Search Results
Results 651 - 700 of 2370
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Yamamoto Shin - - 2002
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Raised biliary pressure may affect antibiotic biliary excretion. We evaluated whether biliary decompression for patients with biliary obstruction could improve antibiotic biliary excretion. METHODOLOGY: Eight patients with common bile duct obstruction undergoing endoscopic nasobiliary drainage were evaluated. During endoscopic cannulation, biliary pressure above the obstruction and antibiotic concentrations in ...
De Schryver A M P - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Prucalopride is a selective and specific 5-hydroxytryptamine(4) receptor agonist that is known to increase stool frequency and to accelerate colonic transit. AIM: To investigate the effect of prucalopride on high-amplitude propagated contractions and segmental pressure waves in healthy volunteers. METHODS: After 1 week of dosing (prucalopride or placebo in ...
Rennenberg R J M W - - 2002
Pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis (PCI) is a disease in which small gas-filled cysts appear in the intestinal wall. Four cases presented here demonstrate the diversity of the associated diseases. In two of the patients constipation probably played a role; in the third patient decreased colonic motility, elevated intestinal pressure and increased ...
Shafik Ahmed - - 2002
BACKGROUND: We have recently demonstrated that rectal distension effected left colonic contraction, which probably acts to feed the rectum with fecal matter each time the rectum distends and evacuates its contents. This effect was postulated to occur through the recto-colic reflex. As the colonic status in rectal inertia constipation was ...
Hirsch D P - - 2002
Glutamate is an important excitatory amino acid and plays a major role in brain stem neurotransmission. Although the effect of glutamate on esophageal motility is well studied, its role in the triggering of transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations (TLESRs) remains to be determined. Esophageal manometry was performed in 10 healthy ...
Gosselink M J - - 2002
PURPOSE: Many females with obstructed defecation apply digital pressure on their perineum to facilitate defecation. This study investigated the impact of this maneuver on rectal tone. METHODS: Forty-five female patients with obstructed defecation were studied. Thirty-four patients (76 percent) regularly applied digital pressure on their perineum to facilitate defecation. Total ...
Vozzo R - - 2002
The contribution of the pulsatile nature of gastric emptying to small intestinal feedback mechanisms modulating antropyloroduodenal motility and appetite is unknown. On separate days, eight healthy male volunteers (18-34 years) received randomized, single-blind, intraduodenal (ID) infusions of 10% Intralipid (2 kcal min(-1)), either continuously [CID], or in a pulsatile manner ...
Hausken T - - 2002
The motor mechanisms responsible for transpyloric flow of gastric contents are still poorly understood. The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between luminal pressures and gastric wall motion and between gastroduodenal pressure gradients and pressure waves, and ante- and retro-grade transpyloric flow. In eight healthy volunteers, intraluminal ...
Broens P - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: In order to improve insights in rectal filling sensation, we studied pouch filling sensations after ileal J pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) before and after re-establishment of bowel continuity. METHODS: Anal manometry and a pouch filling sensation test were performed before as well as 1 and 6 weeks after closure of ...
Kusano Motoyasu - - 2002
We investigated whether esophageal tone was altered by fluid infusion before the onset of esophageal contraction. In nine healthy volunteers, intraluminal esophageal pressure and esophageal pH were measured with a three-channel solid-state transducer and microglass electrodes, respectively. Saline or 0.1 N hydrochloric acid was infused at 0.25 ml/sec 5 cm ...
Shafik A - - 2002
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Our earlier studies have demonstrated that sacral magnetic stimulation (MS) in the canine model, in healthy volunteers and in constipated subjects effected rectal pressure rise, decline of the rectal neck (anal canal) pressure as well as rectal evacuation. Based on these results, we studied the effect of ...
Artiko Vera M - - 2002
The aim of the study was an estimation of the relation between the gallbladder (GB) motility function and the presence and quantity of enterogastric reflux (EGR). We investigated 172 patients: 90 with physiological GB function (filling and emptying) (FGB), 21 with impaired GB function (prolonged filling and ejection fraction < ...
