Search Results
Results 651 - 700 of 2402
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van Herwaarden M A - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Baclofen decreases gastro-oesophageal reflux episodes in healthy subjects by reducing the incidence of transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations. AIM: To investigate the effect of baclofen on reflux symptoms, oesophageal pH and lower oesophageal sphincter manometry in patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. METHODS: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, two-way crossover design was ...
Allocca M - - 2002
Gastric distension is a potent stimulus of transient lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxation. To investigate the time effect of prolonged gastric distension on the rate of transient LES relaxations, LES pressure, and the motor and sensory functions of the proximal stomach, we performed a continuous isobaric distension of the proximal ...
Al-Jiffry Bilal O - - 2002
Endothelin levels are elevated in shock, sepsis, and cholestatic jaundice, and an effect on biliary motility may be postulated. The aim of this study was to determine whether (1) endothelin-1 and endothelin-3 induce gallbladder contraction in vivo, (2) the response is caused by changes in blood pressure, and (3) the ...
Shafik Ahmed - - 2002
BACKGROUND: The rectum exhibits electric activity in the form of slow waves or pacesetter potentials (PPs) and action potentials (APs), which are suggested to be initiated from a rectosigmoid pacemaker (RSP). We hypothesized that the RSP and electric waves are responsible for rectal motility. This hypothesis was investigated. METHODS: The ...
Akao Shuichi - - 2002
Intercellular tight junctions play a role in the reflux of the exocrine pancreatic juice. Tight junctions of the main pancreatic duct were electron-microscopically compared between dogs with intraductal hypertension and controls, using a freeze-fracture technique and morphometrical analysis. Intraductal hypertension was created in seven dogs. Intraductal pressure was 20 cm ...
Shafik Ahmed - - 2002
BACKGROUND: The ileocecal junction (ICJ) appears to be a specialized segment of the gut which regulates the passage of the chyme from the ileum to the cecum. We investigated the response of the ICJ to cecal and ileal distension and the nature of this response (direct or reflex). MATERIAL/METHODS: Nine ...
Higo Ryuzaburo - - 2002
We investigated the pharyngeal swallowing function using videomanofluorometry (VMF) in patients after medullary cerebrovascular accidents. Upper esophageal sphincter pressure, which should drop when a bolus arrives at the hypopharynx, increased at the same time as the elevation of oropharyngeal and hypopharyngeal pressures. A reduction of oropharyngeal and hypopharyngeal swallowing pressures ...
Choi Hong-Jo - - 2003
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The double-stapled ileoanal reservoir (DSIAR) has become a preferred method for ileal pouch anal anastomosis in restorative proctocolectomy. This investigation assessed the relative ratio of epithelial tissue types within the anal transition zone after a DSIAR and reviewed functional physiological differences. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All 138 patients ...
Law Ngai-Moh - - 2002
Colonic transit is slowed in patients with disordered rectal evacuation, but the mechanism of this phenomenon is unclear. Our objective was to investigate rectocolonic inhibitory reflexes in humans to provide potential insight into patients with obstructed defecation. In 30 healthy subjects, a barostat-manometric assembly recorded colonic tone and phasic activity ...
Andrews J M - - 2002
Abstract Late phase III migrating motor complex activity has been said to be primarily retroperistaltic but has not been assessed with high resolution manometry or three-dimensional colour pressure plots (pressure/time/distance). Duodenal phase III was examined in healthy young volunteers (seven male, two female) with a 20-lumen assembly. With the most ...
Broens Paul - - 2002
PURPOSE: Sensation is an essential aspect of fecal continence. We aimed to correlate manovolumetric and radiologic changes at successive levels of rectal filling sensation. METHODS: Combined anorectal manometry and proctography were performed in nine volunteers. Images, volumes, and pressures were analyzed at the start of the test, at 20 seconds ...
Kadowaki Makoto - - 2002
The present study was designed to investigate the nature of the 5-HT4 receptors affecting the peristaltic reflex in the isolated rat distal colon. A single peristaltic reflex was evoked by infusing Tyrode solution into the lumen of the isolated segment using our modified Trendelenburg's method under an isovolumic condition. A ...
