Search Results
Results 551 - 600 of 2396
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Lee K-J - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Capsaicin-sensitive afferents have been implicated in the control of visceral sensorimotor functions. AIM: To study the effects of capsaicin on the sensorimotor function of the proximal stomach in humans. METHODS: In 10 healthy subjects, a gastric barostat was used to study the effect of saline or capsaicin-containing red pepper ...
van der Veek Patrick P J - - 2004
PURPOSE: Animal studies have shown that neurotensin stimulates colonic motility, but little is known on the effect on rectocolonic function in humans. This study was designed to investigate the effect of neurotensin on rectal and colonic motor and sensory function and colonic reflexes in humans. METHODS: Motor and sensory function ...
Coremans G - - 2004
Patients with slow transit constipation frequently have delayed gastric emptying. In animals rectal distensions inhibit gastrointestinal motility. In healthy volunteers isovolumetric rectal distensions delay upper gut transit. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of continuous isobaric rectal distension on gastric emptying and oro-cecal transit in young ...
Li Yanqing - - 2004
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Visceral hypersensitivity has been shown to be present in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The current study sought to compare the characteristics of visceral perception thresholds after rectal thermal and pressure stimuli between IBS patients and healthy subjects. METHODS: A total of 46 patients with IBS were diagnosed ...
Watanabe Naozumi - - 2004
The aim of this study was to evaluate the motor activity of the interposed colonic segment in patients who had received a colonic replacement following radical esophagectomy using spectral analysis and a 24 hr activity graph. The 24-hr ambulatory pressure waves were recorded in the replaced colon after esophagectomy (n=8) ...
Penagini Roberto - - 2004
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The role of fundic tension and stretch mechanoreceptors in triggering transient lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxation is still unknown. This information would be useful for the development of effective pharmacologic strategies. To elucidate this topic, gastric contractile activity was modified during isovolumetric gastric distention at 2 different ...
Meining A - - 2004
Gastroesophageal reflux disease is caused predominantly by lower esophageal sphincter insufficiency. Reports suggest that it is possible to distinguish between two main mechanisms causing reflux: low basal sphincter pressure leading to free reflux, mostly occurring at night in the supine position, and increased transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations with normal ...
Gharzouli Kamel - - 2004
Flavonoids are known to relax precontracted intestinal smooth muscle and to delay intestinal transit. We therefore investigated the effects of quercetin, naringenin, apigenin and genistein on intestinal peristalsis in vitro. Peristalsis in fluid-perfused segments of the guinea pig small intestine was recorded through the intraluminal pressure changes associated with the ...
Somani S K - - 2004
Motility abnormalities, common in gastroesophageal reflux disease, are likely to be related to endoscopic esophagitis. We studied pH and manometry parameters in relation to the severity of esophagitis. Forty-seven patients with symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux disease for > 3 months were evaluated by: (i) endoscopy (grading of esophagitis by Savary-Miller classification); ...
Dong Wen Zhu - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Visceral hypersensitivity is highly prevalent in most functional bowel disorders, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and activation of intestinal mast cells (MC) may play a role because they have been found in close proximity to gastrointestinal mucosal sensory nerve terminals containing neuropeptides and a bi-directional pathway connecting the ...
Fritscher-Ravens Annette - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Endoluminal operations for gastroesophageal reflux currently are limited by the inability to visualize and manipulate structures outside the wall of the gut. This may be possible by using EUS. The aims of this study were the following: to define the EUS anatomy of structures outside the gut that influence ...
Shatari Tomoo - - 2004
A 32 year-old man received dynamic graciloplasty for fecal incontinence due to a pelvic fracture. The perception of stool was obtained soon after the colostomy closure. Defecography and a manometric study showed that the patient could contract the transposed gracilis muscle independently. While the resting anal canal pressure remained low ...
Stoohs R A - - 2004
Recording of esophageal pressure waveform is an important clinical tool to identify patients with sleep-disordered breathing. Commonly, esophageal pressure probes are not tolerated by patients undergoing sleep monitoring. We therefore developed a technique to non-invasively estimate esophageal pressure based on recording of intercostal EMG monitoring. A three step approach to ...