Bhadra Narendra - - 2002
The purpose of this work was to electrically activate small-diameter motor fibers in the sacral anterior roots innervating the urinary bladder, without activating the large-diameter fibers to the sphincter. Quasitrapezoidal current pulses were applied through tripolar spiral nerve electrodes on selected anterior sacral roots during acute experiments on eight dogs, ...
Su Yu-Chung - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) has been shown to affect GI motor function and appetite in animals. We have evaluated the effects of exogenous CRF on antropyloroduodenal motility and appetite in humans. METHODS: On 2 separate days, six healthy volunteers received, in randomized, double-blind fashion, i.v. CRF as a 1.0-microg/kg bolus ...
Tanaka Masao - - 2002
Perfusion manometry of the sphincter of Oddi (SO) using a pneumohydraulic capillary infusion system records phasic wave activity superimposed on basal pressure. A triple-lumen catheter allows the recording of propagation of the phasic waves. Microtransducer manometry is an alternative that permits prolonged recording of biliary pressure without the need for ...
Lazarus Cathy - - 2002
Organ preservation protocols of high-dose chemoradiotherapy have become fairly common to treat head and neck cancers. However, significant swallowing problems can occur. This study examines swallowing, oral tongue pressures, and tongue base-to-pharyngeal wall pressures in a patient who underwent total laryngectomy for improvement of swallowing after chemoradiotherapy for treatment of ...
Zheng Qichang - - 2002
Simulating physiological neuronal and hormonal conditions during digestive and interdigestive periods, the study identified the changes of the motility of biliary system including bile duct and sphincter of Oddi (SO) before and after cholecystojejunostomy. Thirty-five rabbits were divided into five groups randomly. The experimental groups received the venous injection of ...
Vicente Yvone - - 2002
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: The lower esophageal sphincter and the diaphragmatic crural sling form the gastroesophageal barrier. This work shows that division of the sphincteric component alone suffices to induce reflux esophagitis in piglets. METHODS: Male piglets underwent either sham operation (n = 7) or extramucosal myotomy of the gastroesophageal junction (n = ...
Fazel A - - 2002
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Midazolam HCl (Versed) is often used for intravenous conscious sedation in endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and is increasingly used in endoscopic sphincter of Oddi (SO) manometry. The effect of medications on SO motility should be fully characterized if they are to be used during SO manometry. ...
Massone Cessare - - 2002
The gastrointestinal tract, particularly the oesophagus, is affected in about half of all patients with systemic sclerosis. Only a few studies so far have dealt with the anorectal tract. We studied the anal function using anorectal manometry in 12 patients with limited systemic sclerosis. We also studied the oesophageal function. ...
Koshitani Tatsuya - - 2002
It is well established that prostaglandins (PGs) exert potent pharmacological actions on vascular and nonvascular smooth muscle, although their effects on the sphincter of Oddi (SO) remain to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of PGE1 on motility of the human SO. Twenty patients ...
Higuchi K - - 2002
Disturbances in the reservoir function of the stomach may cause epigastric fullness or early satiety, which are the main symptoms in patients with dysmotility-like functional dyspepsia. Gastric adaptive relaxation is involved in the reservoir function of the proximal stomach. Ecabet sodium, synthesized from abietic acid, is widely used in Japan ...
Gill Neeraj Singh - - 2002
During electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), occurrence of seizure must be confirmed. Cuff method, although simple and reliable, can sometimes miss an adequate EEG seizure. Predictable cardiovascular response occurs during ECT seizure. We examined if this can be an additional guide to detect cerebral seizure. In 164 modified ECT sessions, EEG and ...
Mason R J - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Endoscopic approaches to restore the gastroesophageal barrier in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) are presently undergoing clinical trial. The aim of the study was to demonstrate the feasibility, durability, safety, and antireflux efficacy following augmentation of the cardia with a biocompatible injectable polymer (Enteryx). METHODS: Augmentation was performed ...
Shafik A - - 2001
The motor physiology of the rectum has remained largely obscure, especially concerning the mechanism of rectal motility. In the current communication we tested the possibility of characterizing the mechanism of rectal motility during filling and evacuation through the study of the rectal electric activity in 16 healthy volunteers (mean age ...
