Search Results
Results 551 - 600 of 2373
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de Lorijn Fleur - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To characterize anal sphincter function in very premature infants < or =30 weeks' postmenstrual age (PMA) and to evaluate the time of maturation of the rectoanal inhibitory reflex (RAIR) by using a sleeve catheter. STUDY DESIGN: Anorectal manometry was performed in 16 healthy neonates (nine girls) with a mean ...
Walsh B Timothy - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Because the stomach plays an important role in the development of satiety, gastric function was examined in bulimia nervosa (BN). METHODS: Sixteen patients with BN and 16 controls swallowed an inflatable bag, which was positioned in the proximal stomach. Minimal distending pressure (MDP), the pressure needed to overcome intraabdominal ...
Fritz Eva - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: Nitric oxide, a neurotransmitter in the noncholinergic, nonadrenergic nervous system, is a mediator of relaxation of GI smooth muscle and of visceral nociception mainly studied in vitro. Sildenafil stimulates the nitric oxide guanosine 3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate (NO-cGMP) pathway through inhibition of phosphodiesterase 5. The aims of this study were ...
Fogel Evan L - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Performance of sphincter of Oddi manometry at ERCP is technically demanding and requires that the patient be well sedated. Droperidol is frequently administered when adequate sedation cannot be achieved with a benzodiazepine and meperidine. This study examined the effects of droperidol on the biliary and pancreatic sphincters. METHODS: A ...
Wilcox C Mel - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Droperidol increasingly is used as an effective adjunct for conscious sedation during endoscopic procedures. Given the concern for the effects of narcotics and benzodiazepines on sphincter of Oddi motility, and the potential difficulty in sedating patients undergoing sphincter of Oddi manometry, droperidol could be an ideal agent in this ...
Aytaç B - - 2003
PURPOSE: To assess whether the anal canal pressure is increased in patients with a chronic anal fissure and to examine the effects of internal anal sphincterotomy (IASy) on this pressure. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Anorectal manometry was performed in 28 patients in whom an anal fissure had been diagnosed by means ...
Cantù P - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxation and low lower oesophageal sphincter pressure are the main mechanisms of reflux. It has recently been shown that the stimulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid type B (GABAB) receptors by baclofen decreases the rate of transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxation and increases the lower oesophageal sphincter ...
Shafik Ahmed - - 2003
PURPOSE: Digital pressure on the perineum was reported to result in an increase of the rectal tone. This effect has been related to a reflex action named perineorectal reflex but was not verified. The mechanism of action of perineal pressure on the rectal tone was studied. METHODS: Eighteen healthy volunteers ...
Pandolfino John E - - 2003
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Flow across the esophagogastric junction (EGJ) is strongly related to opening dimensions. This study aimed to determine whether opening of the relaxed EGJ was altered in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). METHODS: Seven normal subjects (NL), 9 GERD patients without hiatus hernia (NHH), and 7 with ...
Masa J F - - 2003
It would be helpful to be able to identify respiratory effort-related arousal (RERA) without needing to measure oesophageal pressure. Thoracoabdominal movements yield an indirect flow measurement from which reduction of amplitude and alteration of the inspiratory flow curve can be detected. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ...
Ahmed W U - - 2003
AIMS: To study the oesophageal pressures in normal Pakistani subjects using oesophageal manometry and compare the results from the studies done abroad. SETTING: Ziauddin Medical University Hospital, North Nazimabad Karachi. SUBJECTS: Twenty-five healthy subjects were studied. RESULTS: Of 25 subjects 19 were males and 6 females. Their ages ranged from ...
Holzer Peter - - 2003
Peristalsis is the aboral movement by which the intestine propels its contents. Since pharmacological research requires an experimental model with which drug-induced modifications of peristalsis can be reliably quantified, we set out to develop and validate an in vitro method for studying peristalsis in multiple gut segments. In our arrangement, ...
Chi D X - - 2003
Manometry of the alimentary tract is a valuable and widely used means to evaluate and diagnose the function of the alimentary tract. However, the measurement can be inconvenient due to the invasive method used, and the many factors affecting results. Research on colonic pressure data is even more insufficient. This ...
