Search Results
Results 601 - 650 of 2370
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Boerma D - - 2003
BACKGROUND: We aimed to develop a reproducible, experimental model of obstructive pancreatitis for future analysis of surgical interventions, and characterized this model using functional, histological and biochemical parameters. ANIMALS AND METHODS: In 10 female pigs the pancreatic duct (PD) was ligated. After 4, 6 or 8 weeks the animals were ...
BÅ‚aut Urszula - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on intraductal biliary pressure (IDP) in basal conditions and after intravenous morphine and oral meal stimulation. DESIGN AND METHODS: Fifteen patients (5 male, 10 female) aged 31-83 years (mean 61.5 +/- 13.7 years) with prior cholecystectomy and residual in ...
Mattioli Sandro - - 2003
The goal of our study was to investigate manometric balloon sensors of original conception in order to overcome the limitations of perfused and solid-state sensors in the assessment of the pharyngoesophageal motility abnormalities. A standard perfused probe for esophageal manometry was modified by applying fluid-filled floppy balloons 0.5-, 1-, and ...
Zhang Xueguo - - 2002
Low-pressure gastrointestinal distention modulates gastrointestinal function by a vago-vagal reflex. Noxious visceral distention, as seen in an obstruction of the gastrointestinal tract, causes abdominal pain, vomiting and affective changes. Using single neuron recording and intracellular injection techniques, we characterized the neuronal responses of neurons in the dorsal motor nucleus of ...
Avgerinos Alec - - 2002
AIM: We conducted a prospective, randomized comparison of endoscopic variceal ligation, sclerotherapy and metoclopramide injection in order to evaluate their early effect on lower oesophageal sphincter pressure. METHODS: Twenty-six patients with established cirrhosis and an episode of variceal bleeding controlled by one session of endoscopic therapy were randomized to undergo ...
Wooldridge Anne A - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To compare effects of oxytocin, acepromazine maleate, xylazine hydrochloride-butorphanol tartrate, guaifenesin, and detomidine hydrochloride on esophageal manometric pressure in horses. ANIMALS: 8 healthy adult horses. PROCEDURE: A nasogastric tube, modified with 3 polyethylene tubes that exited at the postpharyngeal area, thoracic inlet, and distal portion of the esophagus, was ...
Scheffer R C H - - 2002
The aim of this study was to compare the effect of graded gastric barostat distension and meal-induced fundic relaxation on the elicitation of transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxation (TLOSR). In 15 healthy subjects, stepwise fundic distension and oesophageal manometry were performed simultaneously. Next, the effect of meal ingestion on proximal ...
Patti M G - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Concern has been raised about operating on patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and normal lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure for the fear that a fundoplication may fail to control reflux and result in a high rate of postoperative dysphagia. We hypothesized that fundoplication is effective in patients with ...
Alonso P - - 2002
Lower esophageal sphincter pressure, length of sphincter, and contraction of the crural diaphragm are determinants of esophageal function. Mean pressure manometrics in modified rapid pull-through reflects these three factors. Reproducibility and interobserver variability were studied to assess this method's efficacy and were compared with the maximum expiratory pressure in station ...
Goldani Helena A S - - 2002
Studies of the effect of increased intraabdominal pressure on the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) are controversial. This study aimed to verify the LES competence against extrinsic abdominal compression in children with and without symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux (GER). Eighteen children ages 6-20 months were evaluated, 11 of them with symptoms ...
Hirsch D P - - 2002
To reduce weight, some morbidly obese patients are treated with an intragastric balloon, often resulting in increased reflux symptoms. As transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations (TLESRs) are the major mechanism underlying reflux and can be reduced by cholecystokinin-A (CCK(A)) blockade, we hypothesized that the CCK(A)-receptor antagonist loxiglumide could reduce gastroesophageal ...
Dimarino Michael - - 2002
Previous studies have identified adrenergic receptor sites in the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) of animals and humans. A beta3 adrenoceptor has been identified and cloned. The binding site for this receptor has been found in the rat LES in vitro. The aim of the study was to assess the role ...
Pouderoux Philippe - - 2003
Lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxation and esophageal body inhibition co-occur during esophageal peristalsis but not necessarily during pharyngeal stimulation or transient LES relaxation (tLESR). This study examined these relationships and the impact on reflux. Nine young volunteers were studied. An artificial high-pressure zone (HPZ) was established, and pH was recorded ...