Higo R - - 2001
We investigated the oral and pharyngeal swallowing function in seven Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, using videomanofluorometry, which is videofluorographic and manometric evaluation conducted simultaneously. Abnormal elevations of resting pressure were found at the upper esophageal sphincter (UES) in three of the seven cases, when they were asked to hold a ...
Staiano A - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: Completeness of lower esophageal sphincter relaxation, a parameter used to establish the diagnosis of achalasia, is an important manometric determination. This study compared four analysis methods that use point-pressure measurements to determine their relative accuracy and the best threshold values for incomplete relaxation. METHODS: Analyses were performed on 153 ...
Cuomo R - - 2001
The rapid pull-through (RPT) technique during esophageal manometry helps to identify various pressure profiles of hiatal hernia (HH), based on the presence of two high pressure zones: the diaphragmatic crura (DC) and the lower esophageal sphincter (LES). Our aim was to correlate different HH profiles with frequency of reflux episodes ...
Jonas M - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Topical 0.2 per cent glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) lowers resting anal pressure (RAP) and heals two-thirds of chronic anal fissures. Over 50 per cent of patients experience headache, presumably through systemic absorption, but the pharmacokinetics of GTN ointment are unknown. This study evaluated the systemic absorption profile of GTN, and ...
Dutta H K - - 2001
Symptoms related to esophageal dysmotility are common following successful repair of esophageal atresia (EA) and tracheo-esophageal fistula (TEF). Esophageal manometry was performed in 27 survivors of EA/TEF at a mean age of 30.5 +/- 30.3 months and in 25 age-matched controls (mean age 36.8 +/- 22.6 months). The patients were ...
van Herwaarden M A - - 2001
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Conventional short term manometry is a valuable tool in the diagnosis of achalasia but the technique may fail to detect intermittent motor events. The aim of this study was to investigate the pattern of lower oesophageal sphincter (LOS) and oesophageal pressures during prolonged recording in patients with ...
Easter D W - - 2001
HYPOTHESIS: Endoscopically delivered prostheses are safe, durable, and may augment a defective lower esophageal sphincter (LES). METHODS: Pigs were studied as normal-LES or LES-weakened animals. A novel endoscopic delivery system was developed in order to place multiple hydrogel prostheses into the LES submucosa. Histopathology sections evaluated ultimate durability and the ...
Morren G L - - 2001
PURPOSE: Electrical sacral root stimulation induces defecation in spinal cord injury patients and is currently under examination as a new therapy for fecal incontinence. In contrast to electrical stimulation, magnetic stimulation is noninvasive. To gain more insight into the mechanism of action of sacral root stimulation, we studied the effects ...
Shafik A - - 2001
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Rectal sensation seems to originate from mechanoreceptors which are stimulated by passive rectal filling or active contraction. We investigated the effect of temperature on rectal function. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A balloon was introduced into the rectum of 28 healthy volunteers, filled with 50 ml saline at various ...
Steens J - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Functional impairments are frequently observed in patients with an ileoanal pouch. Meal ingestion increases pouch tone and motility. Little is known, however, about the influence of meal-stimulated pouch characteristics on pouch function. The aim was to characterize basal and postprandial pouch motor and sensory characteristics in relation to clinical ...
Williams R B - - 2001
We applied high-resolution manometry with spatiotemporal data interpolation and simultaneous videofluoroscopy to normal pharyngeal swallows to correlate specific features in the space-time intraluminal pressure structure with physiological events and normal deglutitive transsphincteric bolus flow to define normal biomechanical properties of the pharyngo-esophageal (PE) segment. Pressures were recorded by microperfused catheter, ...
Jonas M - - 2001
PURPOSE: Glyceryl trinitrate ointment applied to the anal verge lowers anal resting pressure, but its duration of action is uncertain. This study investigated the effect and duration of action of 0.2 percent glyceryl trinitrate on anal resting pressure and hemodynamic parameters. METHODS: A total of 15 volunteers, 9 male, with ...
Straathof J W - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication effectively reduces acid reflux and reflux symptoms. Little is known about the effect on reflux mechanisms, especially on transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations (TLOSRs). METHODS: Twenty-seven patients were studied prospectively before and after laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication, by simultaneous recording of pH and lower oesophageal sphincter (LOS) ...
