Search Results
Results 501 - 550 of 2396
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Netinho João Gomes - - 2005
BACKGROUND: The rectoanal inhibitory reflex has an important rule in the fecal continence mechanism. Alterations in this reflex can be associated with compromised anal sphincteric function. AIM: To identify possible correlation between rectoanal inhibitory reflex parameters and intestinal constipation due to obstructive evacuation. PATIENTS: Sixty nine patients with intestinal constipation ...
Bright T - - 2005
The squeeze pressure in the anal canal reflects the contribution of the external anal sphincter and is normally assessed manometrically by asking patients to contract their anal muscles. However, this is an artificial situation as normally the external sphincter contracts to retain rectal content. Some patients with normal anal sphincter ...
Benditt Joshua O - - 2005
The measurement of esophageal and gastric pressures with balloon-tipped catheters has been used with great success over the past half century to delineate the physiology of the mechanical respiratory system. Pleural pressure and abdominal pressure values estimated from esophageal and gastric pressure measurements allow analysis of lung and chest wall ...
Shatari T - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To correlate anorectal function including rectal evacuation with anorectal physiology and endoanal ultrasound in women with third degree obstetric anal sphincter injury repaired at the time of delivery. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Forty-four women with repaired third degree tears underwent anorectal physiology, anal ultrasonography and clinical assessment using the St. ...
Di Martino N - - 2005
The surgical treatment of achalasia, based on Heller's myotomy is the procedure of choice to reduce the sphincterial high pressure zone, either by laparotomy or, most recently, by laparoscopy. What is the right length of the myotomy? Many authors have reported 10-15% postoperative residual dysphagia, due to the incomplete gastric ...
Al-Zaben Awad A Electronics Engineering Department, Hijjawi Faculty for Engineering technology, Yarmouk University, Irbid-Jordan, - - 2005
Multichannel intraluminal procedure provides information about the esophagus status, reflux occurrence, and clearance mechanism. The study of the impedance signals has been concentrated on the study of reflux patterns and clearance mechanisms. However, there are a number of sources that results in the variations seen in impedance signal. These sources ...
Pal Anupam - - 2004
The fed human stomach displays regular peristaltic contraction waves that originate in the proximal antrum and propagate to the pylorus. High-resolution concurrent manometry and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of the stomach suggest a primary function of antral contraction wave (ACW) activity unrelated to gastric emptying. Detailed evaluation is difficult, ...
Takeda T - - 2004
Recently, we reported a novel ultrasound technique to assess the biomechanical properties of the oesophagus in humans. To investigate whether the oesophageal sensation induced by oesophageal distension correlates with wall tension, wall stress or wall strain, we studied 20 healthy subjects using a manometry catheter equipped with a high-compliance bag ...
Fox Mark - - 2004
PURPOSE: The intermittent loss of oil or stool ("spotting") is an adverse effect that occurs in patients taking orlistat; the pathophysiology is unknown. This study was designed to investigate the local effects of orlistat, free fatty acids, and the effects of the physical properties of rectal contents on anorectal function ...
Madácsy L - - 2004
Although the motor function of the sphincter of Oddi (SO) has been clearly identified by endoscopic SO manometry (ESOM), the physiologic role of the phasic contractions of the SO remains unsettled in humans. The aim of this study was to correlate SO motor activity measured by ESOM with bile flow ...
Bove A - - 2004
BACKGROUND: A consistent debate exists about the association between anal fissure and hypertonic anal canal. The aim of this study was to determine if the manometric findings in patients with chronic anal fissures varied according to the topography of the fissure. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Seventy-three outpatients (52 men, 71%) with ...
Kobakov Georgi L - - 2004
INTRODUCTION: The aim of sphincter-saving operative techniques and creation of intestinal reservoirs is to improve the quality of life for patients with restorative prococolectomy. METHODS: In this study, 48 consecutive patients (19 males and 29 females of ages between 19 and 55 years; mean age, 35.52 years) with ulcerative colitis ...
