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Results 251 - 300 of 1155
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Scott D - - 2003
AIMS: Synovium retains lubricating fluid in the joint cavity. Synovial outflow resistance estimated as dPj/dQs (Pj, joint fluid pressure and Qs trans-synovial flow) is greater, however, than expected from interstitial glycosaminoglycan concentration. This study investigates whether subsynovial fluid pressure increases with intra-articular pressure, as this would reduce the estimated resistance ...
Thomas R S - - 2003
Nearly all tractor PTO arrangements used today consist of a rotating mechanical shaft with two or more universal joints and splined couplings. Although this method of power transfer has been the standard for decades, it continues to be a hazard to farm workers. Commonly, PTO accidents involve the snagging of ...
Gray R A - - 2003
Transurethral vaporisation of the prostate gland (TUVP) is an emerging surgical alternative to conventional electroresection (TURP). This study examined vesical pressure and fluid absorption during TUVP in 35 patients with benign prostatic hypertrophy. The irrigating fluid was a solution of glycine 1.5% and ethanol 1%. Intraoperative intravesical pressure was monitored ...
Koomans Hein A - - 2003
The decrease in plasma protein and colloid osmotic pressure (COP) in the nephrotic syndrome is accompanied by a decrease in tissue-fluid protein and COP. The latter protects against a fall in blood volume. However, the range and speed of this protective mechanism are limited, and a decrease in blood volume ...
Evilevitch Alex - - 2003
Bacterial viral capsids in aqueous solution can be opened in vitro by addition of their specific receptor proteins, with consequent full ejection of their genomes. We demonstrate that it is possible to control the extent of this ejection by varying the external osmotic pressure. In the particular case of bacteriophage ...
Stuhr L E B - - 2003
Previous studies indicated that connective tissue cells in dermis are involved in control of interstitial fluid pressure (Pif). We wanted to develop and characterize an in vitro model representative of loose connective tissue to study dynamic changes in fluid pressure (Pf) over a time course of a few minutes. Pf ...
Jónsson Sigurjón - - 2003
Large earthquakes alter the stress in the surrounding crust, leading to triggered earthquakes and aftershocks. A number of time-dependent processes, including afterslip, pore-fluid flow and viscous relaxation of the lower crust and upper mantle, further modify the stress and pore pressure near the fault, and hence the tendency for triggered ...
Pang Zhengyu - - 2003
Starling's hypothesis that fluid movement across the microvascular wall is determined by the transmural differences in hydrostatic and osmotic pressures was tested using an in vitro model comprised of bovine aortic endothelial cells grown on a porous support. In all experiments, a 1% bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution was maintained ...
Powell A K - - 2003
This study has used mechanical, together with pressure/volume recordings or electrophysiological recordings, to investigate the spontaneous activity in isolated preparations of mouse colon. In the former preparations, when not distended with fluid, spontaneous colonic migrating motor complexes (CMMCs) were observed using isotonic transducers. When the colons were distended with fluid, ...
Raspaud Eric - - 2003
Although stressing polymers have been widely and successfully used to determine the osmotic properties of solutes in aqueous media, the osmotic stress method presents some limitations. To overcome these drawbacks, an alternative and more direct method, which has been named the osmomanometer, is described in this letter. The osmotic pressure ...
Stubbe Barbara G - - 2003
Swelling pressure measurements were performed on degrading dextran hydroxyethyl methacrylate (dex-HEMA) hydrogels. In these networks, the cross-links are hydrolyzable carbonate ester bonds formed between methacrylate groups and dextran molecules. It is demonstrated that dex-HEMA gels made in the presence of a known amount of free dextran chains exhibit osmotic properties ...
Franks Peter J - - 2003
Over the past few decades the pressure probe has been used extensively in studies of the hydromechanical and osmotic properties of plant cells. However, although pressure probe techniques have been employed successfully in the study of stomatal function, there is no detailed account of this special application of the pressure ...
Ravazzoli C L - - 2003
We investigate the acoustic and mechanical properties of a reservoir sandstone saturated by two immiscible hydrocarbon fluids, under different saturations and pressure conditions. The modeling of static and dynamic deformation processes in porous rocks saturated by immiscible fluids depends on many parameters such as, for instance, porosity, permeability, pore fluid, ...
