has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to record anal pressure under resting ...
Coskun A - - 2001
PURPOSE: Anal sphincter spasm is believed to play an important role in pain after hemorrhoidectomy. We tested a different form of nitroglycerin: the Nitroderm TTS band. We investigated its efficacy on posthemorrhoidectomy pain and the relation between pain and anal resting pressure measured preoperatively and postoperatively. METHODS: Thirty-eight hemorrhoid patients ...
Súilleabháin C B - - 2001
PURPOSE: With the advent of transanal ultrasonography it has been possible to identify those incontinent patients without sphincter defects. The majority of these patients are now thought to have neurogenic fecal incontinence secondary to pudendal neuropathy. They have been found to have reduced anal sphincter pressures and increased pudendal nerve ...
Coffin B - - 2001
Conscious sensations in response to gut distensions may be modulated by temporospatial interactions among different stimuli. This study investigated whether symptoms induced by gastric distension may be modified by hydrochloric acid (HCl) gastric infusion and meal ingestion. In nine healthy subjects, fixed pressure (isobaric) and fixed volume (isovolumetric) distensions were ...
Dire C - - 2001
OBJECTIVES: We compared manometric recordings of the upper esophageal sphincter (UES) recorded with a miniature sleeve to those obtained using standard manometry. METHODS: The UES pressure of eight volunteer subjects was measured by station pull-through (SPT), by rapid pull-through (RPT), and with a microsleeve sensor for 30 min, followed by ...
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