Thorburn Kentigern - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of gastric feeding on the measurement of gastric intramucosal PCO2 (PiCO2) and its derived gastric intramucosal PCO2-arterial PCO2 difference (PiCO2-PaCO2 difference) and gastric intramucosal pH (pHi) in a group of critically ill children using recirculating gas tonometry. DESIGN: Prospective clinical pilot study. SETTING: Sixteen bed ...
Adam-Castrillo David D Marion duPont Scott Equine Medical Center, Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Tech, Leesburg, VA 20176, - - 2004
To determine effects on anal pressure of horses after local injection of the external anal sphincter with Clostridium botulinum toxin type B. 11 healthy adult horses. Peak and resting anal sphincter pressures were measured with a custom-made rectal probe that was connected to a pressure transducer. Pressures were measured before ...
Kuo Yung-ing - - 2003
The sphincter of Oddi (SO) plays an important role in regulating the bile flow into the duodenum. This study was designed to investigate the effect of Chinese Medicinal Herbs Muh-Shiang-Bin-Lang-Wan (MSBLW) and their mechanism of action on regulating the motility of SO in rabbits. The activity of SO in anesthetized ...
Andersson Peter - - 2003
PURPOSE: Anal pathology occurs in 20 to 80 percent of patients with Crohn's disease in which abscesses, fistulas, and fissures account for considerable morbidity. The etiology is not clearly defined, but altered anorectal pressures may play a role. This study was designed to investigate anorectal physiologic conditions in patients with ...
Brackbill Stephen - - 2003
The pathogenesis of achalasia involves the degeneration of enteric and autonomic nervous systems with resultant effects on esophageal motility. The neural degeneration could affect visceral sensation in achalasia. The aim of this study was to examine mechanosensitivity and chemosensitivity in patients with achalasia. Perceptual responses to esophageal distension and acid ...
Lee J I - - 2003
Type 5 phosphodiesterase terminates the action of nitric oxide (NO) induced 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP). Sildenafil inhibits this phosphodiesterase, increases cellular cGMP concentrations and enhances NO-induced smooth muscle relaxation. We investigated the effect of sildenafil on the oesophageal motor function of healthy subjects and patients with nutcracker oesophagus. Eight healthy volunteers ...
Zimmerman David D E - - 2003
PURPOSE: This study was designed to compare two different types of anal retractors (Parks vs. Scott) with regard to their impact on fecal continence after fistula repair. METHODS: Between November 2000 and November 2001, 30 patients were randomized into two groups. In Group A (n = 15), a Parks retractor ...
Kamberoglou Dimitrios K - - 2003
There is a subgroup of patients with achalasia in which manometry shows elevated intraesophageal pressure, expressed by elevation of esophageal baseline relative to gastric pressure. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of elevated intraesophageal pressure in patients with achalasia and its relationship to clinical, radiographic, endoscopic, ...
Zonnevijlle Erik D H - - 2003
Muscle tissue transplantation applied to regain or dynamically assist contractile functions is known as 'dynamic myoplasty'. Success rates of clinical applications are unpredictable, because of lack of endurance, ischemic lesions, abundant scar formation and inadequate performance of tasks due to lack of refined control. Electrical stimulation is used to control ...
Shafik Ahmed - - 2003
BACKGROUND/AIMS: In chronic constipation due to delayed colonic transit, stasis of the ileal contents with resulting ileal distension may occur. The current study investigated the effect of ileal and jejunal distension on the gastric motility, aiming at elucidating the possible existence of a relationship and its role in the flow ...
de Lorijn Fleur - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To characterize anal sphincter function in very premature infants < or =30 weeks' postmenstrual age (PMA) and to evaluate the time of maturation of the rectoanal inhibitory reflex (RAIR) by using a sleeve catheter. STUDY DESIGN: Anorectal manometry was performed in 16 healthy neonates (nine girls) with a mean ...