Larsson M - - 2003
In the current study, colorectal distension (CRD) was performed in conscious mice, in order to study visceral (colon) sensitivity. Electrodes were chronically implanted into the external oblique muscle to obtain the electromyographic (EMG) response to CRD. CRD was performed using a computerized system, which inflated the balloon with air to ...
Bogeski G - - 2003
Distension of the intestine is commonly used to elicit reflex responses at other sites in the gastrointestinal tract, and also to evaluate pain of intestinal origin. The sensory neurones, that initiate the reflexes or pain responses, react to the forces generated in the wall of the intestine. Thus, the responses ...
Steinberg William M - - 2003
The risk benefit ratio of measuring the sphincter of Oddi pressure and performing sphincterotomy in patients with idiopathic acute pancreatitis with high sphincter pressures has not been assessed. Few healthy controls have had sphincter measurements so that the definition of an abnormal sphincter remains understudied. The procedures involved have significant ...
Chen J W C - - 2003
Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a potent stimulator of gallbladder contractility. Its role in modulation of sphincter of Oddi (SO) motility and trans-sphincteric flow (TSF) has not been evaluated. To characterize the effects of ET-1 on SO motility and TSF, 10 anaesthetized Australian possums (in vivo, n = 6) were given graded ...
Hirsch D P - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: Morbidly obese patients treated with an intragastric balloon report a transient increase in gastroesophageal reflux (GER) symptoms. In the present study, we evaluated the underlying mechanisms of GER and examined the effect of prolonged gastric distention on lower esophageal sphincter function. METHODS: Fasting and postprandial manometric studies were performed ...
Orozco-Levi M - - 2003
Gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) and bronchoaspiration of gastric content are risk factors linked with ventilator-associated pneumonia. This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of a nasogastric tube (NGT) incorporating a low-pressure oesophageal balloon on GOR and bronchoaspiration in patients receiving mechanical ventilation. Fourteen patients were studied in a semi-recumbent position ...
Adam-Castrillo, David
Toxins produced by the Gram-positive bacteria Clostridium botulinum cause transient chemodenervation of mammalian muscle. The toxin binds to specific proteins within cholinergic presynaptic nerve terminals which regulate the release of acetylcholine in the synaptic space resulting is loss of muscle activation and function. Local injections with botulinum toxins are currently ...
Savoye-Collet Céline - - 2003
Intraluminal impedance recording has made it possible to record fluid transport across the pylorus during the interdigestive state without filling the stomach. During antral phase II, fluid transport occurs with and without manometrically detectable antral contraction. Our aim was to investigate the relationships between ultrasonographic patterns of antral contraction, manometric ...
Lee K-J - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor type B agonist, baclofen, inhibits transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations by influencing a vagal pathway. Although post-prandial proximal gastric function, which is vagally mediated, is important in the occurrence of transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations, the effects of baclofen on post-prandial proximal gastric motility in ...
Pal Anupam - - 2003
Propulsion of a bolus through the upper esophageal sphincter (UES) is driven by a pressure drop in the direction of flow against frictional resisting force. Basic mechanics suggest that the axial rate of drop in intrabolus pressure (IBP), i.e., the intrabolus pressure gradient (IBPG), should be locally sensitive to abnormal ...
Cornella Jeffrey L - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the correlation between internal and external anal sphincter volumes and manometric anal pressures. STUDY DESIGN: Ten healthy nulliparous women underwent anal sphincter magnetic resonance imaging and anal manometry measurement. A 3-dimensional reconstruction of magnetic resonance images was accomplished with the use ...
Shafik Ahmed - - 2003
Chyme delivery from the ileum to the colon is controlled by various neurologic and hormonal factors, many of which remain to be identified. In this report we investigated the effect of colonic distention on ileal motility with the aim of identifying the mechanism of chyme delivery from the ileum to ...
Colak Tahsin - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To compare a systemic transdermal therapeutic system with local application of glyceryl trinitrate ointment in the treatment of anal fissure. DESIGN: Prospective, multicentre, randomised trial. SETTING: Three teaching hospitals, Turkey. SUBJECTS: 89 outpatients with chronic anal fissure were randomly assigned to be treated with either transdermal (n = 52) ...