Straathof J W A - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations (TLESRs) are triggered by gastric distension. The aim of the study was to investigate TLESRs during controlled prolonged gastric distensions using the barostat technique. METHODS: Twelve healthy volunteers (4 M, 8 F, age range 19-42 years) were studied under fasting conditions with combined esophageal ...
Thompson R J - - 2002
Gastric tonometry and intravesical pressure measurement were performed on eight babies born with gastroschisis for 72 hours after abdominal closure. Intravesical pressure was not high. The gastric mucosal pCO2 and gastric mucosal pH remained stable and closely matched arterial values. Tonometry may be a useful technique to monitor these babies.
Sun Jing - - 2002
AIM: Globus pharyngeus is not an uncommon symptom. Presently, its unclear dated pathophysiology remains unclear and the disease can not be evaluated correctly with routine diagnostic methods. The objective of this study is to establish the normal values of pharyngeal and UES pressure, pharyngeal transit time in healthy volunteers and ...
Chang Shih-Ching - - 2003
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Dividing or "laying open" of the tract for intersphincteral type anal fistula is simple and effective and entails low risk of complication, but little is known of the functional and manometric results. This study assessed the clinical and manometric effect of this surgery on anal sphincter function. ...
Bortolotti M - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Sildenafil relaxes the muscle cells of the penis arterioles by inhibiting phosphodiesterase-type 5 (PD-5), inactivating the nitric oxide-stimulated cyclic guanosine monophosphate. We investigated whether this effect of Sildenafil is also displayed on the muscles of the hypertensive lower oesophageal sphincter (LES). METHODS: In 14 patients with symptomatic hypertensive LES, ...
van Herwaarden M A - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Baclofen decreases gastro-oesophageal reflux episodes in healthy subjects by reducing the incidence of transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations. AIM: To investigate the effect of baclofen on reflux symptoms, oesophageal pH and lower oesophageal sphincter manometry in patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. METHODS: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, two-way crossover design was ...
Allocca M - - 2002
Gastric distension is a potent stimulus of transient lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxation. To investigate the time effect of prolonged gastric distension on the rate of transient LES relaxations, LES pressure, and the motor and sensory functions of the proximal stomach, we performed a continuous isobaric distension of the proximal ...
Al-Jiffry Bilal O - - 2002
Endothelin levels are elevated in shock, sepsis, and cholestatic jaundice, and an effect on biliary motility may be postulated. The aim of this study was to determine whether (1) endothelin-1 and endothelin-3 induce gallbladder contraction in vivo, (2) the response is caused by changes in blood pressure, and (3) the ...
Shafik Ahmed - - 2002
BACKGROUND: The rectum exhibits electric activity in the form of slow waves or pacesetter potentials (PPs) and action potentials (APs), which are suggested to be initiated from a rectosigmoid pacemaker (RSP). We hypothesized that the RSP and electric waves are responsible for rectal motility. This hypothesis was investigated. METHODS: The ...
Akao Shuichi - - 2002
Intercellular tight junctions play a role in the reflux of the exocrine pancreatic juice. Tight junctions of the main pancreatic duct were electron-microscopically compared between dogs with intraductal hypertension and controls, using a freeze-fracture technique and morphometrical analysis. Intraductal hypertension was created in seven dogs. Intraductal pressure was 20 cm ...
Shafik Ahmed - - 2002
BACKGROUND: The ileocecal junction (ICJ) appears to be a specialized segment of the gut which regulates the passage of the chyme from the ileum to the cecum. We investigated the response of the ICJ to cecal and ileal distension and the nature of this response (direct or reflex). MATERIAL/METHODS: Nine ...
Higo Ryuzaburo - - 2002
We investigated the pharyngeal swallowing function using videomanofluorometry (VMF) in patients after medullary cerebrovascular accidents. Upper esophageal sphincter pressure, which should drop when a bolus arrives at the hypopharynx, increased at the same time as the elevation of oropharyngeal and hypopharyngeal pressures. A reduction of oropharyngeal and hypopharyngeal swallowing pressures ...