Walsh B Timothy - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Because the stomach plays an important role in the development of satiety, gastric function was examined in bulimia nervosa (BN). METHODS: Sixteen patients with BN and 16 controls swallowed an inflatable bag, which was positioned in the proximal stomach. Minimal distending pressure (MDP), the pressure needed to overcome intraabdominal ...
Fritz Eva - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: Nitric oxide, a neurotransmitter in the noncholinergic, nonadrenergic nervous system, is a mediator of relaxation of GI smooth muscle and of visceral nociception mainly studied in vitro. Sildenafil stimulates the nitric oxide guanosine 3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate (NO-cGMP) pathway through inhibition of phosphodiesterase 5. The aims of this study were ...
Fogel Evan L - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Performance of sphincter of Oddi manometry at ERCP is technically demanding and requires that the patient be well sedated. Droperidol is frequently administered when adequate sedation cannot be achieved with a benzodiazepine and meperidine. This study examined the effects of droperidol on the biliary and pancreatic sphincters. METHODS: A ...
Wilcox C Mel - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Droperidol increasingly is used as an effective adjunct for conscious sedation during endoscopic procedures. Given the concern for the effects of narcotics and benzodiazepines on sphincter of Oddi motility, and the potential difficulty in sedating patients undergoing sphincter of Oddi manometry, droperidol could be an ideal agent in this ...
Aytaç B - - 2003
PURPOSE: To assess whether the anal canal pressure is increased in patients with a chronic anal fissure and to examine the effects of internal anal sphincterotomy (IASy) on this pressure. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Anorectal manometry was performed in 28 patients in whom an anal fissure had been diagnosed by means ...
Cantù P - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxation and low lower oesophageal sphincter pressure are the main mechanisms of reflux. It has recently been shown that the stimulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid type B (GABAB) receptors by baclofen decreases the rate of transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxation and increases the lower oesophageal sphincter ...
Shafik Ahmed - - 2003
PURPOSE: Digital pressure on the perineum was reported to result in an increase of the rectal tone. This effect has been related to a reflex action named perineorectal reflex but was not verified. The mechanism of action of perineal pressure on the rectal tone was studied. METHODS: Eighteen healthy volunteers ...
Pandolfino John E - - 2003
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Flow across the esophagogastric junction (EGJ) is strongly related to opening dimensions. This study aimed to determine whether opening of the relaxed EGJ was altered in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). METHODS: Seven normal subjects (NL), 9 GERD patients without hiatus hernia (NHH), and 7 with ...
Masa J F - - 2003
It would be helpful to be able to identify respiratory effort-related arousal (RERA) without needing to measure oesophageal pressure. Thoracoabdominal movements yield an indirect flow measurement from which reduction of amplitude and alteration of the inspiratory flow curve can be detected. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ...
Ahmed W U - - 2003
AIMS: To study the oesophageal pressures in normal Pakistani subjects using oesophageal manometry and compare the results from the studies done abroad. SETTING: Ziauddin Medical University Hospital, North Nazimabad Karachi. SUBJECTS: Twenty-five healthy subjects were studied. RESULTS: Of 25 subjects 19 were males and 6 females. Their ages ranged from ...
Holzer Peter - - 2003
Peristalsis is the aboral movement by which the intestine propels its contents. Since pharmacological research requires an experimental model with which drug-induced modifications of peristalsis can be reliably quantified, we set out to develop and validate an in vitro method for studying peristalsis in multiple gut segments. In our arrangement, ...
Chi D X - - 2003
Manometry of the alimentary tract is a valuable and widely used means to evaluate and diagnose the function of the alimentary tract. However, the measurement can be inconvenient due to the invasive method used, and the many factors affecting results. Research on colonic pressure data is even more insufficient. This ...
Larsson M - - 2003
In the current study, colorectal distension (CRD) was performed in conscious mice, in order to study visceral (colon) sensitivity. Electrodes were chronically implanted into the external oblique muscle to obtain the electromyographic (EMG) response to CRD. CRD was performed using a computerized system, which inflated the balloon with air to ...