De Schryver A M P - - 2003
In the present study, the gastrocolonic response after ingestion of a standardized liquid meal and the response to a local chemical stimulus were investigated in 10 healthy volunteers and 10 patients with slow-transit constipation (as determined by marker studies). Colonic pressures were recorded while fasting, after ingestion of a standardized ...
Jadcherla Sudarshan Rao - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: We studied the maturation of esophageal body and upper esophageal sphincter (UES) motor responses that protect against reflux in newborns. STUDY DESIGN: The responses of esophageal body and UES on midesophageal provocation were quantified using a micromanometric water perfusion system and a specially designed catheter with a UES sleeve ...
Dorey Grace - - 2003
A test-retest design was used to assess within-day and day-to-day reliability of anal manometric measurements in a group of men with erectile dysfunction. Results indicate that reliable measures of anal pressure are obtainable under clinical conditions.
Kamerling I M C - - 2003
The role of motilin in the regulation of upper gastrointestinal (GI) motility is well defined. However, little is known about the effects on the distal GI tract. To investigate the effect of exogenous motilin on rectal function, barostat measurements in the rectum were performed and lower abdominal symptoms were scored. ...
Shafik Ahmed - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that anal distension caused rectal contraction, an action mediated through the anorectal excitatory reflex. Anal anesthetization aborted rectal contraction and rectal evacuation was induced by excessive straining. We investigated the hypothesis that inhibition or absence of the anorectal excitatory reflex could lead to constipation. METHODS: ...
Chial Heather J - - 2003
BACKGROUND & AIMS: We have shown that venlafaxine-XR, a serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, enhanced gastric accommodation, whereas buspirone, a 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist, reduced postprandial symptoms after a fully satiating meal. Our aim was to compare the effects of venlafaxine, buspirone, and placebo on colonic sensorimotor functions in healthy ...
Wei Jing-Guo - - 2003
AIM: To study the relationship between the radiological anatomy and the dynamics on bile duct sphincter in bile draining and regularizing effect of gallbladder. METHODS: Sixteen healthy dogs weighing 18 kg to 25 kg were divided randomly into control group and experimental group (cholecystectomy group). Cineradiography, manometry with perfusion, to ...
Luiking Y C - - 2003
Motilin was infused in this study with the aim of examining refractory characteristics for motilin stimulation of antral phase III and fasting gallbladder emptying. Moreover, interdigestive pyloric and small intestinal motility from duodenum to ileum were studied, as these may be target organs for motilin. Eight fasting, healthy male volunteers ...
De Ponti Fabrizio - - 2003
The 5-HT1B/D receptor agonist sumatriptan has been proposed to treat dyspeptic symptoms, because it facilitates gastric accommodation. It is unknown whether stimulation of 5-HT1B/D receptors is involved. Thus, in four conscious dogs, we compared the effects of sumatriptan alone or combined with N-[4-methoxy-3-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl) phenyl]-2'-methyl-4'-(5-methyl-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl)-[1,1-biphenyl]-4-carboxamide hydrocloride (GR-127935), N-[3-[3 (dimethylamino)-ethoxy]-4-methoxyphenyl]-2'-[methyl-4'-(5-methyl-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl)]-[1,1-biphenyl]-4-carboxamide hydrocloride (SB-216641 ...
Aksglaede K - - 2003
PURPOSE: To evaluate whether location of the gastro-esophageal junction (GEJ) could be determined with the same accuracy on radiography as by manometry with special reference to pH probe positioning. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ninety patients with suspected esophageal motility disorders underwent simultaneous manometry and video-radiography. The lower esophageal sphincter pressure (LESP) ...
Madácsy László - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Nalbuphine is an ideal supplementary analgesic drug for midazolam-induced conscious sedation during operative endoscopy because it has no cardiovascular effect and only a moderate depressive effect on respiration. However, no data are available as to whether nalbuphine is suitable as an analgesic drug during endoscopic sphincter of Oddi manometry. ...
Tack J - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The role of 5-hydroxytryptamine in the control of gastric fundus tone in humans is still unknown. Selective 5-hydroxytryptamine re-uptake inhibitors act both centrally and peripherally to enhance the availability of physiologically released 5-hydroxytryptamine. AIM: To study the influence of a selective 5-hydroxytryptamine re-uptake inhibitor, paroxetine, on gastric fundus tone, ...
