Search Results
Results 451 - 500 of 2402
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Gregersen H - - 2006
The aims of this study were to evaluate gastric antral mechanical behavior and distension-induced sensorimotor responses in the human gastric antrum using transabdominal ultrasound scanning. Ten healthy volunteers underwent volume-controlled ramp inflation of a bag located in the antrum with volumes up to 125 ml. The active and passive circumferential ...
Huckabee Maggie-Lee - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of 2 swallowing maneuvers on anterior suprahyoid surface electromyographic measurement and pharyngeal manometric pressure. DESIGN: Correlational analysis of biomechanic measures of swallowing. SETTING: Research laboratory in a community hospital. PARTICIPANTS: A consecutive volunteer sample of 22 healthy subjects (mean, 29.7y). INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME ...
Ateş Oguz - - 2005
Although there are many studies evaluating the effect of elevated gastric pressure in total wrap and partial anterior and posterior wrap fundoplications, there are no ex vivo manometric studies evaluating the contribution of elevated gastric pressure to prevention of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) in Collis and uncut Collis procedures without fundoplication. ...
Alper Dan - - 2005
PURPOSE: The role of high anal pressure in the pathophysiology of hemorrhoids and anal fissures is debated. We compared resting anal pressures following left lateral sphincterotomy and hemorrhoidectomy in a prospective manometric study with emphasis on the recovery of the internal anal sphincter activity. METHODS: Included in the study were ...
Lefebvre Romain A - - 2005
Selective neuronal NOS (nNOS) inhibitors have been developed for possible application in cerebral ischemia and neurodegenerative disorders. To investigate the degree of interference with peripheral nNOS, the influence of the selective nNOS inhibitor ARL 17477 was studied on electrically induced nitrergic relaxations in pig gastric fundus strips and on gastric ...
Rice Thomas W - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Myotomy for achalasia disrupts the lower esophageal sphincter, improving emptying at the expense of reflux. We hypothesized that surgical palliation of achalasia requires balancing desirable improvement in esophageal emptying with undesirable production of gastroesophageal reflux. Therefore, we objectively studied the physiologic effects of adding Dor fundoplication to Heller myotomy. ...
Dobben Annette C - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Physiotherapy is a common treatment option in patients with fecal incontinence. Although physiotherapy may result in relief of symptoms, to what extent improvement is associated with changes in anorectal function is still unclear. AIM: The aim of the present study was to investigate prospectively how anorectal function changes with ...
Gourcerol Guillaume - - 2005
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the glottis constriction response induced by a sudden and involuntary increase in gastric and oesophageal pressures by Tll-Ll intervertebral magnetic stimulation of the abdominal muscle roots in nine healthy subjects. Twitch flow, twitch gastric, and oesophageal pressures were measured after abdominal muscle ...
Xing J H - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Treatment of obese patients with the implantable gastric stimulator (IGS) was reported to improve reflux symptoms, independent of weight loss. We evaluated the effect of gastric electrical stimulation on LES pressure in conscious dogs. METHODS: 8 dogs were studied. GES with three sets of parameters was randomly applied via ...
Ferens D M - - 2005
We have used spatio-temporal maps derived from video images to investigate propagated contractions of the rat small intestine in vivo. The abdomen, including an exteriorized segment of jejunum, was housed in a humid chamber with a viewing window. Video records were converted to spatio-temporal maps of jejunal diameter changes. Intraluminal ...
Thornton M J - - 2005
PURPOSE: This study was designed to investigate the effect of extracorporeal magnetic stimulation on anorectal function and physiology. METHODS: A pilot study comparing the physiology of ten incontinent (9 females) and five continent (4 females) patients with and without perineal magnetic stimulation (10 Hz and 50 Hz) was performed. The ...
Mariano Edward R - - 2005
A neonate with VACTERL association including tricuspid atresia was scheduled for thoracoscopic esophageal atresia with tracheoesophageal fistula (EA/TEF) repair and laparoscopic gastrostomy tube placement. In addition to standard noninvasive monitoring, arterial blood pressure, central venous pressure, and cerebral oxygen saturation were monitored. Gastric distension resulting from positive pressure ventilation prevented ...