Freedman Jacob - - 2004
BACKGROUND: With the development of sophisticated equipment ambulatory studies of oesophageal motor function, pH and bilirubin have gained in popularity. The aim of the study was to present reference values for combined 24 h pH, bilirubin and manometric measurements of the oesophagus. METHODS: Twenty-six (15 male) healthy volunteers without symptoms ...
Shafik Ahmed - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: The effect of vaginal distension on the oviduct contractile activity during penile thrusting at coitus could not be traced in the literature. We investigated the hypothesis that vaginal distension effects oviduct contraction, which assists in ovum transport along the oviduct. METHODS: Oviduct pressure was measured upon vaginal condom distension ...
Miller Larry S - - 2004
Our hypothesis states that variceal pressure and wall tension increase dramatically during esophageal peristaltic contractions. This increase in pressure and wall tension is a natural consequence of the anatomy and physiology of the esophagus and of the esophageal venous plexus. The purpose of this study was to evaluate variceal hemodynamics ...
Fang John C - - 2004
Clinical gastrointestinal manometry studies are currently performed with multilumen water-perfused polyvinyl or strain gauge sensor solid-state catheters. A disposable catheter incorporating air-filled balloons has been developed with performance characteristics suitable for esophageal and anorectal manometry studies. Our aim was to compare esophageal and anorectal pressure measurements using this newly developed ...
Shaker Reza - - 2004
Previous studies of distensibility of the gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) in humans have not tried to distinguish between the effects of muscle action and passive elastic tissue properties of the GEJ. We studied 15 healthy subjects (ages 23-67 yr, 11 men/4 women) by using a catheter with a highly complaint bag ...
Wu Shuo-Dong - - 2004
AIM: To assess the effects of intramuscular analgesics (morphine, Ap-237, pethidine and tramadol) on human Oddi's sphincter motility with choledochoscope manometry. METHODS: A total of 70 patients having T tubes after cholecystectomy and choledochotomy were assessed by choledochoscope manometry. They were randomly divided into morphine group, Ap-237 group, pethidine group ...
Lindsey Ian - - 2004
PURPOSE: Conservative anal surgery, with maximum preservation of the anal sphincters and continence, is becoming increasingly possible with the emergence of new sphincter-sparing treatments. Many surgeons remain skeptical, however, of the nature and impact of incontinence after anal surgery. We aimed to characterize the patterns of anal sphincter injury in ...
Shafik Ahmed - - 2004
The role of the crural diaphragm during increased intra-abdominal pressure is not exactly known. We investigated the hypothesis that the crural diaphragm undergoes reflex phasic contraction on elevation of the intra-abdominal pressure with a resulting increase of the lower esophageal pressure and prevention of gastro-esophageal reflux. The esophageal pressure and ...
Siproudhis L - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Although antidepressants are used for functional gastrointestinal disorders, the mechanisms of their effects on gut are incompletely understood. AIM: To assess the effects of two types of antidepressants (tricyclic, serotoninergic) on anorectal motility and visceral perception. METHODS: A placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind, crossover study was performed in 12 healthy male ...
Fried Martin - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Commonly used adjustable gastric bands function on two different physical principles: low pressure-high volume and high pressure-low volume system. METHODS: A study was carried out to investigate the theoretical and clinical levels of adjustable band volume-pressure features and their possible influence on band-related complications. The theoretical study had two ...
van Herwaarden Margot A - - 2004
This article gives an overview of the role of sliding hiatus hernia in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD). The crural diaphragm acts as an external sphincter of the anti-reflux barrier. Contractions of the crural diaphragm increase lower-oesophageal-sphincter (LOS) pressure during each inspiration and in situations of increased abdominal pressure, whereas these ...
Karlbom U - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate anorectal physiology in relation to clinically defined subgroups of patients with idiopathic constipation and to analyse relationships between anorectal physiology and rectal evacuation. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: One hundred consecutive patients with idiopathic constipation were clinically categorized as slow transit (n=19), outlet ...
Penagini R - - 2004
Morphine reduces the rate of transient lower oesophageal sphincter (LOS) relaxations but its site of action is presently unknown. There are no data available concerning its motor effects on the proximal stomach, an important site for triggering transient LOS relaxations. To evaluate the effect of morphine on the rate of ...