Choi Hong-Jo - - 2003
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The double-stapled ileoanal reservoir (DSIAR) has become a preferred method for ileal pouch anal anastomosis in restorative proctocolectomy. This investigation assessed the relative ratio of epithelial tissue types within the anal transition zone after a DSIAR and reviewed functional physiological differences. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All 138 patients ...
Law Ngai-Moh - - 2002
Colonic transit is slowed in patients with disordered rectal evacuation, but the mechanism of this phenomenon is unclear. Our objective was to investigate rectocolonic inhibitory reflexes in humans to provide potential insight into patients with obstructed defecation. In 30 healthy subjects, a barostat-manometric assembly recorded colonic tone and phasic activity ...
Andrews J M - - 2002
Abstract Late phase III migrating motor complex activity has been said to be primarily retroperistaltic but has not been assessed with high resolution manometry or three-dimensional colour pressure plots (pressure/time/distance). Duodenal phase III was examined in healthy young volunteers (seven male, two female) with a 20-lumen assembly. With the most ...
Broens Paul - - 2002
PURPOSE: Sensation is an essential aspect of fecal continence. We aimed to correlate manovolumetric and radiologic changes at successive levels of rectal filling sensation. METHODS: Combined anorectal manometry and proctography were performed in nine volunteers. Images, volumes, and pressures were analyzed at the start of the test, at 20 seconds ...
Kadowaki Makoto - - 2002
The present study was designed to investigate the nature of the 5-HT4 receptors affecting the peristaltic reflex in the isolated rat distal colon. A single peristaltic reflex was evoked by infusing Tyrode solution into the lumen of the isolated segment using our modified Trendelenburg's method under an isovolumic condition. A ...
Williams A B - - 2002
Three-dimensional anal endosonography has enabled sagittal and coronal reconstructions of the anal canal to be matched with longitudinal pressure data, to present a combined picture of structure and function. This novel technique has been applied to a group of women with a clinical diagnosis of a third degree tear. Endosonography ...
Lazarus Cathy - - 2002
Concurrent manometry and videofluoroscopy were utilized to examine tongue base function during swallowing in 3 patients with head and neck cancer. Subjects were instructed in four voluntary swallow maneuvers, including the supersupraglottic swallow, effortful swallow, Mendelsohn maneuver, and tongue-hold maneuver. Peak catheter pressures (mm Hg) at the tongue base-pharyngeal wall ...
Williams Rohan B H - - 2002
Our aims were to examine the etiology and biomechanical properties of the nonrelaxing upper esophageal sphincter (UES) and the relationship between UES opening and failed relaxation. We examined the relationships among swallowed bolus volume, intrabolus pressure, sagittal UES diameter, the pharyngeal swallow response, and geniohyoid shortening in 18 patients with ...
Chuttani Ram - - 2002
BACKGROUND: This study was designed to demonstrate the efficacy and safety of a novel endoscopic full-thickness plication device for the treatment of GERD. METHODS: Gastric pressures and reflux from the gastroesophageal junction were measured in 20 excised pig stomachs before and after full-thickness plication within 1 cm of the gastroesophageal ...
Pandolfino John E - - 2002
To quantify the effect of hiatus hernia (HH) on esophagogastric junction (EGJ) distensibility, eight normal subjects and nine gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) patients with HH were studied with concurrent manometry, fluoroscopy, and stepwise controlled barostatic distention of the EGJ. The minimal barostatic pressure required to open the EGJ during the ...
Schikowski A - - 2002
It has been suggested that serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) type-4 (5-HT4) receptors modulate the sensitivity of intrinsic afferents of the intestinal mucosa. We studied the involvement of 5-HT4receptors in the modulation of extrinsic afferent sensitivity of the intestinal wall. During distension ramps, mechanoreceptive rectal afferents in sacral dorsal roots were examined in ...
Eherer A J - - 2002
Sildenafil blocks phosphodiesterase type 5 which degrades nitric oxide (NO) stimulated 3'5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP), thereby relaxing smooth muscle cells in various organs. We used sildenafil as a tool to investigate the role of the NO-cGMP pathway in the oesophagus of healthy volunteers and patients with hypercontractile oesophageal motility disorders. Six ...