Alonso Oscar - - 2005
The study goal was to ascertain the true value of lower esophageal sphincter measurement in order to establish the risk of presenting gastroesophageal reflux or Barrett's esophagus. Of 671 patients assessed for symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux, 459 were included in a prospective study, practicing esophagogastroscopy, esophageal manometry, and 24-hour pH-metry. ...
Mercado U - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To assess the metoclopramide response in patients with early diffuse systemic sclerosis (dSSc) and the acute effects of intravenous (IV) metoclopramide on the lower esophageal sphincter (LES). METHODS: Twenty-one patients with early dSSc (mean age 41.4 +/- 9.8 yrs., mean disease duration 2.47 +/- 0.75 yrs.) were prospectively evaluated. ...
Carmagnola Stefania - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: To assess the role of tension receptors in gastric perception by pharmacologically modifying gastric contractile activity during isovolumetric distensions of the proximal stomach with the hypothesis that relaxation decreased perception and contraction increased it. METHODS: Fourteen healthy subjects underwent two 30-min isovolumetric (75% of the threshold volume for discomfort) ...
Shafik Ahmed - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: The cause of lower esophageal sphincter incompetence in gastroesophageal reflux disease is not clearly understood. We investigated the hypothesis that the esophagogastric junction incompetence results from failure of the gastric distention to produce the lower esophageal sphincter and crural diaphragm contraction caused by a disordered reflex action. METHODS: The ...
Montazeri G - - 2005
BACKGROUND: The non-invasive assessment of primary achalasia is not precise. AIM: To compare investigations before and 1 month after balloon dilation in achalasia. METHODS: Fifty-two patients with primary achalasia were enrolled. Subjective and objective variables of oesophageal functions were analysed before and 1 month after balloon dilation. RESULTS: The mean ...
Uriona T J - - 2005
Esophageal structure and function were studied in juvenile American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis). The anatomy of alligators differs from humans in several important aspects: the crocodilian esophagus is more muscular and is composed entirely of smooth muscle. Functionally, the crocodilian esophagus is similar to that of mammals, but alligators have peak ...
Prott G - - 2005
There are conflicting recommendations from consensus groups with regard to the assessment of resting anal sphincter pressure. Our aims were to evaluate and compare the performance of three recognized techniques for the clinical measurement of resting anal sphincter pressure. METHODS: In each of 54 patients presenting for anorectal manometry, and ...
Xing Jinhong - - 2005
This study determined the effect of low-frequency and high-frequency gastric electrical stimulation (GES) on canine lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure and also evaluated the effect of such stimulation on neurohumoral factors that modulate LES pressure. Eight dogs were fitted with stimulation wires along the greater curvature of the stomach. A ...
Tammpere Anna - - 2005
Recordings of electromyographic (EMG) activity in the abdominal musculature are generally used to quantify the pseudo-affective visceromotor response induced by colorectal distension (CRD) in rodents. The present study describes a non-invasive, manometric method to quantify the magnitude of the abdominal contractions evoked by CRD. CRD-induced increases in EMG activity in ...
Jeske Hans-Christian - - 2005
There is controversy regarding optimal body positioning (i.e., head-up, head-down) in awake nonfasting individuals to minimize the risk for pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents as the result of gastroesophageal reflux (GER). In the present study, we investigated GER and intragastric-esophageal barrier pressure by means of multichannel intraluminal impedance measurement and ...
Gabrielli Francesco - - 2005
Minor anorectal diseases affect 4-5% of the adult western population. Operations are performed on an ambulatory or 24-hour-stay basis. The aim of our study was to assess the physiology of anal sphincter relaxation by anal manometry after posterior perineal block during haemorrhoidectomy. We recruited 15 patients with third and fourth ...
Pandolfino John E - - 2005
To study the mechanical characteristics of the esophagogastric junction (EGJ) of postfundoplication patients and compare them with previously reported data on normal subjects and GERD patients. Eight normal subjects, 9 GERD patients, and 8 fundoplication patients were studied with concurrent manometry, fluoroscopy, and stepwise controlled barostat distention of the EGJ. ...