Konings Constantijn J A M - - 2003
Overhydration is a risk factor for hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy in peritoneal dialysis patients. Recently, a high prevalence of subclinical overhydration was observed in peritoneal dialysis patients. Aim of the present open-label randomized study was to assess the effect of a icodextrin 7.5% solution on fluid status [extracellular water ...
Negrini Daniela - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To determine albumin exclusion from the pulmonary perivascular interstitium by using the continuous infusion methods coupled with direct samples of pulmonary interstitial fluid via the wick technique. METHODS: To evaluate extracellular albumin distribution volume, radioactive ((125)I) rabbit serum albumin (RSA) was delivered intravenously until reaching a steady-state tissue concentration. ...
Lüke Christoph - - 2003
To investigate the effect of membrane differential filtration (MDF) on plasma colloid osmotic pressure (COP) and visual functions in age-related geographic macular degeneration (AMD). Ten consecutive patients with non-exudative AMD underwent one MDF cycle. Primary endpoint was COP. Secondary endpoints were visual acuity and the mean defect of visual field. ...
Standl Thomas - - 2003
Stable hemodynamics and improved rheology are important effects of hemodilution with hydroxyethyl starch (HES) infusions. One clinical indicator of improved rheology is increased tissue oxygen tension (tpO(2)). In this prospective, randomized, double-blinded, crossover study, we examined the effects of acute normovolemic hemodilution with HES 130/0.4 on hemodynamics and skeletal muscle ...
Negrini Daniela - - 2003
The modifications of the macromolecular sieving properties of the pulmonary extracellular tissue matrix were studied in adult anaesthetized rabbits (n = 10) exposed to increased tissue hydration. Exclusion of albumin from the perivascular pulmonary interstitial space was determined by using the continuous infusion method coupled with direct sampling of interstitial ...
Heidecker M - - 2003
The pressure response of (plant) cells to osmotic challenges depends on the reflection coefficient, sigma, of osmotically active solutes; it is less than predicted by the van't Hoff equation if sigma < 1. In Valonia utricularis, sigma is significantly reduced by internal (and, to a lesser extent, by external) unstirred ...
Holbeck Staffan - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate effects of lipopolysaccharide (endotoxin) on protein and fluid permeability in a whole organ skeletal muscle preparation. DESIGN: Controlled, prospective laboratory study. SETTING: University research laboratory. SUBJECTS: Eleven adult male cats. INTERVENTIONS: The study was performed on the autoperfused and denervated calf muscles of the cat hindlimb placed ...
Wiig H - - 2003
Here we present recent data indicating that the present view of the interstitium as a passive fluid reservoir has to be revised. The connective tissue cells and extracellular matrix have a role in the control of P(if) and a fundamental role in the rapid development of edema in burns and ...
Mimietz S - - 2003
The ultrastructure of the several micrometers thick cytoplasmic layer of the giant marine alga Valonia utricularis displays characteristics which are apparently linked with the capability of this alga to regulate turgor pressure. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy of cells prefixed in different ways, including a protocol that allows prefixation of ...
Usui Kengo - - 2003
Aeromonas caviae ME-1 is a multiple xylanase-producing gram-negative bacterium which was isolated from the gut contents of a wild silkworm, Samia cynthia pryeri. One of the xylanases produced by A. caviae ME-1, XynX (38 kDa, family 10 xylanase), hydrolyzes xylan to xylobiose and xylotetraose as final degradation products. Generally, xylanases ...
Priner Ronit - - 2003
Neonatal guinea pigs show signs of a temporary conductive hearing loss during the first few days after birth. It has been suggested that this is due mainly to the presence of amniotic fluid in the middle ear (ME) cavity at birth and its subsequent clearance. This study was designed to ...
Nordström C H - - 2003
Fluid exchange across the intact blood-brain barrier (BBB) is counteracted by the low permeability to crystalloids (mainly Na+ and Cl-) combined with the high osmotic pressure (5,700 mm Hg) on both sides of the BBB. If the BBB is disrupted transcapillary water transport will be determined by the differences in ...
