Search Results
Results 201 - 250 of 1160
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Huang Yuesheng - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To explore a suitable formula of delayed rapid fluid resuscitation for patients with burn shock. METHODS: Twenty patients with burns over 40% of total body surface area (TBSA) admitted 4-8 h after injury were studied. Plasma was used as colloid in 9 cases in the infused patients (the plasma ...
Farstad Marit - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass is associated with increased fluid extravasation. This study aimed to compare whether iso-oncotic priming solutions, in contrast to crystalloids, could reduce the cold-induced fluid extravasation during cardiopulmonary bypass in piglets. METHODS: Three groups were studied: the control group (CT group; n = 10), the albumin group ...
Bathe Mark - - 2005
The osmotic pressure of chondroitin sulfate (CS) solution in contact with an aqueous 1:1 salt reservoir of fixed ionic strength is studied using a recently developed coarse-grained molecular model. The effects of sulfation type (4- vs. 6-sulfation), sulfation pattern (statistical distribution of sulfate groups along a chain), ionic strength, CS ...
Dong W - - 2005
Up to now, none of the previously derived expressions is usable in simulations for the practical calculation of the thermodynamic pressure of a fluid adsorbed in a random porous medium. A bona fide virial expression of this pressure is presented. Contrary to what was believed, we show that this pressure ...
Hirayama Junichi - - 2005
Transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease (TA-GVHD) is a fatal complication of blood transfusion resulting from the contamination of blood products by leukocytes. In order to prevent this disease, gamma or X-ray irradiation of blood components,which can inactivate leukocytes, is currently used. However, the minimal doses needed to destroy lymphocytes promote the leakage ...
Ozerdem Ugur - - 2005
A novel procedure using a polyurethane transducer-tipped catheter (Millar) is described that allows reliable measurement of interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) in cancer tissues. Before and after each use, the transducer is calibrated at 37 degrees C by a water column. After calibration, the transducer is passed through the lumen of ...
Ozu Marcelo - - 2005
Membrane water permeability is habitually calculated from volume changes in Xenopus laevis oocytes during external osmotic challenges. Nevertheless, this approach is limited by the uncertainty on the oocyte internal composition. To circumvent this limitation a new experimental set up is introduced where the cell membrane of an emptied-out oocyte was ...
Chahine Nadeen O NO Musculoskeletal Biomechanics Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027, - - 2005
Articular cartilage is a hydrated soft tissue composed of negatively charged proteoglycans fixed within a collagen matrix. This charge gradient causes the tissue to imbibe water and swell, creating a net osmotic pressure that enhances the tissue's ability to bear load. In this study we designed and utilized an apparatus ...
Iwata H - - 2006
There are great differences in the developmental competence of oocytes collected from individual cows. Oocytes grow and mature in the follicular fluid (FF). In the present study, characteristics of the FF of each ovary and the developmental competence of enclosed oocytes were investigated, and these data were then compared. A ...
Herford Alan S - - 2005
PURPOSE: Mandibular advancement is a commonly performed surgical procedure for the treatment of mandibular hypoplasia. With the increased use of rigid fixation, there has been a decrease in the amount of relapse but an increase in the amount of force transmitted to the condyles. Gradual advancement of the mandible by ...
Søreide Eldar - - 2005
Venous access and fluid therapy should still be considered to be essential elements of pre-hospital advanced life support (ALS) in the critically injured patient. Initiation of fluid therapy should be based on a clinical assessment, most importantly the presence, or otherwise, of a radial pulse. The goal in penetrating injury ...
Kudo Yoshihiro - - 2005
We studied 193 patients free of heart disease to determine the relation between QRS amplitude and serum albumin. Although there were no significant differences in echocardiographic indexes between the 2 groups, albumin (35.1 +/- 4.3 vs 40.1 +/- 3.2 g/L) and colloid osmotic pressure (21 +/- 4 vs 24 +/- ...