Shafik A - - 2003
Radiologic, endoscopic and histomorphologic studies have suggested the presence of a sphincter at the cecocolonic junction (CCJ), while some investigators have denied its existence. To investigate the physiologic activity at the CCJ, the right colon was exposed during right hemicolectomy for early colonic cancer in 11 patients (mean age 43.6+/-12.3 ...
Sloots C E J - - 2003
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Evacuation disorders associated with a rectocele can be improved by rectocele repair. This study investigated whether anorectal function tests results change after rectocele repair. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fourteen patients with 2nd or 3rd degree rectocele and evacuation disorder were treated by posterior colporrhaphy and evaluated pre- and ...
Yaghoobi Mohammad - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: Achalasia is an esophageal motor disorder characterized by aperistalsis and incomplete relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES). The meaningful correlation between LES relaxation pressure and the severity of clinical symptoms is uncertain. The aim of this study was to elucidate the correlation between the clinical scoring and the ...
Skarda Roman T - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To compare effects of electroacupuncture and butorphanol on hemodynamic and respiratory variables and rectal analgesia in mares after controlled rectal distention. ANIMALS: 8 healthy mares. PROCEDURE: Each horse received saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (0.01 mL/kg, IV; control treatment), butorphanol tartrate (0.1 mg/kg, IV), or 2 hours of electroacupuncture (EA) ...
Berry Melanie K - - 2003
Gastric emptying is a determinant of the postprandial glycemic and cardiovascular responses to oral carbohydrate. We evaluated the effects of a solid meal on gastric emptying and the glycemic and cardiovascular responses to oral glucose in healthy older subjects. Ten subjects aged 72.1 +/- 1.9 yr were studied. Each subject ...
Yip Benson - - 2003
PURPOSE: This is the first report of linear pressure profiles and symmetric findings in preoperative and postoperative (after gracilis muscle retraining) patients. Length of the anal canal and symmetry have been well documented in the literature as significant parameters in the maintenance of anal incontinence. Significant improvement of these parameters ...
van Herwaarden Margot A - - 2003
The effects of age and gender on the upper esophageal sphincter's (UES) and pharyngeal manometric parameters were investigated in 84 healthy subjects (45 men, 39 women, mean age = 44 years, range = 18-91). Manometric recordings were performed with solid-state circumferential transducers. Subjects older than 60 years (n = 23) ...
Lanng Charlotte - - 2003
BACKGROUND/AIM: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) affects about 15-20% of the population of the Western countries. Traditionally, IBS has been an exclusion diagnosis, but recently definitions have emerged from population-based research. The aim of this population-based study was to evaluate any association between gastrointestinal pathophysiology and IBS in subjects with symptoms ...
Mattioli Sandro - - 2003
The goal of our study was to verify the clinical applicability of an original balloon sensor probe for the manofluorographic study of oropharyngeal dysphagia. A prototype apparatus for manofluorography was developed and a standard perfused probe for esophageal manometry was modified by applying fluid-filled floppy balloons 0.5-, 1-, and 2.5-cm ...
Szücs G - - 2003
The basis of telescopic anastomosis is old, only the practical details of it have changed and improved. The telescopic anastomosis technique is successfully applied in our practice for reconstruction of gastrectomy and esophageal resection. The reason for this study was that data about the healing process of telescopic anastomosis had ...
Shafik Ahmed - - 2003
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Because the role of sympathetic innervation in the defecation mechanism is still vague and unidentified, this study was performed to investigate this issue. METHODS: The effect of individual administration of alpha- and beta-adrenoceptor blocking agents (3 mg/kg phentolamine mesylate and 1 mg/kg propranolol hydrochloride, respectively) and the effect of ...
Navarro-Rodriguez T - - 2003
The effect of the reduction of intra-abdominal pressure on the lower esophageal sphincter pressure (LESP) and the 24-hour pH monitoring were studied in 16 patients with ascites before and after paracentesis. LESP did not change (P > 0.05) with the reduction of intra-abdominal pressure (before paracentesis: 17.48 mmHg and postparacentesis: ...
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