Search Results
Results 451 - 500 of 2372
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Chapman M - - 2005
Gastric emptying is frequently delayed in critical illness which compromises the success of nasogastric nutrition. The underlying motor dysfunctions are poorly defined. To characterise antro-pyloro-duodenal motility during fasting, and in response to gastric and duodenal nutrient, as well as to evaluate the relationship between gastric emptying and motility, in the ...
Bharucha Adil E - - 2005
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Although obstructed defecation is generally attributed to pelvic floor dyssynergia, clinical observations suggest a wider spectrum of anorectal disturbances. Our aim was to characterize phenotypic variability in constipated patients by anorectal assessments. METHODS: Anal pressures, rectal balloon expulsion, rectal sensation, and pelvic floor structure (by endoanal magnetic ...
Fazel Ali - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: It is widely believed that sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD) induces pancreatitis through an increase in intrapancreatic ductal pressure. Animal models have demonstrated that increased intrapancreatic ductal pressure plays a role in the development of pancreatitis. The role of intrapancreatic ductal pressure in SOD-induced pancreatitis has not been investigated ...
Wu Shuo-Dong - - 2005
AIM: To evaluate the effects of nitroester drugs on human sphincter of Oddi (SO) motility and their antagonistic effects against morphine which shows excitatory effect on Oddi's sphincter motility. METHODS: The effects of these drugs on SO were evaluated by means of choledochofiberoscopy manometry. A total of 67 patients having ...
Fukushima Shin-Ichi - - 2005
The intraluminal pressure in the upper esophageal sphincter (UES) briefly decreases during swallowing. This decrement in pressure plays an important role in smooth transport of the ingested bolus from the pharynx to the esophagus. It is known that the decrement is caused by cessation of tonic activity of the cricopharyngeus ...
Shafik Ahmed - - 2005
BACKGROUND: The mechanism of esophageal acid clearance through augmenting esophageal peristalsis in response to gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is not exactly known. We investigated the hypothesis that lower esophageal sphincter (LES) dilatation rather than the refluxed acid affected reflex increase in the esophageal peristaltic activity aiming at clearing the esophagus of ...
Stimec Bojan - - 2005
A study of structure and function of the minor duodenal papilla was carried out on 36 autopsy specimens of the human duodenopancreas. An original perfusion method with manometric control was developed for testing the minor papilla patency, i.e. resistency to intraductal pressure. According to this test, all the specimens were ...
Bogeski G - - 2005
We have developed methods that allow correlation of propulsive reflexes of the intestine with measurements of intraluminal pressure, fluid movement and spatio-temporal maps of intestinal wall movements for the first time in vivo. A segment of jejunum was cannulated and set up in a Trendelenburg recording system while remaining connected ...
Terashima Tetsurou - - 2005
In order to characterize the motor activity of a surgically constructed gastric tube, several hours of ambulatory intraluminal pressure recordings were performed in 6 patients following esophagectomy and gastric tube construction. Whole pressure waves were spectrally analyzed by Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). Simultaneous abdominal and thoracic electrogastrograms (EGGs) were recorded ...
Bharucha A E - - 2005
Anal sphincter weakness and rectal sensory disturbances contribute to faecal incontinence (FI). Our aims were to investigate the relationship between symptoms, risk factors, and disordered anorectal and pelvic floor functions in FI. In 52 women with "idiopathic" FI and 21 age matched asymptomatic women, we assessed symptoms by standardised questionnaire, ...
Chang Shi-Min - - 2005
AIM: To investigate whether there was a dominant sacral root for the motive function of rectum and anal sphincter, and to provide an experimental basis for sacral root electrically stimulated defecation in spinal cord injuries. METHODS: Eleven spinal cord injured mongrel dogs were included in the study. After L4-L7 laminectomy, ...
West Rachel L - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine sphincter volume, length, and external anal sphincter thickness in healthy controls and fecal incontinent patients by use of a three-dimensional reconstruction of endoanal ultrasonography images. METHODS: Forty-four controls (15 males, 15 females, and 14 parous females) and 28 incontinent parous females ...
