Search Results
Results 501 - 550 of 2372
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Penagini R - - 2004
Morphine reduces the rate of transient lower oesophageal sphincter (LOS) relaxations but its site of action is presently unknown. There are no data available concerning its motor effects on the proximal stomach, an important site for triggering transient LOS relaxations. To evaluate the effect of morphine on the rate of ...
Bredenoord A J - - 2004
The lower esophageal high-pressure zone (HPZ) consists of the intrinsic lower esophageal sphincter (LES) and the diaphragmatic sphincter. In patients with a hiatal hernia these constituents are separated. We performed high-resolution manometry of the esophagogastric HPZ in six controls, six patients with a small hernia, and six patients with a ...
Chen J W C - - 2004
Scorpion envenomation causes severe upper abdominal pain associated with nausea and vomiting. Although scorpion venom (SV) stimulates pancreatic and gastric secretion in animal models, its effects on duodenal and biliary motility have not been reported. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of SV on sphincter of ...
Chrysos Emmanuel - - 2004
BACKGROUND: The effect of total (Nissen) and anterior partial fundoplication (APF) for the surgical treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) on the motor behavior of the esophagogastric axis has not been fully assessed. The purpose of this study was to assess any alterations in lower esophageal sphincter (LES) and gastric ...
Dinning Philip G - - 2004
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The pathophysiology of constipation in the syndrome of obstructed defecation is unknown. Using 24-hour pancolonic manometric recordings of the unprepared colon to record basal pressures and spontaneous defecation episodes, we tested the hypothesis that the frequency, timing, or spatial distribution of propagating colonic pressure waves is abnormal ...
Shafik Ahmed - - 2004
The lower esophagus is intra-abdominal and exposed to intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) variations that may lead to gastroesophageal reflux (GER). We investigated the hypothesis that the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) undergoes phasic contraction on IAP increase, with a resulting inhibition of the stress GER. The study comprised 17 subjects (age 42.3 ...
Iwakiri Katsuhiko - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Because of the wide overlap between the groups, patients with reflux esophagitis (RE) cannot be distinguished from healthy subjects by basal lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure. The LES has radial asymmetry, with maximum pressure on the left side. It has been noted that one directional LES pressure, determined using ...
Kawamura Osamu - - 2004
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Recent studies have shown the existence of several reflex connections between the aerodigestive and upper gastrointestinal tracts. Our aim was to study the effect of laryngeal stimulation on upper esophageal sphincter (UES) pressure and to determine the reproducibility of this effect. METHODS: We studied 14 young and ...
Ng Clinton - - 2004
Tonic reflexes in the colon and rectum are likely to be important in health and in disorders of gastrointestinal function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fasting and postprandial "colorectal" and "rectocolic" reflexes in response to 2-min isobaric distensions of the colon and rectum, accounting for enteric ...
Simonian Hrair P - - 2004
The aim of this study was to develop a scintigraphic test to measure gastric emptying and accommodation simultaneously. METHODS: Gastric emptying and accommodation were measured in healthy subjects. To determine gastric accommodation, the stomach was imaged with SPECT 20 min after intravenous administration of 185 MBq (5 mCi) (99m)Tc-pertechnetate. After ...
Tzovaras G - - 2004
BACKGROUND: There is experimental evidence to show that upper gastrointestinal tract motility is influenced by a GABAergic mechanism. Sodium valproate acts as a GABA agonist, and has been proven to affect the human internal anal sphincter. The aim of this study was to evaluate any possible effect of sodium valproate ...
Carmagnola S - - 2004
A simple and reliable experimental model would be useful in human research on new drugs which target transient lower oesophageal sphincter (LOS) relaxation. The aim was to investigate the effect of repeated distensions on the rate of transient LOS relaxation, LOS pressure and motor function of the proximal stomach. Twelve ...
Zhang Qing - - 2004
Acute changes in blood glucose concentration have major effects on gastrointestinal motor function. Patients with diabetes mellitus have an increased prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux. Transient lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxation (TLESR) is the most common sphincter mechanism underlying reflux. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ...