Nathan Saminathan S - - 2005
PURPOSE: This study investigates the effect of constitutively raised interstitial fluid pressure on osteosarcoma physiology and chemosensitivity. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We did pressure and blood flow assessments at the time of open biopsy in patients with the diagnosis of high-grade osteosarcoma and correlated this to survival and chemotherapy-associated tumor necrosis. Osteosarcoma ...
Iwamoto Masaaki - - 2005
A fresh water protozoan Paramecium multimicronucleatum adapted to a given solution was found to swell until the osmotic pressure difference between the cytosol and the solution balanced the cytosolic pressure. The cytosolic pressure was generated as the cell swelled osmotically. When either one or both of these pressures was somehow ...
Nordström Carl-Henrik - - 2005
The optimal therapy of sustained increase in intracranial pressure (ICP) remains controversial. The volume-targeted therapy ("Lund concept") discussed in this article focuses on the physiological volume regulation of the intracranial compartments. The balance between effective transcapillary hydrostatic and osmotic pressures constitutes the driving force for transcapillary fluid exchange. The low ...
Nordström C H - - 2005
The optimal therapy of sustained increase in intracranial pressure (ICP) is still controversial. The "Lund concept" is based on the physiological volume regulation of the intracranial compartments. In addition to its other functions the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is the most important regulator of brain volume. Water exchange across the intact ...
Acharya Seetharama A - - 2005
Recent studies have suggested that the "pressor effect" of acellular Hb is a consequence of perturbation of the macro-and microcirculatory system in multiple ways, and that PEGylation is an effective approach for controlling the same. In an attempt to confirm this concept, a new and simple thiolation mediated, maleimide chemistry-based ...
Pastukh Viktor - - 2005
Osmolytes are rapidly lost from the ischemic heart, an effect thought to benefit the heart by reducing the osmotic load. However, the observation that chronic lowering of one of the prominent osmolytes, taurine, is more beneficial to the ischemic heart than acute taurine loss suggests that osmotic stress may benefit ...
van den Wijngaard Jeroen P H M - - 2005
We developed a mathematical model of twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) that includes a hydropic recipient twin, adding interstitial and intracellular fluid compartments, fetal congestive cardiac failure, and the dynamics of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) mediators to our previous TTTS model. Ten differential equations for each twin, coupled by the net fetofetal ...
Gokal Ram - - 2004
Adequate solute and fluid removal are the cornerstones of dialysis treatment. In peritoneal dialysis, what constitutes adequate removal, has been hitherto controversial, based as it was on DOQI guidelines. There are now 2 randomised controlled trials that address solute removal--both indicate that the minimal Kt/V needs to be 1.7. This ...
Heldin Carl-Henrik - - 2004
Many solid tumours show an increased interstitial fluid pressure (IFP), which forms a barrier to transcapillary transport. This barrier is an obstacle in tumour treatment, as it results in inefficient uptake of therapeutic agents. There are a number of factors that contribute to increased IFP in the tumour, such as ...
Assaly Ragheb A - - 2004
Systemic inflammatory response conditions are associated with capillary leak and haemodynamic compromise. Fluid resuscitation to reverse the ensuing hypovolaemia is, however, complicated by the decreased endothelium reflection coefficient to albumin and other colloids. We developed PEG-Alb (albumin covalently linked to polyethylene glycol) as a potential resuscitative agent. PEG was covalently ...
Kerdvongbundit V - - 2004
The effect of pulpal cavity pressure on structures present on etched and unetched dentine was determined in 24 human premolars in vitro. The dentine was exposed in vivo. After extraction, the pulp was removed and the crown stored in 2.5 N sodium hydroxide for 3 days to remove the odontoblasts. ...
Chen Jui-Sheng - - 2004
A reactive fluid circulating within a porous medium can dissolve minerals with which it is out of equilibrium and modify the porosity and permeability. The positive feedback between fluid transport and mineral dissolution causes complex reaction front morphologies such as fingers or wormholes. This study presents a numerical model to ...
Løvoll Grunde - - 2004
We present in this paper an experimental study of the invasion activity during unstable drainage in a two-dimensional random porous medium, when the (wetting) displaced fluid has a high viscosity with respect to that of the (nonwetting) displacing fluid, and for a range of almost two decades in capillary numbers ...