Nind Garry - - 2005
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Gastroesophageal reflux is a major problem in mechanically ventilated patients and may lead to pulmonary aspiration and erosive esophagitis. Transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations are the most common mechanism underlying reflux in nonventilated patients. The mechanisms that underlie reflux in critically ill ventilated patients have not been ...
Shafik Ahmed - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Sexual stimulation produces not only reflex changes in the female external and internal reproductive organs but also extragenital reactions. A mention of the response of the anal sphincters and the rectum to penile thrusting could not be traced in the literature. We investigated the hypothesis that the anal sphincters ...
Suzuki T - - 2005
This study investigated the assessment of visceral perception and gastric tone using insufflation during endoscopy. The intragastric pressure was measured during insufflation in 16 patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, 25 patients with functional dyspepsia and 24 normal controls, using a pressure transducer inserted through the forceps aperture until gastric symptoms ...
Xiao Yuan-Hong - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Manometric pressure asymmetry of the anal sphincter exists in the anal canal. There are reports about the anatomy of the anal sphincter, but the relationship between the configuration and the pressure asymmetry of the anal sphincter is not clear. This study is to investigate the anatomic evidence and clinical ...
Sun Y - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Impaired gastric accommodation is one of the major pathophysiological factors in functional dyspepsia (FD). Gastrointestinal electric stimulation (GES) as a potential therapy for treating patients with motility disorders has been applied in animal models and clinical practice. However, the response of proximal gastric tone to different GES has not ...
MadaliƄski Mariusz - - 2005
Although the pathogenesis of fissure is not fully understood, we do know that surgical and/or pharmacological sphincterotomy promotes the healing of chronic anal fissures. A number of studies support the hypothesis that local ischemia is the reason for failure to heal in anal fissure. Therefore, sphincterotomy may work because it ...
Jones Oliver M - - 2005
PURPOSE: Chronic anal fissure is said to be associated with internal sphincter hypertonia. However, an unknown proportion of fissures may be associated with normal or even low resting pressures and may subsequently be resistant to pharmacological treatments or at risk from surgical treatments, both of which aim to reduce sphincter ...
Davenport Mark - - 2005
PURPOSE: The cause of choledochal (cystic or fusiform) malformation is not known. A favoured hypothesis suggests that abnormal reflux of activated pancreatic secretions via a common pancreatobiliary channel may initiate mucosal injury and mural weakness leading to bile duct dilatation, at normal intraduct pressures. However, bile duct pressures in both ...
Zhang X - - 2005
Severe esophagitis is associated with motor abnormalities in the esophageal body and lower esophageal sphincter. Reflux disease involves repeated episodes of mucosal inflammation and spontaneous or treatment-induced healing. The aims of this study were 1) to further assess changes induced by acute esophagitis on esophageal peristalsis, tone, and shortening and ...
Hiss Susan G - - 2005
The effect of effortful swallow on pharyngeal pressure and UES relaxation onsets and durations was examined. Eighteen adults, nine males and nine females (mean age=27.9 yr), participated. Timing of pharyngeal pressure and onset and duration of UES relaxation were measured across ten trials of normal and ten trials of effortful ...
Hind Jacqueline A - - 2005
Lingual pressure generation plays a crucial role in oropharyngeal swallowing. To more discretely study the dynamic oropharyngeal system, a 3-bulb array of pressure sensors was designed with the Kay Elemetrics Corporation (Lincoln Park, NJ). The influence of the device upon normal swallowing mechanics and boluses representative of flow relative to ...
Gearhart Susan - - 2005
Controversy exists over the utility of manometry in the management of fecal incontinence. In light of newer methods for the management of fecal incontinence demonstrating favorable results, this study was designed to evaluate manometric parameters relative to functional outcome following overlapping sphincteroplasty. Twenty women, 29 to 84 years of age ...
Zhu Shang-Yong - - 2005
PURPOSE: Although conventional sonography has been used widely in evaluation of the abdominal and cervical esophagus, its use in the thoracic esophagus is seldom mentioned. The aim of this study was to assess whether conventional sonography could demonstrate the thoracic esophagus and to determine this structure's normal sonographic appearance and ...