Bortolotti M - - 2001
Sildenafil shows an intense and prolonged inhibitory effect on the smooth muscle cells of corpus cavernosum arterioles by blocking phosphodiesterase type 5 that inactivates the nitric oxide-stimulated cyclic guanosine monophosphate. We investigated if this inhibitory effect is also displayed on smooth muscle cells of the esophagus. In 16 normal subjects ...
Faas H - - 2001
Understanding of the control mechanisms underlying gastric motor function is still limited. The aim of the present study was to evaluate antral pressure-geometry relationships during gastric emptying slowed by intraduodenal nutrient infusion and enhanced by erythromycin. In seven healthy subjects, antral contractile activity was assessed by combined dynamic magnetic resonance ...
Nylander O - - 2001
In anesthetized rats, the cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor indomethacin induces duodenal motility, increases duodenal mucosal alkaline secretion (DMAS), and evokes a transient increase in duodenal paracellular permeability (DPP). To examine whether enteric nerves influence these responses, the duodenum was perfused with lidocaine. Motility was assessed by measuring intraluminal pressure, and DPP ...
Shafik A - - 2001
BACKGROUND/AIMS: A recent study has demonstrated that rectal balloon distension effected inhibition of jejunal and ileal motility (Shafik, Hepatogastroenterology, 2000). It was hypothesized that rectal distension occurring in rectal inertia constipation might cause enteric hypotonia. This hypothesis was investigated. METHODOLOGY: Twenty-three patients with rectal inertia constipation (18 women, 5 men ...
Alhan E - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of dopexamine on pancreatic tissue oxygen tension (PtO2) and the extent of acinar injury in rats with acute necrotising pancreatitis DESIGN: Laboratory study. SETTING: Medical school, Turkey. ANIMALS: 68 Sprague Dawley rats. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Cardiorespiratory measurements, pancreatic PtO2, effects on activity of serum amylase ...
Shafik A - - 2001
In spite of voluminous literature that has been written on defecation, the exact mechanism has not yet been fully cleared up. The current study investigated the effect of sigmoid colon (SC) distension on anal motile activity and of anal distension on SC motility. Sixteen healthy volunteers (age 36.2 +/- 11.6 ...
Nussbaum M S - - 2001
Surgery for gastroesophageal reflux disease and achalasia is performed to alleviate symptoms by improving esophagogastric junction (EGJ) function. Intraoperative manometry was used to evaluate the pressure-length characteristics of the reconstructed EGJ during laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication and laparoscopic Heller myotomy. Intraoperative manometry was performed in 37 consecutive patients undergoing laparoscopic Nissen ...
Wehrmann T - - 2001
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Intraductal ultrasonography (IDUS) makes it possible to study sphincter of Oddi morphology during endoscopy. Two recent IDUS studies have described the sphincter of Oddi as a circumferential hypoechoic layer in the papilla, but there have as yet been few published data from patients with suspected sphincter ...
Lin J K - - 2001
BACKGROUND: This is a prospective study designed to confirm a simple, effective method of hemorrhoidectomy that can be accomplished by simple local anesthesia with good preservation of anal sphincter function both clinically and manometrically. METHODS: Eighty consecutive patients with prolapsed mixed hemorrhoids were operated with standard closed hemorrhoidectomy under local ...
Schwartz M P - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: Abnormal gastroduodenal motility and visceral hypersensitivity to intraduodenal acid have recently been recognized as pathophysiological factors in functional dyspepsia. The aim of this study was to assess whether these abnormalities in functional dyspepsia depend on the chemical composition of the stimulus. METHODS: In 17 patients with functional dyspepsia and ...
Wolf C - - 2001
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: It has been shown that gastro-oesophageal reflux plays a role in the pathogenesis of intestinal metaplasia (IM) limited to the oesophagogastric junction (OGJ), similar to the pathogenesis of IM in long segments of columnar lined oesophagus. The aim of this study was to examine lower oesophageal sphincter ...
Jenkinson A D - - 2001
Little is known about the effect of achalasia and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) on compliance of the esophageal body and the lower esophageal sphincter (LES). Twenty-two patients with achalasia, 14 with GERD, and 14 asymptomatic volunteers were assessed. Recording apparatus consisted of a specially developed PVC bag tied to a ...
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