Liang Hualou - - 2005
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is one of the most prevalent gastrointestinal diseases. It is characterized by excessive reflux of gastric content (acid, pepsin, etc.) into the esophagus causing symptoms (heartburn, acid regurgitation, etc.) and mucosal inflammation and injuries. GERD occurs when the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) has a low resting ...
Phua S Y - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Laryngopharyngeal sensitivity (LPS) is important in preventing pulmonary aspiration and may be impaired by anaesthesia and stroke. It has been suggested that gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) may also impair LPS, although the underlying mechanism is unclear. The aim of this study was to compare LPS in patients with chronic ...
Thornton M J - - 2005
INTRODUCTION: The duration of physiologic action of topical glyceryl trinitrate in the management of anal fissure has been the source of some controversy. This study was designed to assess the manometric effect of glyceryl trinitrate on internal sphincter resting tone with continuous monitoring. METHODS: Twenty-seven patients with a chronic anal ...
Römer M - - 2005
Gastric distension causes cardiovascular reactions and enhances gastric compliance. Here, we investigated how these responses are related to each other, whether they change upon repeated distension and which neural mechanisms are involved. Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) in phenobarbital-anaesthetized rats was recorded from a carotid artery and gastric compliance determined ...
Tutuian R - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Current oesophageal manometry systems use either water-perfused or solid-state pressure transducers. Recently developed single-use disposable catheters use small balloons prefilled with air that transmit the pressure of oesophageal contractions to external transducers. AIM: To compare data obtained from single-use disposable balloon catheters to data from solid-state systems. METHODS: Healthy ...
Ouyang H - - 2005
AIM: The aim was to investigate the validity of sonometry on the assessment of gastric volumes in comparison with gastric barostat. METHOD: Six dogs were implanted with gastric serosal electrodes, sonometric sensors, and a gastric cannula. Experiments were performed to assess sensor distance when an intragastric balloon was inflated with ...
Chapman M - - 2005
Gastric emptying is frequently delayed in critical illness which compromises the success of nasogastric nutrition. The underlying motor dysfunctions are poorly defined. To characterise antro-pyloro-duodenal motility during fasting, and in response to gastric and duodenal nutrient, as well as to evaluate the relationship between gastric emptying and motility, in the ...
Bharucha Adil E - - 2005
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Although obstructed defecation is generally attributed to pelvic floor dyssynergia, clinical observations suggest a wider spectrum of anorectal disturbances. Our aim was to characterize phenotypic variability in constipated patients by anorectal assessments. METHODS: Anal pressures, rectal balloon expulsion, rectal sensation, and pelvic floor structure (by endoanal magnetic ...
Fazel Ali - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: It is widely believed that sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD) induces pancreatitis through an increase in intrapancreatic ductal pressure. Animal models have demonstrated that increased intrapancreatic ductal pressure plays a role in the development of pancreatitis. The role of intrapancreatic ductal pressure in SOD-induced pancreatitis has not been investigated ...
Wu Shuo-Dong - - 2005
AIM: To evaluate the effects of nitroester drugs on human sphincter of Oddi (SO) motility and their antagonistic effects against morphine which shows excitatory effect on Oddi's sphincter motility. METHODS: The effects of these drugs on SO were evaluated by means of choledochofiberoscopy manometry. A total of 67 patients having ...
Fukushima Shin-Ichi - - 2005
The intraluminal pressure in the upper esophageal sphincter (UES) briefly decreases during swallowing. This decrement in pressure plays an important role in smooth transport of the ingested bolus from the pharynx to the esophagus. It is known that the decrement is caused by cessation of tonic activity of the cricopharyngeus ...
Shafik Ahmed - - 2005
BACKGROUND: The mechanism of esophageal acid clearance through augmenting esophageal peristalsis in response to gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is not exactly known. We investigated the hypothesis that lower esophageal sphincter (LES) dilatation rather than the refluxed acid affected reflex increase in the esophageal peristaltic activity aiming at clearing the esophagus of ...
Stimec Bojan - - 2005
A study of structure and function of the minor duodenal papilla was carried out on 36 autopsy specimens of the human duodenopancreas. An original perfusion method with manometric control was developed for testing the minor papilla patency, i.e. resistency to intraductal pressure. According to this test, all the specimens were ...