Fazel Ali - - 2002
BACKGROUND: The effect of a medication on sphincter of Oddi motility should be characterized if it is to be used during sphincter of Oddi manometry. Controversy exists as to whether midazolam influences sphincter of Oddi motility. This study assessed the effect of midazolam on the hypertensive sphincter of Oddi. METHODS: ...
Silva Ana P T - - 2002
AIMS: This study evaluates the effect of bilateral nephrectomy on the gastric emptying of a liquid meal. METHODS: Male rats were submitted under anesthesia to cervical vessels cannulation and bilateral lumbar incision, followed or not by nephrectomy. Next day, they were gavage fed (1.5 mL) with phenol red (0.5gmL(-1)) in ...
Kennedy M L - - 2002
PURPOSE: Transanal endoscopic microsurgery is a new technique that has not yet found its place in routine practice. The procedure results in dilation of the anal sphincter with a large-diameter operating sigmoidoscope, sometimes for a prolonged period. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of transanal ...
Rao Satish S C - - 2002
Distension of the intestine triggers the peristaltic reflex, which consists of orad contraction and aborad relaxation. Whether a similar response occurs in the human stomach is unclear. Our aim was to investigate the antral and duodenal motor response(s) to mechanical distension of the proximal stomach. In six healthy volunteers, a ...
Shafik Ahmed - - 2002
Previous studies strongly suggest the presence of a sphincter at the rectosigmoid junction, an area with a mean length of 2.8 cm in adults, called the rectosigmoid canal (RSC). To find supporting evidence of a sphincteric function for the RSC, two recording electrodes were applied to each of the sigmoid ...
Penagini R - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Pneumatic dilatation is an effective treatment for achalasia. Although follow-up studies have shown that its clinical benefit persists for years, it is still unknown whether the decrease in lower oesophageal sphincter (LOS) pressure is maintained over time. Our aim is to assess the long-term effects of pneumatic dilatation on ...
Shafik Ahmed - - 2002
The rectum has an intrinsic nervous mechanism represented by the enteric nervous plexus (ENP) and an extrinsic one mediated by the parasympathetic nerves. Rectal distension evokes the rectoanal inhibitory reflex, which acts through the ENP and is considered the main mechanism responsible for defecation. However, the role of the parasympathetic ...
Zhu Saihong - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To calculate esophageal variceal wall tension by sonographic and noninvasive pressure measurements and to study the role of esophageal variceal wall tension in predicting the likelihood of esophageal variceal rupture. METHODS: In 28 patients with esophageal varices, a 20 MHz ultrasonographic transducer was used to image esophageal varices; the ...
Fazel Ali - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: As our understanding of the pathophysiology of sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD) expands, new avenues arise for pharmacological intervention. Recent evidence suggests that SOD results from a loss of myenteric plexus inhibitory neurons resulting in unopposed cholinergic tone. Octreotide inhibits postganglionic cholinergic neurons, and thus we hypothesize that administration ...
Kohjitani A - - 2002
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Children are vulnerable to regurgitation with a relatively high incidence of aspiration during general anaesthesia which is attributed to the high intragastric pressure, a short oesophagus, an immature laryngeal reflex and incomplete lower oesophageal sphincter muscle function. Subcutaneous administration of epinephrine is generally used in surgery to ...
Naito Hiroo - - 2002
Bile stasis is an important etiologic factor in the high incidence of postgastrectomy gallstone disease (PGGD). Our previous study showed that duodenal, but not prepyloric, transection disturbed the motility of the sphincter of Oddi (SO) in anesthetized dogs. We had developed pylorus-preserving gastrectomy (PPG), in which the anal margin of ...
Cosman Bard C - - 2002
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Autonomic dysreflexia is a common and potentially dangerous response in patients with spinal cord injury at T6 or above. Acute blood pressure elevation may be precipitated by rectosigmoid distention and anal manipulation. Topical anesthetics are widely recommended to minimize the incidence and severity of autonomic dysreflexia, although ...
Shafik A - - 2002
The levator ani muscle (LAM) shares in the mechanism of defecation and urination as well as in visceral support. Levator dysfunction occurs in conditions of chronic straining or increased intra-abdominal pressure. Studies have shown that the gravid uterus, by virtue of its weight and associated increased intraabdominal pressure, might disturb ...
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