Williams A B - - 2002
Three-dimensional anal endosonography has enabled sagittal and coronal reconstructions of the anal canal to be matched with longitudinal pressure data, to present a combined picture of structure and function. This novel technique has been applied to a group of women with a clinical diagnosis of a third degree tear. Endosonography ...
Lazarus Cathy - - 2002
Concurrent manometry and videofluoroscopy were utilized to examine tongue base function during swallowing in 3 patients with head and neck cancer. Subjects were instructed in four voluntary swallow maneuvers, including the supersupraglottic swallow, effortful swallow, Mendelsohn maneuver, and tongue-hold maneuver. Peak catheter pressures (mm Hg) at the tongue base-pharyngeal wall ...
Williams Rohan B H - - 2002
Our aims were to examine the etiology and biomechanical properties of the nonrelaxing upper esophageal sphincter (UES) and the relationship between UES opening and failed relaxation. We examined the relationships among swallowed bolus volume, intrabolus pressure, sagittal UES diameter, the pharyngeal swallow response, and geniohyoid shortening in 18 patients with ...
Chuttani Ram - - 2002
BACKGROUND: This study was designed to demonstrate the efficacy and safety of a novel endoscopic full-thickness plication device for the treatment of GERD. METHODS: Gastric pressures and reflux from the gastroesophageal junction were measured in 20 excised pig stomachs before and after full-thickness plication within 1 cm of the gastroesophageal ...
Pandolfino John E - - 2002
To quantify the effect of hiatus hernia (HH) on esophagogastric junction (EGJ) distensibility, eight normal subjects and nine gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) patients with HH were studied with concurrent manometry, fluoroscopy, and stepwise controlled barostatic distention of the EGJ. The minimal barostatic pressure required to open the EGJ during the ...
Schikowski A - - 2002
It has been suggested that serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) type-4 (5-HT4) receptors modulate the sensitivity of intrinsic afferents of the intestinal mucosa. We studied the involvement of 5-HT4receptors in the modulation of extrinsic afferent sensitivity of the intestinal wall. During distension ramps, mechanoreceptive rectal afferents in sacral dorsal roots were examined in ...
Eherer A J - - 2002
Sildenafil blocks phosphodiesterase type 5 which degrades nitric oxide (NO) stimulated 3'5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP), thereby relaxing smooth muscle cells in various organs. We used sildenafil as a tool to investigate the role of the NO-cGMP pathway in the oesophagus of healthy volunteers and patients with hypercontractile oesophageal motility disorders. Six ...
Fazel Ali - - 2002
BACKGROUND: The effect of a medication on sphincter of Oddi motility should be characterized if it is to be used during sphincter of Oddi manometry. Controversy exists as to whether midazolam influences sphincter of Oddi motility. This study assessed the effect of midazolam on the hypertensive sphincter of Oddi. METHODS: ...
Silva Ana P T - - 2002
AIMS: This study evaluates the effect of bilateral nephrectomy on the gastric emptying of a liquid meal. METHODS: Male rats were submitted under anesthesia to cervical vessels cannulation and bilateral lumbar incision, followed or not by nephrectomy. Next day, they were gavage fed (1.5 mL) with phenol red (0.5gmL(-1)) in ...
Kennedy M L - - 2002
PURPOSE: Transanal endoscopic microsurgery is a new technique that has not yet found its place in routine practice. The procedure results in dilation of the anal sphincter with a large-diameter operating sigmoidoscope, sometimes for a prolonged period. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of transanal ...
Rao Satish S C - - 2002
Distension of the intestine triggers the peristaltic reflex, which consists of orad contraction and aborad relaxation. Whether a similar response occurs in the human stomach is unclear. Our aim was to investigate the antral and duodenal motor response(s) to mechanical distension of the proximal stomach. In six healthy volunteers, a ...
Shafik Ahmed - - 2002
Previous studies strongly suggest the presence of a sphincter at the rectosigmoid junction, an area with a mean length of 2.8 cm in adults, called the rectosigmoid canal (RSC). To find supporting evidence of a sphincteric function for the RSC, two recording electrodes were applied to each of the sigmoid ...
Penagini R - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Pneumatic dilatation is an effective treatment for achalasia. Although follow-up studies have shown that its clinical benefit persists for years, it is still unknown whether the decrease in lower oesophageal sphincter (LOS) pressure is maintained over time. Our aim is to assess the long-term effects of pneumatic dilatation on ...