Bredenoord A J - - 2004
The lower esophageal high-pressure zone (HPZ) consists of the intrinsic lower esophageal sphincter (LES) and the diaphragmatic sphincter. In patients with a hiatal hernia these constituents are separated. We performed high-resolution manometry of the esophagogastric HPZ in six controls, six patients with a small hernia, and six patients with a ...
Chen J W C - - 2004
Scorpion envenomation causes severe upper abdominal pain associated with nausea and vomiting. Although scorpion venom (SV) stimulates pancreatic and gastric secretion in animal models, its effects on duodenal and biliary motility have not been reported. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of SV on sphincter of ...
Chrysos Emmanuel - - 2004
BACKGROUND: The effect of total (Nissen) and anterior partial fundoplication (APF) for the surgical treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) on the motor behavior of the esophagogastric axis has not been fully assessed. The purpose of this study was to assess any alterations in lower esophageal sphincter (LES) and gastric ...
Dinning Philip G - - 2004
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The pathophysiology of constipation in the syndrome of obstructed defecation is unknown. Using 24-hour pancolonic manometric recordings of the unprepared colon to record basal pressures and spontaneous defecation episodes, we tested the hypothesis that the frequency, timing, or spatial distribution of propagating colonic pressure waves is abnormal ...
Shafik Ahmed - - 2004
The lower esophagus is intra-abdominal and exposed to intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) variations that may lead to gastroesophageal reflux (GER). We investigated the hypothesis that the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) undergoes phasic contraction on IAP increase, with a resulting inhibition of the stress GER. The study comprised 17 subjects (age 42.3 ...
Iwakiri Katsuhiko - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Because of the wide overlap between the groups, patients with reflux esophagitis (RE) cannot be distinguished from healthy subjects by basal lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure. The LES has radial asymmetry, with maximum pressure on the left side. It has been noted that one directional LES pressure, determined using ...
Kawamura Osamu - - 2004
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Recent studies have shown the existence of several reflex connections between the aerodigestive and upper gastrointestinal tracts. Our aim was to study the effect of laryngeal stimulation on upper esophageal sphincter (UES) pressure and to determine the reproducibility of this effect. METHODS: We studied 14 young and ...
Ng Clinton - - 2004
Tonic reflexes in the colon and rectum are likely to be important in health and in disorders of gastrointestinal function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fasting and postprandial "colorectal" and "rectocolic" reflexes in response to 2-min isobaric distensions of the colon and rectum, accounting for enteric ...
Simonian Hrair P - - 2004
The aim of this study was to develop a scintigraphic test to measure gastric emptying and accommodation simultaneously. METHODS: Gastric emptying and accommodation were measured in healthy subjects. To determine gastric accommodation, the stomach was imaged with SPECT 20 min after intravenous administration of 185 MBq (5 mCi) (99m)Tc-pertechnetate. After ...
Tzovaras G - - 2004
BACKGROUND: There is experimental evidence to show that upper gastrointestinal tract motility is influenced by a GABAergic mechanism. Sodium valproate acts as a GABA agonist, and has been proven to affect the human internal anal sphincter. The aim of this study was to evaluate any possible effect of sodium valproate ...
Carmagnola S - - 2004
A simple and reliable experimental model would be useful in human research on new drugs which target transient lower oesophageal sphincter (LOS) relaxation. The aim was to investigate the effect of repeated distensions on the rate of transient LOS relaxation, LOS pressure and motor function of the proximal stomach. Twelve ...
Zhang Qing - - 2004
Acute changes in blood glucose concentration have major effects on gastrointestinal motor function. Patients with diabetes mellitus have an increased prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux. Transient lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxation (TLESR) is the most common sphincter mechanism underlying reflux. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ...
Miller Larry S - - 2004
The aim of this study was to characterize the motion, morphology, and pressure of the upper esophageal sphincter (UES). The UES and its surrounding structures were evaluated in seven normal subjects and four human cadavers, using simultaneous high-resolution endoluminal sonography and manometry. The UES musculature on ultrasound is a C-shaped ...