Russell James A JA Program of Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, St. Paul's Hospital and University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, - - 2004
To determine the effects of pump priming fluid choice on platelets, fluid balance, and clinical outcomes. Meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials. Primary endpoints were platelet counts, colloid oncotic pressure, on-bypass fluid balance, postoperative weight gain, and colloid usage. Cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Adult and pediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgery, ...
Scaillet Bruno - - 2004
Assessing the conditions under which magmas become fluid-saturated has important bearings on the geochemical modelling of magmas because volatile exsolution may profoundly alter the behaviour of certain trace elements that are strongly partitioned in the coexisting fluid. Saal et al. report primitive melt inclusions from dredged oceanic basalts of the ...
Agnati L F - - 2005
The present paper enlightens a new point of view on brain homeostasis and communication, namely how the brain takes advantage of different chemical-physical phenomena such as pressure waves, and temperature and concentration gradients to allow the renewal of the extra-cellular fluid (i.e., the homeostasis of the brain internal milieu) as ...
Cogan N G - - 2004
Although the initiation, development and control of biofilms has been an area of experimental investigation for more than three decades, the role of extra-cellular polymeric substance (EPS) has not been well studied. We present a mathematical description of the EPS matrix to study the development of heterogeneous biofilm morphology. In ...
Chen H Henry - - 2004
The production of small fluid droplets relies on an instability of solutions to the Young-Laplace equation. We ask whether smaller droplets can be produced by changing the shape of the nozzle. At a given critical pressure, the circular nozzle actually produces the largest droplet. The droplet volume can be decreased ...
Adamson R H - - 2004
We hypothesized that ultrafiltrate crossing the luminal endothelial glycocalyx through infrequent discontinuities (gaps) in the tight junction (TJ) strand of endothelial clefts reduces albumin diffusive flux from tissue into the 'protected region' of the cleft on the luminal side of the TJ. Thus, the effective oncotic pressure difference (sigma black ...
Fevang J - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Strangulation obstruction of the small bowel is associated with local and systemic circulatory changes, local loss of fluid, and damage of the strangulated bowel segment. We wanted to examine to which extent these changes can be prevented by intravenous fluid administration. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In anesthetized pigs, strangulation obstruction ...
Chantler E - - 2004
Some human spermatozoa respond to osmotic pressure changes in their surroundings by volume change of vesicles on the plasmalemma in the midpiece domain. We aim to determine how cyclic change in osmotic stress affects motility and permeability of the plasmalemma and whether the response is affected by the presence of ...
Krouwels F H - - 2004
A 25 year old man with known chronic right sided heart failure and ascites due to a congenital heart defect presented with dyspnoea and a massive pleural effusion. Thoracoscopy revealed two diaphragmatic blebs. Changes in peritoneal and thoracic pressure during respiration resulted in periodic squirting of a ruptured bleb, illustrating ...
Schiller P - - 2004
The macroscopic theory of capillarity is usually applied to evaluate the adhesion forces produced by fluid bridges between solid particles. A refined mesoscopic description incorporates the disjoining pressure, which results from the long range forces between the fluid and the solid substrates. In the case of simple nonpolar fluids the ...
Astrand Jörgen - - 2004
Fluid pressure, instability or particles have been suggested to cause peri-prosthetic bone resorption. High intracapsular pressures have been reported in hip joints with loose prosthetic components, and oscillating fluid pressure has been shown to cause dramatic bone resorption in animal models. Resorption can be reduced by systemic bisphosphonate treatment in ...
Sun D D - - 2004
Unconfined compression test has been frequently used to study the mechanical behaviors of articular cartilage, both theoretically and experimentally. It has also been used in explant and gel-cell-complex studies in tissue engineering. In biphasic and poroelastic theories, the effect of charges fixed on the proteoglycan macromolecules in articular cartilage is ...
Lewis Charmaine A - - 2004
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Acute lung injury (ALI) and the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) affect hundreds of thousands of people each year worldwide, resulting in a significant healthcare burden. Over the past four decades, much has been discovered regarding the pathophysiology of lung injury, yet little progress has been made ...