Shafik Ahmed - - 2002
The rectum has an intrinsic nervous mechanism represented by the enteric nervous plexus (ENP) and an extrinsic one mediated by the parasympathetic nerves. Rectal distension evokes the rectoanal inhibitory reflex, which acts through the ENP and is considered the main mechanism responsible for defecation. However, the role of the parasympathetic ...
Zhu Saihong - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To calculate esophageal variceal wall tension by sonographic and noninvasive pressure measurements and to study the role of esophageal variceal wall tension in predicting the likelihood of esophageal variceal rupture. METHODS: In 28 patients with esophageal varices, a 20 MHz ultrasonographic transducer was used to image esophageal varices; the ...
Fazel Ali - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: As our understanding of the pathophysiology of sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD) expands, new avenues arise for pharmacological intervention. Recent evidence suggests that SOD results from a loss of myenteric plexus inhibitory neurons resulting in unopposed cholinergic tone. Octreotide inhibits postganglionic cholinergic neurons, and thus we hypothesize that administration ...
Kohjitani A - - 2002
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Children are vulnerable to regurgitation with a relatively high incidence of aspiration during general anaesthesia which is attributed to the high intragastric pressure, a short oesophagus, an immature laryngeal reflex and incomplete lower oesophageal sphincter muscle function. Subcutaneous administration of epinephrine is generally used in surgery to ...
Naito Hiroo - - 2002
Bile stasis is an important etiologic factor in the high incidence of postgastrectomy gallstone disease (PGGD). Our previous study showed that duodenal, but not prepyloric, transection disturbed the motility of the sphincter of Oddi (SO) in anesthetized dogs. We had developed pylorus-preserving gastrectomy (PPG), in which the anal margin of ...
Cosman Bard C - - 2002
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Autonomic dysreflexia is a common and potentially dangerous response in patients with spinal cord injury at T6 or above. Acute blood pressure elevation may be precipitated by rectosigmoid distention and anal manipulation. Topical anesthetics are widely recommended to minimize the incidence and severity of autonomic dysreflexia, although ...
Shafik A - - 2002
The levator ani muscle (LAM) shares in the mechanism of defecation and urination as well as in visceral support. Levator dysfunction occurs in conditions of chronic straining or increased intra-abdominal pressure. Studies have shown that the gravid uterus, by virtue of its weight and associated increased intraabdominal pressure, might disturb ...
Yamamoto Shin - - 2002
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Raised biliary pressure may affect antibiotic biliary excretion. We evaluated whether biliary decompression for patients with biliary obstruction could improve antibiotic biliary excretion. METHODOLOGY: Eight patients with common bile duct obstruction undergoing endoscopic nasobiliary drainage were evaluated. During endoscopic cannulation, biliary pressure above the obstruction and antibiotic concentrations in ...
De Schryver A M P - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Prucalopride is a selective and specific 5-hydroxytryptamine(4) receptor agonist that is known to increase stool frequency and to accelerate colonic transit. AIM: To investigate the effect of prucalopride on high-amplitude propagated contractions and segmental pressure waves in healthy volunteers. METHODS: After 1 week of dosing (prucalopride or placebo in ...
Rennenberg R J M W - - 2002
Pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis (PCI) is a disease in which small gas-filled cysts appear in the intestinal wall. Four cases presented here demonstrate the diversity of the associated diseases. In two of the patients constipation probably played a role; in the third patient decreased colonic motility, elevated intestinal pressure and increased ...
Shafik Ahmed - - 2002
BACKGROUND: We have recently demonstrated that rectal distension effected left colonic contraction, which probably acts to feed the rectum with fecal matter each time the rectum distends and evacuates its contents. This effect was postulated to occur through the recto-colic reflex. As the colonic status in rectal inertia constipation was ...
Hirsch D P - - 2002
Glutamate is an important excitatory amino acid and plays a major role in brain stem neurotransmission. Although the effect of glutamate on esophageal motility is well studied, its role in the triggering of transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations (TLESRs) remains to be determined. Esophageal manometry was performed in 10 healthy ...