Bogeski G - - 2003
Distension of the intestine is commonly used to elicit reflex responses at other sites in the gastrointestinal tract, and also to evaluate pain of intestinal origin. The sensory neurones, that initiate the reflexes or pain responses, react to the forces generated in the wall of the intestine. Thus, the responses ...
Steinberg William M - - 2003
The risk benefit ratio of measuring the sphincter of Oddi pressure and performing sphincterotomy in patients with idiopathic acute pancreatitis with high sphincter pressures has not been assessed. Few healthy controls have had sphincter measurements so that the definition of an abnormal sphincter remains understudied. The procedures involved have significant ...
Chen J W C - - 2003
Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a potent stimulator of gallbladder contractility. Its role in modulation of sphincter of Oddi (SO) motility and trans-sphincteric flow (TSF) has not been evaluated. To characterize the effects of ET-1 on SO motility and TSF, 10 anaesthetized Australian possums (in vivo, n = 6) were given graded ...
Hirsch D P - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: Morbidly obese patients treated with an intragastric balloon report a transient increase in gastroesophageal reflux (GER) symptoms. In the present study, we evaluated the underlying mechanisms of GER and examined the effect of prolonged gastric distention on lower esophageal sphincter function. METHODS: Fasting and postprandial manometric studies were performed ...
Orozco-Levi M - - 2003
Gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) and bronchoaspiration of gastric content are risk factors linked with ventilator-associated pneumonia. This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of a nasogastric tube (NGT) incorporating a low-pressure oesophageal balloon on GOR and bronchoaspiration in patients receiving mechanical ventilation. Fourteen patients were studied in a semi-recumbent position ...
Adam-Castrillo, David
Toxins produced by the Gram-positive bacteria Clostridium botulinum cause transient chemodenervation of mammalian muscle. The toxin binds to specific proteins within cholinergic presynaptic nerve terminals which regulate the release of acetylcholine in the synaptic space resulting is loss of muscle activation and function. Local injections with botulinum toxins are currently ...
Savoye-Collet Céline - - 2003
Intraluminal impedance recording has made it possible to record fluid transport across the pylorus during the interdigestive state without filling the stomach. During antral phase II, fluid transport occurs with and without manometrically detectable antral contraction. Our aim was to investigate the relationships between ultrasonographic patterns of antral contraction, manometric ...
Lee K-J - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor type B agonist, baclofen, inhibits transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations by influencing a vagal pathway. Although post-prandial proximal gastric function, which is vagally mediated, is important in the occurrence of transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations, the effects of baclofen on post-prandial proximal gastric motility in ...
Pal Anupam - - 2003
Propulsion of a bolus through the upper esophageal sphincter (UES) is driven by a pressure drop in the direction of flow against frictional resisting force. Basic mechanics suggest that the axial rate of drop in intrabolus pressure (IBP), i.e., the intrabolus pressure gradient (IBPG), should be locally sensitive to abnormal ...
Cornella Jeffrey L - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the correlation between internal and external anal sphincter volumes and manometric anal pressures. STUDY DESIGN: Ten healthy nulliparous women underwent anal sphincter magnetic resonance imaging and anal manometry measurement. A 3-dimensional reconstruction of magnetic resonance images was accomplished with the use ...
Shafik Ahmed - - 2003
Chyme delivery from the ileum to the colon is controlled by various neurologic and hormonal factors, many of which remain to be identified. In this report we investigated the effect of colonic distention on ileal motility with the aim of identifying the mechanism of chyme delivery from the ileum to ...
Colak Tahsin - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To compare a systemic transdermal therapeutic system with local application of glyceryl trinitrate ointment in the treatment of anal fissure. DESIGN: Prospective, multicentre, randomised trial. SETTING: Three teaching hospitals, Turkey. SUBJECTS: 89 outpatients with chronic anal fissure were randomly assigned to be treated with either transdermal (n = 52) ...
De Schryver A M P - - 2003
In the present study, the gastrocolonic response after ingestion of a standardized liquid meal and the response to a local chemical stimulus were investigated in 10 healthy volunteers and 10 patients with slow-transit constipation (as determined by marker studies). Colonic pressures were recorded while fasting, after ingestion of a standardized ...
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