Miller Larry S - - 2004
The aim of this study was to characterize the motion, morphology, and pressure of the upper esophageal sphincter (UES). The UES and its surrounding structures were evaluated in seven normal subjects and four human cadavers, using simultaneous high-resolution endoluminal sonography and manometry. The UES musculature on ultrasound is a C-shaped ...
Kritasampan Pimpak - - 2004
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Diseases of the distal gastrointestinal tract are becoming more common among Thai people especially in the elderly. Manometry is a new and useful technique in the diagnosis and management of anorectal disorders. This cross-sectional study aimed to measure anorectal manometric parameters in normal Thai subjects. MATERIAL AND ...
Zerbib F - - 2004
BACKGROUND: The administration of exogenous neurotensin can reduce the lower oesophageal sphincter pressure, but it is unclear whether this effect is pharmacological or physiological. AIM: A specific neurotensin receptor antagonist (SR 48692) was used to assess the effect of endogenous neurotensin on lower oesophageal sphincter function. METHODS: Twenty-four healthy male ...
Torrabadella Luis - - 2004
PURPOSE: Topical therapies for anal fissure have largely focused on nitric-oxide donors (e.g., nitroglycerin), sometimes with undesirable side effects or inconsistent benefits. Topical phosphodiesterase inhibitors have theoretical merit but have never been reported in treatment of anal fissure. This article describes manometric analysis of the effects of a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, ...
Ohlsson B - - 2004
The effects of oxytocin in the gastrointestinal tract are unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of infusion of oxytocin on colonic motility and sensitivity in healthy women. Fourteen healthy women were investigated twice. A 6-channel perfusion catheter, with three recording points (2 cm apart) proximally ...
Tutuian Radu - - 2004
According to the Rome criteria, rumination is considered to be an esophageal functional disorder. Because documentation of rumination is difficult, it has been suggested that rumination is a clinical diagnosis. Even though a clinical diagnosis of rumination can be based only on history, this conclusion often leaves both the patient ...
Kher Kinnari - - 2004
With the introduction of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) manometry, the characteristics of sphincter of Oddi (SO) motor activity have been described. SO manometry is the only available method to measure SO motor activity directly and is usually performed at the time of ERCP. SO manometry is considered to be the ...
Kwan C L - - 2004
A contentious issue is whether irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients have abnormal rectal motor physiology. Our aim was to determine whether IBS patients have abnormal rectal responses to low (urge producing) or high (pain producing) distension pressures. The IBS patients and healthy controls underwent five series of isobaric rectal distensions ...
Bharucha A E - - 2004
The reproducibility of tests widely utilized to assess anorectal sensorimotor functions is not well established. Our aims were to assess the intra-individual day-to-day reproducibility of these parameters in healthy subjects. Anal sphincter pressures were assessed by perfusion manometry on two separate days in 19 healthy subjects. Rectal pressure-volume (p-v) curves ...
Sangkhathat Surasak - - 2004
Constipation is a common problem after reconstructive surgery for anorectal malformations. The underlying pathophysiology of the constipation in these patients is unclear. The objective of this study was to compare manometric disturbance in infants with and without post-anoplasty constipation. Anorectal manometry studies were performed within 12 months of anoplasty, as ...
Shafton A D - - 2004
We investigated the effects of the selective NK(3) tachykinin receptor antagonist, SB-235375, on noxious signalling from gut and skin and on intestinal motility in anaesthetized rats. We also measured penetrance into brain and spinal cord. Nociceptive responses in reaction to colorectal distension and skin pinch were assessed by recording the ...
Kikkawa Masafumi - - 2004
Our aim was to study a role of nitrergic input in gastric relaxation in conscious dogs. Proximal gastric motor responses to mechanical distension and chemical stimulation (a lipid meal orally) were evaluated by electronic barostat. Effect of N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine acetate (L-NMMA, 5 mg/kg) on these responses was studied. When mechanical stimulation ...