Gosselink M J - - 2002
PURPOSE: Many females with obstructed defecation apply digital pressure on their perineum to facilitate defecation. This study investigated the impact of this maneuver on rectal tone. METHODS: Forty-five female patients with obstructed defecation were studied. Thirty-four patients (76 percent) regularly applied digital pressure on their perineum to facilitate defecation. Total ...
Vozzo R - - 2002
The contribution of the pulsatile nature of gastric emptying to small intestinal feedback mechanisms modulating antropyloroduodenal motility and appetite is unknown. On separate days, eight healthy male volunteers (18-34 years) received randomized, single-blind, intraduodenal (ID) infusions of 10% Intralipid (2 kcal min(-1)), either continuously [CID], or in a pulsatile manner ...
Hausken T - - 2002
The motor mechanisms responsible for transpyloric flow of gastric contents are still poorly understood. The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between luminal pressures and gastric wall motion and between gastroduodenal pressure gradients and pressure waves, and ante- and retro-grade transpyloric flow. In eight healthy volunteers, intraluminal ...
Broens P - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: In order to improve insights in rectal filling sensation, we studied pouch filling sensations after ileal J pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) before and after re-establishment of bowel continuity. METHODS: Anal manometry and a pouch filling sensation test were performed before as well as 1 and 6 weeks after closure of ...
Kusano Motoyasu - - 2002
We investigated whether esophageal tone was altered by fluid infusion before the onset of esophageal contraction. In nine healthy volunteers, intraluminal esophageal pressure and esophageal pH were measured with a three-channel solid-state transducer and microglass electrodes, respectively. Saline or 0.1 N hydrochloric acid was infused at 0.25 ml/sec 5 cm ...
Shafik A - - 2002
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Our earlier studies have demonstrated that sacral magnetic stimulation (MS) in the canine model, in healthy volunteers and in constipated subjects effected rectal pressure rise, decline of the rectal neck (anal canal) pressure as well as rectal evacuation. Based on these results, we studied the effect of ...
Artiko Vera M - - 2002
The aim of the study was an estimation of the relation between the gallbladder (GB) motility function and the presence and quantity of enterogastric reflux (EGR). We investigated 172 patients: 90 with physiological GB function (filling and emptying) (FGB), 21 with impaired GB function (prolonged filling and ejection fraction < ...
Bhadra Narendra - - 2002
The purpose of this work was to electrically activate small-diameter motor fibers in the sacral anterior roots innervating the urinary bladder, without activating the large-diameter fibers to the sphincter. Quasitrapezoidal current pulses were applied through tripolar spiral nerve electrodes on selected anterior sacral roots during acute experiments on eight dogs, ...
Su Yu-Chung - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) has been shown to affect GI motor function and appetite in animals. We have evaluated the effects of exogenous CRF on antropyloroduodenal motility and appetite in humans. METHODS: On 2 separate days, six healthy volunteers received, in randomized, double-blind fashion, i.v. CRF as a 1.0-microg/kg bolus ...
Tanaka Masao - - 2002
Perfusion manometry of the sphincter of Oddi (SO) using a pneumohydraulic capillary infusion system records phasic wave activity superimposed on basal pressure. A triple-lumen catheter allows the recording of propagation of the phasic waves. Microtransducer manometry is an alternative that permits prolonged recording of biliary pressure without the need for ...
Lazarus Cathy - - 2002
Organ preservation protocols of high-dose chemoradiotherapy have become fairly common to treat head and neck cancers. However, significant swallowing problems can occur. This study examines swallowing, oral tongue pressures, and tongue base-to-pharyngeal wall pressures in a patient who underwent total laryngectomy for improvement of swallowing after chemoradiotherapy for treatment of ...
Zheng Qichang - - 2002
Simulating physiological neuronal and hormonal conditions during digestive and interdigestive periods, the study identified the changes of the motility of biliary system including bile duct and sphincter of Oddi (SO) before and after cholecystojejunostomy. Thirty-five rabbits were divided into five groups randomly. The experimental groups received the venous injection of ...
Vicente Yvone - - 2002
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: The lower esophageal sphincter and the diaphragmatic crural sling form the gastroesophageal barrier. This work shows that division of the sphincteric component alone suffices to induce reflux esophagitis in piglets. METHODS: Male piglets underwent either sham operation (n = 7) or extramucosal myotomy of the gastroesophageal junction (n = ...
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