Grove Jerome J - - 2004
A 37-year-old patient undergoing operative hysteroscopy developed noncardiogenic pulmonary edema after fluid absorption of 6 L of Ringer's lactate distension solution. No electrolyte or neurologic sequelae were associated with this fluid absorption. A subsequent 35-year-old patient having similar surgery in which a device was used to control intrauterine pressure and ...
Brønstad A - - 2004
AIM: Lowering of interstitial fluid pressure (Pif) facilitates fluid filtration across the capillary membrane and oedema formation in acute inflammation. The cellular mechanism behind this lowering of Pif involves beta1-integrins mediating contact between dermal cells and the extracellular matrix fibres, and also the cell cytoskeleton as disruption of actin filaments ...
Smagghe G - - 2004
In this paper, we determined some physico-chemical properties like osmotic pressure, pH and electrical conductivity of the hemolymph from caterpillars of Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) during the last larval instar. It was of interest that we observed an increase in osmotic pressure with the increase in age in the last ...
Schumacher Jan - - 2004
To investigate the time course of fluid extravasation during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), we measured the peripheral tissue thickness (TT) by A-mode ultrasound in 34 patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery. TT of the forehead was determined by a handheld A-mode ultrasound device and 10 MHz Transducer at nine defined intervals, from ...
Sakuma Tsutomu - - 2004
PURPOSE: It is not yet known whether a prostacyclin analogue can affect alveolar fluid clearance. According to recent studies, high-dose (10(-3) M) terbutaline, a beta(2)-adrenergic agonist, failed to increase alveolar fluid clearance. Therefore, we examined the effects of OP-41483alpha-CD, a prostacyclin analogue, on alveolar fluid clearance in the presence of ...
Li L P - - 2004
The relative importance of fluid-dependent and fluid-independent transient mechanical behavior in articular cartilage was examined for tensile and unconfined compression testing using a fibril reinforced model. The collagen matrix of articular cartilage was modeled as viscoelastic using a quasi-linear viscoelastic formulation with strain-dependent elastic modulus, while the proteoglycan matrix was ...
Lopez Félicie - - 2003
In maize (Zea mays) roots, xylem water transfer supported by root pressure occurs during the day and is less important at night. Diurnal modifications of osmotic pressure gradient between medium and xylem could not explain the oscillation of water flux in young maize roots during the day-night cycle. We observed ...
Mallat Jihad - - 2003
PURPOSE: To date, no monitoring has proved its usefulness for both interpretation and treatment of arterial hypotension following pheochromocytoma resection. In this prospective observational study, we measured the negative component (Deltadown) of the respiratory systolic pressure variation in order to assess its ability to guide fluid therapy in 13 patients ...
Rosenberg Andrew L - - 2003
In a recent review of the data for fluid strategies and ARDS, fluid restriction or diuretic use was graded as "reasonably justifiable by available scientific evidence" and as "strongly supported by expert critical care opinion". Until the ARDS Network trial is published, only general guidelines regarding fluid management with or ...
Hilpert Markus - - 2003
Pore networks that include biconical pore segments are frequently used to model two-phase flow. In this work, we describe in detail the displacement of a fluid-fluid interface in such a pore segment. We assume sharp edges in the throat, inlet, and outlet of the pore segment to be the limiting ...
Wright David M - - 2003
Skin provides the flexible, protective covering of the body. It consists of a network of fibrous proteins embedded in a viscoelastic gel. Theoretical models of soft tissue demonstrate that behavior of such systems is strongly influenced by the relationship between the interstitial fluid pressure (P(if)) and solid matrix stress. A ...
Sakai Naomi - - 2003
Does osmotic pressure stimulate assembly or disassembly of supramolecules in vesicles? Self-assembly was conceivable as intravesicular response to osmotic shrinking upon application of extravesicular overpressure, whereas disassembly was conceivable as a response to bilayer stress in hyperosmotic vesicles. Self-assembly of guanosine 5'-monophosphates (GMPs) into G-quartets was selected to investigate the ...
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