Broens Paul M A - - 2005
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of age and sex on the rectal filling sensation and anal electrosensitivity and to explore the relation between anal electrosensitivity and the parameters of the rectal filling sensation. METHODS: Anal mucosal electrosensitivity and anorectal manometry, including the rectal filling ...
Netinho João Gomes - - 2005
BACKGROUND: The rectoanal inhibitory reflex has an important rule in the fecal continence mechanism. Alterations in this reflex can be associated with compromised anal sphincteric function. AIM: To identify possible correlation between rectoanal inhibitory reflex parameters and intestinal constipation due to obstructive evacuation. PATIENTS: Sixty nine patients with intestinal constipation ...
Bright T - - 2005
The squeeze pressure in the anal canal reflects the contribution of the external anal sphincter and is normally assessed manometrically by asking patients to contract their anal muscles. However, this is an artificial situation as normally the external sphincter contracts to retain rectal content. Some patients with normal anal sphincter ...
Al-Zaben Awad - - 2005
Multichannel intraluminal procedure provides information about the esophagus status, reflux occurrence, and clearance mechanism. The study of the impedance signals has been concentrated on the study of reflux patterns and clearance mechanisms. However, there are a number of sources that results in the variations seen in impedance signal. These sources ...
Benditt Joshua O - - 2005
The measurement of esophageal and gastric pressures with balloon-tipped catheters has been used with great success over the past half century to delineate the physiology of the mechanical respiratory system. Pleural pressure and abdominal pressure values estimated from esophageal and gastric pressure measurements allow analysis of lung and chest wall ...
Shatari T - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To correlate anorectal function including rectal evacuation with anorectal physiology and endoanal ultrasound in women with third degree obstetric anal sphincter injury repaired at the time of delivery. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Forty-four women with repaired third degree tears underwent anorectal physiology, anal ultrasonography and clinical assessment using the St. ...
Di Martino N - - 2005
The surgical treatment of achalasia, based on Heller's myotomy is the procedure of choice to reduce the sphincterial high pressure zone, either by laparotomy or, most recently, by laparoscopy. What is the right length of the myotomy? Many authors have reported 10-15% postoperative residual dysphagia, due to the incomplete gastric ...
Pal Anupam - - 2004
The fed human stomach displays regular peristaltic contraction waves that originate in the proximal antrum and propagate to the pylorus. High-resolution concurrent manometry and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of the stomach suggest a primary function of antral contraction wave (ACW) activity unrelated to gastric emptying. Detailed evaluation is difficult, ...
Takeda T - - 2004
Recently, we reported a novel ultrasound technique to assess the biomechanical properties of the oesophagus in humans. To investigate whether the oesophageal sensation induced by oesophageal distension correlates with wall tension, wall stress or wall strain, we studied 20 healthy subjects using a manometry catheter equipped with a high-compliance bag ...
Fox Mark - - 2004
PURPOSE: The intermittent loss of oil or stool ("spotting") is an adverse effect that occurs in patients taking orlistat; the pathophysiology is unknown. This study was designed to investigate the local effects of orlistat, free fatty acids, and the effects of the physical properties of rectal contents on anorectal function ...
Madácsy L - - 2004
Although the motor function of the sphincter of Oddi (SO) has been clearly identified by endoscopic SO manometry (ESOM), the physiologic role of the phasic contractions of the SO remains unsettled in humans. The aim of this study was to correlate SO motor activity measured by ESOM with bile flow ...
Bove A - - 2004
BACKGROUND: A consistent debate exists about the association between anal fissure and hypertonic anal canal. The aim of this study was to determine if the manometric findings in patients with chronic anal fissures varied according to the topography of the fissure. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Seventy-three outpatients (52 men, 71%) with ...
Kobakov Georgi L - - 2004
INTRODUCTION: The aim of sphincter-saving operative techniques and creation of intestinal reservoirs is to improve the quality of life for patients with restorative prococolectomy. METHODS: In this study, 48 consecutive patients (19 males and 29 females of ages between 19 and 55 years; mean age, 35.52 years) with ulcerative colitis ...