Mamontov E - - 2003
Many biosystems are complex mixtures of disparate biofluids. To study contact and transport phenomena in these mixtures, one has to apply much information on the biofluids which are components of the mixtures. A lot of the corresponding data can be extracted by means of experiments. However, it is not always ...
Köro─člu Ahmet - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: to determine fluid-electrolyte and hemodynamics changes and complications associated with irrigation fluid volume and time in percutaneous nephrolithotripsy in that 0.9% NaCl was used as irrigant. METHODS: Standard anaesthetic procedures were performed to 6 women and 16 men. Mean arterial pressure, heart rate, central venous pressure, Na+, K+, osmolality, ...
Evans T W - - 2002
Albumin is the main determinant of plasma oncotic pressure and it plays a pivotal role in modulating the distribution of fluids between compartments. Moreover, it has many other biological properties which may be important not only for its physiological actions but also for its therapeutic effects. Among the non-oncotic properties ...
Kurbel S - - 2002
This article is an attempt to simplify lecturing about the osmotic gradient in the kidney medulla. In the model presented, the kidneys are described as a limited space with a positive interstitial hydrostatic pressure. Traffic of water, sodium, and urea is described in levels (or horizons) of different osmolarity, governed ...
Chen Ing Youn - - 2002
The resuscitation fluids, including crystalloids and colloids, were tested in an experimental module with 16-gauge central and peripheral catheters. Infusion pressures were ranged from the gravity driving 10 kPa (75 mmHg) to the pressurized driving 50 kPa (375 mmHg). The experiment results were correlated to obtain the empirical friction factors ...
Kastening Boris - - 2002
An earlier four-loop calculation of the fluctuation pressure of a fluid membrane between two infinite walls is extended to five loops. Variational perturbation theory is used to extract the hard-wall limit from perturbative results obtained with a smooth potential. Comparison with a structurally similar quantum mechanics problem of a particle ...
Varela C - - 2003
Osmotic stress constitutes a major bacterial stress factor in the soil and during industrial fermentation. In this paper, we quantified the metabolic response, in terms of metabolic flux redistribution, of a lysine-overproducing strain of Corynebacterium glutamicum grown under continuous culture, to gradually increasing osmolality. Oxygen and carbon dioxide evolution rates, ...
Han In Suk - - 2002
A new type of biosensor is proposed that combines the recognition properties of "intelligent" hydrogels with the sensitivity and reliability of microfabricated pressure transducers. In the proposed device, analyte-induced changes in the osmotic swelling pressure of an environmentally responsive hydrogel are measured by confining it within a small implantable enclosure ...
Olsen Dennis - - 2002
To evaluate the Bone Injection Gun (BIG) for placement of intraosseous cannulas through impact penetration and compare it with a standard Jamshidi bone marrow needle (JBMN) and to compare fluid delivery dynamics through each device. Randomized in vivo study. Forty-eight mature dogs. During surgical laboratories, dogs were randomly assigned to ...
Hill Reginald J - - 2002
Length scales are determined that govern the behavior at small separations of the correlations of fluid-particle acceleration, viscous force, and pressure gradient. The length scales and an associated universal constant are quantified on the basis of published data. The length scale governing pressure spectra at high wave numbers is discussed. ...
Dula David J - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To compare the outcomes of blunt trauma victims with systolic blood pressure < or = 90 mm Hg who received prehospital fluids with the outcomes of those who did not receive prehospital fluids. METHODS: This matched-pairs case-control study used records of blunt trauma patients with scene systolic blood pressure ...
Grände P-O - - 2002
Opinions differ widely on the various treatment protocols for sustained increase in intracranial pressure (ICP). This review focuses on the physiological volume regulation of the intracranial compartments. Based on these mechanisms we describe a protocol called 'volume-targeted' ('Lund concept') for treatment of increased ICP. The driving force for transcapillary fluid ...