Brisinda G - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Botulinum neurotoxin induces healing in patients with idiopathic fissure. The optimal dosage is not well established. AIM: To compare the efficacy and tolerability of two different formulations of type A botulinum neurotoxin, and to provide more evidence with regard to the choice of dosage regimens. METHODS: Symptomatic adults with ...
Lee K-J - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Capsaicin-sensitive afferents have been implicated in the control of visceral sensorimotor functions. AIM: To study the effects of capsaicin on the sensorimotor function of the proximal stomach in humans. METHODS: In 10 healthy subjects, a gastric barostat was used to study the effect of saline or capsaicin-containing red pepper ...
van der Veek Patrick P J - - 2004
PURPOSE: Animal studies have shown that neurotensin stimulates colonic motility, but little is known on the effect on rectocolonic function in humans. This study was designed to investigate the effect of neurotensin on rectal and colonic motor and sensory function and colonic reflexes in humans. METHODS: Motor and sensory function ...
Coremans G - - 2004
Patients with slow transit constipation frequently have delayed gastric emptying. In animals rectal distensions inhibit gastrointestinal motility. In healthy volunteers isovolumetric rectal distensions delay upper gut transit. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of continuous isobaric rectal distension on gastric emptying and oro-cecal transit in young ...
Li Yanqing - - 2004
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Visceral hypersensitivity has been shown to be present in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The current study sought to compare the characteristics of visceral perception thresholds after rectal thermal and pressure stimuli between IBS patients and healthy subjects. METHODS: A total of 46 patients with IBS were diagnosed ...
Watanabe Naozumi - - 2004
The aim of this study was to evaluate the motor activity of the interposed colonic segment in patients who had received a colonic replacement following radical esophagectomy using spectral analysis and a 24 hr activity graph. The 24-hr ambulatory pressure waves were recorded in the replaced colon after esophagectomy (n=8) ...
Penagini Roberto - - 2004
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The role of fundic tension and stretch mechanoreceptors in triggering transient lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxation is still unknown. This information would be useful for the development of effective pharmacologic strategies. To elucidate this topic, gastric contractile activity was modified during isovolumetric gastric distention at 2 different ...
Meining A - - 2004
Gastroesophageal reflux disease is caused predominantly by lower esophageal sphincter insufficiency. Reports suggest that it is possible to distinguish between two main mechanisms causing reflux: low basal sphincter pressure leading to free reflux, mostly occurring at night in the supine position, and increased transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations with normal ...
Gharzouli Kamel - - 2004
Flavonoids are known to relax precontracted intestinal smooth muscle and to delay intestinal transit. We therefore investigated the effects of quercetin, naringenin, apigenin and genistein on intestinal peristalsis in vitro. Peristalsis in fluid-perfused segments of the guinea pig small intestine was recorded through the intraluminal pressure changes associated with the ...
Somani S K - - 2004
Motility abnormalities, common in gastroesophageal reflux disease, are likely to be related to endoscopic esophagitis. We studied pH and manometry parameters in relation to the severity of esophagitis. Forty-seven patients with symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux disease for > 3 months were evaluated by: (i) endoscopy (grading of esophagitis by Savary-Miller classification); ...
Dong Wen Zhu - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Visceral hypersensitivity is highly prevalent in most functional bowel disorders, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and activation of intestinal mast cells (MC) may play a role because they have been found in close proximity to gastrointestinal mucosal sensory nerve terminals containing neuropeptides and a bi-directional pathway connecting the ...
Fritscher-Ravens Annette - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Endoluminal operations for gastroesophageal reflux currently are limited by the inability to visualize and manipulate structures outside the wall of the gut. This may be possible by using EUS. The aims of this study were the following: to define the EUS anatomy of structures outside the gut that influence ...
Shatari Tomoo - - 2004
A 32 year-old man received dynamic graciloplasty for fecal incontinence due to a pelvic fracture. The perception of stool was obtained soon after the colostomy closure. Defecography and a manometric study showed that the patient could contract the transposed gracilis muscle independently. While the resting anal canal pressure remained low ...