Kritasampan Pimpak - - 2004
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Diseases of the distal gastrointestinal tract are becoming more common among Thai people especially in the elderly. Manometry is a new and useful technique in the diagnosis and management of anorectal disorders. This cross-sectional study aimed to measure anorectal manometric parameters in normal Thai subjects. MATERIAL AND ...
Zerbib F - - 2004
BACKGROUND: The administration of exogenous neurotensin can reduce the lower oesophageal sphincter pressure, but it is unclear whether this effect is pharmacological or physiological. AIM: A specific neurotensin receptor antagonist (SR 48692) was used to assess the effect of endogenous neurotensin on lower oesophageal sphincter function. METHODS: Twenty-four healthy male ...
Torrabadella Luis - - 2004
PURPOSE: Topical therapies for anal fissure have largely focused on nitric-oxide donors (e.g., nitroglycerin), sometimes with undesirable side effects or inconsistent benefits. Topical phosphodiesterase inhibitors have theoretical merit but have never been reported in treatment of anal fissure. This article describes manometric analysis of the effects of a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, ...
Ohlsson B - - 2004
The effects of oxytocin in the gastrointestinal tract are unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of infusion of oxytocin on colonic motility and sensitivity in healthy women. Fourteen healthy women were investigated twice. A 6-channel perfusion catheter, with three recording points (2 cm apart) proximally ...
Tutuian Radu - - 2004
According to the Rome criteria, rumination is considered to be an esophageal functional disorder. Because documentation of rumination is difficult, it has been suggested that rumination is a clinical diagnosis. Even though a clinical diagnosis of rumination can be based only on history, this conclusion often leaves both the patient ...
Kher Kinnari - - 2004
With the introduction of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) manometry, the characteristics of sphincter of Oddi (SO) motor activity have been described. SO manometry is the only available method to measure SO motor activity directly and is usually performed at the time of ERCP. SO manometry is considered to be the ...
Kwan C L - - 2004
A contentious issue is whether irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients have abnormal rectal motor physiology. Our aim was to determine whether IBS patients have abnormal rectal responses to low (urge producing) or high (pain producing) distension pressures. The IBS patients and healthy controls underwent five series of isobaric rectal distensions ...
Bharucha A E - - 2004
The reproducibility of tests widely utilized to assess anorectal sensorimotor functions is not well established. Our aims were to assess the intra-individual day-to-day reproducibility of these parameters in healthy subjects. Anal sphincter pressures were assessed by perfusion manometry on two separate days in 19 healthy subjects. Rectal pressure-volume (p-v) curves ...
Sangkhathat Surasak - - 2004
Constipation is a common problem after reconstructive surgery for anorectal malformations. The underlying pathophysiology of the constipation in these patients is unclear. The objective of this study was to compare manometric disturbance in infants with and without post-anoplasty constipation. Anorectal manometry studies were performed within 12 months of anoplasty, as ...
Shafton A D - - 2004
We investigated the effects of the selective NK(3) tachykinin receptor antagonist, SB-235375, on noxious signalling from gut and skin and on intestinal motility in anaesthetized rats. We also measured penetrance into brain and spinal cord. Nociceptive responses in reaction to colorectal distension and skin pinch were assessed by recording the ...
Kikkawa Masafumi - - 2004
Our aim was to study a role of nitrergic input in gastric relaxation in conscious dogs. Proximal gastric motor responses to mechanical distension and chemical stimulation (a lipid meal orally) were evaluated by electronic barostat. Effect of N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine acetate (L-NMMA, 5 mg/kg) on these responses was studied. When mechanical stimulation ...
Brisinda G - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Botulinum neurotoxin induces healing in patients with idiopathic fissure. The optimal dosage is not well established. AIM: To compare the efficacy and tolerability of two different formulations of type A botulinum neurotoxin, and to provide more evidence with regard to the choice of dosage regimens. METHODS: Symptomatic adults with ...
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