Bogeski G - - 2005
We have developed methods that allow correlation of propulsive reflexes of the intestine with measurements of intraluminal pressure, fluid movement and spatio-temporal maps of intestinal wall movements for the first time in vivo. A segment of jejunum was cannulated and set up in a Trendelenburg recording system while remaining connected ...
Terashima Tetsurou - - 2005
In order to characterize the motor activity of a surgically constructed gastric tube, several hours of ambulatory intraluminal pressure recordings were performed in 6 patients following esophagectomy and gastric tube construction. Whole pressure waves were spectrally analyzed by Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). Simultaneous abdominal and thoracic electrogastrograms (EGGs) were recorded ...
Bharucha A E - - 2005
Anal sphincter weakness and rectal sensory disturbances contribute to faecal incontinence (FI). Our aims were to investigate the relationship between symptoms, risk factors, and disordered anorectal and pelvic floor functions in FI. In 52 women with "idiopathic" FI and 21 age matched asymptomatic women, we assessed symptoms by standardised questionnaire, ...
Chang Shi-Min - - 2005
AIM: To investigate whether there was a dominant sacral root for the motive function of rectum and anal sphincter, and to provide an experimental basis for sacral root electrically stimulated defecation in spinal cord injuries. METHODS: Eleven spinal cord injured mongrel dogs were included in the study. After L4-L7 laminectomy, ...
West Rachel L - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine sphincter volume, length, and external anal sphincter thickness in healthy controls and fecal incontinent patients by use of a three-dimensional reconstruction of endoanal ultrasonography images. METHODS: Forty-four controls (15 males, 15 females, and 14 parous females) and 28 incontinent parous females ...
Nind Garry - - 2005
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Gastroesophageal reflux is a major problem in mechanically ventilated patients and may lead to pulmonary aspiration and erosive esophagitis. Transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations are the most common mechanism underlying reflux in nonventilated patients. The mechanisms that underlie reflux in critically ill ventilated patients have not been ...
Shafik Ahmed - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Sexual stimulation produces not only reflex changes in the female external and internal reproductive organs but also extragenital reactions. A mention of the response of the anal sphincters and the rectum to penile thrusting could not be traced in the literature. We investigated the hypothesis that the anal sphincters ...
Suzuki T - - 2005
This study investigated the assessment of visceral perception and gastric tone using insufflation during endoscopy. The intragastric pressure was measured during insufflation in 16 patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, 25 patients with functional dyspepsia and 24 normal controls, using a pressure transducer inserted through the forceps aperture until gastric symptoms ...
Xiao Yuan-Hong - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Manometric pressure asymmetry of the anal sphincter exists in the anal canal. There are reports about the anatomy of the anal sphincter, but the relationship between the configuration and the pressure asymmetry of the anal sphincter is not clear. This study is to investigate the anatomic evidence and clinical ...
Sun Y - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Impaired gastric accommodation is one of the major pathophysiological factors in functional dyspepsia (FD). Gastrointestinal electric stimulation (GES) as a potential therapy for treating patients with motility disorders has been applied in animal models and clinical practice. However, the response of proximal gastric tone to different GES has not ...
Madaliński Mariusz - - 2005
Although the pathogenesis of fissure is not fully understood, we do know that surgical and/or pharmacological sphincterotomy promotes the healing of chronic anal fissures. A number of studies support the hypothesis that local ischemia is the reason for failure to heal in anal fissure. Therefore, sphincterotomy may work because it ...
Jones Oliver M - - 2005
PURPOSE: Chronic anal fissure is said to be associated with internal sphincter hypertonia. However, an unknown proportion of fissures may be associated with normal or even low resting pressures and may subsequently be resistant to pharmacological treatments or at risk from surgical treatments, both of which aim to reduce sphincter ...
Davenport Mark - - 2005
PURPOSE: The cause of choledochal (cystic or fusiform) malformation is not known. A favoured hypothesis suggests that abnormal reflux of activated pancreatic secretions via a common pancreatobiliary channel may initiate mucosal injury and mural weakness leading to bile duct dilatation, at normal intraduct pressures. However, bile duct pressures in both ...
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