Soini S M - - 2002
Water hydraulic systems use water instead of oil as a pressure medium. Microbial growth in the system may restrict the applicability this technology. The effects of fluid-flow velocity and water quality on microbial growth and biofilm formation were studied with a pilot-scale water hydraulic system. The fluid-flow velocities were 1.5-5.2 ...
Miller J - - 2002
A Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) model of flow in a high-pressure homogenizing valve (APV Gaulin model 30CD) was developed with the Fluent software. The 2D model consists of an unstructured hexagonal mesh, dense in the regions of high gradients. The flow (single-phase) was modeled as laminar upstream of and in ...
Lai Jean - - 2002
The pleural space is modeled in two dimensions as a thin layer of fluid separating a deformable membrane and a rigid surface containing a bump. We computed the steady-state membrane configuration and fluid pressure distribution during relative sliding of the two surfaces. For physiologically relevant values of membrane tension, shear ...
Pashley David H - - 2002
PURPOSE: To measure the inward flux of potassium across human dentin disks, in vitro, in the absence and then in the presence of a simulated pulpal pressure (PP), before and after brushing with two desensitizing dentifrices. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dentin discs were made from extracted unerupted third molars and etched ...
Songsasen N - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Permeability characteristics and sensitivity to osmotic shock are principal parameters that are important to derive procedures for the successful cryopreservation of mammalian oocytes. METHODS AND RESULTS: The osmotically inactive volume of rhesus monkey oocytes was determined by measuring their volumes in the presence of hypertonic solutions of sucrose from ...
Qin Yi-Xian - - 2002
The pathway for intracortical fluid flow response to a step-load was identified in vivo using intramedullary pressure (ImP) and streaming potential (SP) measurements, and allowed the development of a load-induced flow mechanism which considers mechanotransduction and mechanoelectrotransduction phenomena. An avian model was used for monitoring, simultaneously, ImP and SP under ...
Sabaratnam S - - 2002
The polysaccharide hyaluronan (HA) conserves synovial fluid by keeping outflow low and almost constant over a wide pressure range ('buffering'), but only at concentrations associated with polymer domain overlap. We therefore tested whether polymer interactions can cause buffering, using HA-chondroitin sulphate C (CSC) mixtures. Also, since it has been found ...
Marx G - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of different volume replacement therapies on maintenance of plasma volume in septic shock and capillary leakage syndrome. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective randomized, controlled animal laboratory study in a university animal laboratory. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: Twenty-five fasted, anaesthetized, mechanically ventilated and multi-catheterized pigs (20.8+/-1.8 kg) received ...
Koroleva Olga A - - 2002
Pressure-probe measurements and single-cell sampling and analysis techniques were used to determine the effect of photosynthetic production and accumulation of sugars on osmotic and turgor pressures of individual cells of barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) source leaves. In control plants, the changes in osmotic pressure in individual cells during the ...
van Borren Marcel M G J - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: Hypertrophied myocytes of failing hearts have prolonged action potential durations. It is unknown how the swelling-activated Cl(-) current (I(Cl,swell)) affects the abnormal AP configuration. METHODS: We studied I(Cl,swell) in ventricular myocytes isolated from failing and age-matched normal rabbit hearts. We applied whole-cell patch-clamp methodology and activated I(Cl,swell) by lowering ...
Sud Vipul - - 2002
Ischemia-induced reperfusion injury seems to play an important role in the pathophysiology of "idiopathic" carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). The common final pathway in this developmental sequence is thought to be an intermittent increase in interstitial pressure, leading to degenerative changes in the flexor tenosynovium and fibrotic changes in the perineural ...
Bonati Francesca - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Currently, amnioinfusion fluids used in operative fetoscopy usually are preheated to body temperature. As the complexity of procedures increases, purposed designed devices should be designed that allow control of pressure and temperature during amnioinfusion or amnioexchange. In the current study, a prototype amnio-irrigator and fluid heater were evaluated. METHODS: ...
Mekheimer Kh S - - 2002
The problem of peristaltic transport of a couple stress fluid in uniform and non-uniform two-dimensional channels has been investigated under zero Reynolds number with long wavelength approximation. Blood is represented by a couple stress fluid (a fluid which its particles size are taken into account, a special case of a ...
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