Freedman Jacob - - 2004
BACKGROUND: With the development of sophisticated equipment ambulatory studies of oesophageal motor function, pH and bilirubin have gained in popularity. The aim of the study was to present reference values for combined 24 h pH, bilirubin and manometric measurements of the oesophagus. METHODS: Twenty-six (15 male) healthy volunteers without symptoms ...
Shafik Ahmed - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: The effect of vaginal distension on the oviduct contractile activity during penile thrusting at coitus could not be traced in the literature. We investigated the hypothesis that vaginal distension effects oviduct contraction, which assists in ovum transport along the oviduct. METHODS: Oviduct pressure was measured upon vaginal condom distension ...
Miller Larry S - - 2004
Our hypothesis states that variceal pressure and wall tension increase dramatically during esophageal peristaltic contractions. This increase in pressure and wall tension is a natural consequence of the anatomy and physiology of the esophagus and of the esophageal venous plexus. The purpose of this study was to evaluate variceal hemodynamics ...
Fang John C - - 2004
Clinical gastrointestinal manometry studies are currently performed with multilumen water-perfused polyvinyl or strain gauge sensor solid-state catheters. A disposable catheter incorporating air-filled balloons has been developed with performance characteristics suitable for esophageal and anorectal manometry studies. Our aim was to compare esophageal and anorectal pressure measurements using this newly developed ...
Shaker Reza - - 2004
Previous studies of distensibility of the gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) in humans have not tried to distinguish between the effects of muscle action and passive elastic tissue properties of the GEJ. We studied 15 healthy subjects (ages 23-67 yr, 11 men/4 women) by using a catheter with a highly complaint bag ...
Wu Shuo-Dong - - 2004
AIM: To assess the effects of intramuscular analgesics (morphine, Ap-237, pethidine and tramadol) on human Oddi's sphincter motility with choledochoscope manometry. METHODS: A total of 70 patients having T tubes after cholecystectomy and choledochotomy were assessed by choledochoscope manometry. They were randomly divided into morphine group, Ap-237 group, pethidine group ...
Lindsey Ian - - 2004
PURPOSE: Conservative anal surgery, with maximum preservation of the anal sphincters and continence, is becoming increasingly possible with the emergence of new sphincter-sparing treatments. Many surgeons remain skeptical, however, of the nature and impact of incontinence after anal surgery. We aimed to characterize the patterns of anal sphincter injury in ...
Shafik Ahmed - - 2004
The role of the crural diaphragm during increased intra-abdominal pressure is not exactly known. We investigated the hypothesis that the crural diaphragm undergoes reflex phasic contraction on elevation of the intra-abdominal pressure with a resulting increase of the lower esophageal pressure and prevention of gastro-esophageal reflux. The esophageal pressure and ...
Siproudhis L - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Although antidepressants are used for functional gastrointestinal disorders, the mechanisms of their effects on gut are incompletely understood. AIM: To assess the effects of two types of antidepressants (tricyclic, serotoninergic) on anorectal motility and visceral perception. METHODS: A placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind, crossover study was performed in 12 healthy male ...
Fried Martin - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Commonly used adjustable gastric bands function on two different physical principles: low pressure-high volume and high pressure-low volume system. METHODS: A study was carried out to investigate the theoretical and clinical levels of adjustable band volume-pressure features and their possible influence on band-related complications. The theoretical study had two ...
van Herwaarden Margot A - - 2004
This article gives an overview of the role of sliding hiatus hernia in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD). The crural diaphragm acts as an external sphincter of the anti-reflux barrier. Contractions of the crural diaphragm increase lower-oesophageal-sphincter (LOS) pressure during each inspiration and in situations of increased abdominal pressure, whereas these ...
Karlbom U - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate anorectal physiology in relation to clinically defined subgroups of patients with idiopathic constipation and to analyse relationships between anorectal physiology and rectal evacuation. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: One hundred consecutive patients with idiopathic constipation were clinically categorized as slow transit (n=19), outlet ...
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