Stoohs R A - - 2004
Recording of esophageal pressure waveform is an important clinical tool to identify patients with sleep-disordered breathing. Commonly, esophageal pressure probes are not tolerated by patients undergoing sleep monitoring. We therefore developed a technique to non-invasively estimate esophageal pressure based on recording of intercostal EMG monitoring. A three step approach to ...
Thorburn Kentigern - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of gastric feeding on the measurement of gastric intramucosal PCO2 (PiCO2) and its derived gastric intramucosal PCO2-arterial PCO2 difference (PiCO2-PaCO2 difference) and gastric intramucosal pH (pHi) in a group of critically ill children using recirculating gas tonometry. DESIGN: Prospective clinical pilot study. SETTING: Sixteen bed ...
Adam-Castrillo David D Marion duPont Scott Equine Medical Center, Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Tech, Leesburg, VA 20176, - - 2004
To determine effects on anal pressure of horses after local injection of the external anal sphincter with Clostridium botulinum toxin type B. 11 healthy adult horses. Peak and resting anal sphincter pressures were measured with a custom-made rectal probe that was connected to a pressure transducer. Pressures were measured before ...
Kuo Yung-ing - - 2003
The sphincter of Oddi (SO) plays an important role in regulating the bile flow into the duodenum. This study was designed to investigate the effect of Chinese Medicinal Herbs Muh-Shiang-Bin-Lang-Wan (MSBLW) and their mechanism of action on regulating the motility of SO in rabbits. The activity of SO in anesthetized ...
Andersson Peter - - 2003
PURPOSE: Anal pathology occurs in 20 to 80 percent of patients with Crohn's disease in which abscesses, fistulas, and fissures account for considerable morbidity. The etiology is not clearly defined, but altered anorectal pressures may play a role. This study was designed to investigate anorectal physiologic conditions in patients with ...
Brackbill Stephen - - 2003
The pathogenesis of achalasia involves the degeneration of enteric and autonomic nervous systems with resultant effects on esophageal motility. The neural degeneration could affect visceral sensation in achalasia. The aim of this study was to examine mechanosensitivity and chemosensitivity in patients with achalasia. Perceptual responses to esophageal distension and acid ...
Lee J I - - 2003
Type 5 phosphodiesterase terminates the action of nitric oxide (NO) induced 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP). Sildenafil inhibits this phosphodiesterase, increases cellular cGMP concentrations and enhances NO-induced smooth muscle relaxation. We investigated the effect of sildenafil on the oesophageal motor function of healthy subjects and patients with nutcracker oesophagus. Eight healthy volunteers ...
Zimmerman David D E - - 2003
PURPOSE: This study was designed to compare two different types of anal retractors (Parks vs. Scott) with regard to their impact on fecal continence after fistula repair. METHODS: Between November 2000 and November 2001, 30 patients were randomized into two groups. In Group A (n = 15), a Parks retractor ...
Kamberoglou Dimitrios K - - 2003
There is a subgroup of patients with achalasia in which manometry shows elevated intraesophageal pressure, expressed by elevation of esophageal baseline relative to gastric pressure. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of elevated intraesophageal pressure in patients with achalasia and its relationship to clinical, radiographic, endoscopic, ...
Zonnevijlle Erik D H - - 2003
Muscle tissue transplantation applied to regain or dynamically assist contractile functions is known as 'dynamic myoplasty'. Success rates of clinical applications are unpredictable, because of lack of endurance, ischemic lesions, abundant scar formation and inadequate performance of tasks due to lack of refined control. Electrical stimulation is used to control ...
Shafik Ahmed - - 2003
BACKGROUND/AIMS: In chronic constipation due to delayed colonic transit, stasis of the ileal contents with resulting ileal distension may occur. The current study investigated the effect of ileal and jejunal distension on the gastric motility, aiming at elucidating the possible existence of a relationship and its role in the flow ...
de Lorijn Fleur - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To characterize anal sphincter function in very premature infants < or =30 weeks' postmenstrual age (PMA) and to evaluate the time of maturation of the rectoanal inhibitory reflex (RAIR) by using a sleeve catheter. STUDY DESIGN: Anorectal manometry was performed in 16 healthy neonates (nine girls) with a mean ...
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