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Results 151 - 200 of 1157
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Basile Antonio R - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Fluid management during liposuction appears to as much an art as it is a science. Because of different infiltration practices such as wet, superwet, and tumescent techniques, different fluid management guidelines are required. This has assumed greater significance as surgeons have undertaken aspirations with larger volumes (>/=4 l) and ...
Dubois Monique - - 2006
We propose an adaptation of the osmotic stress technique for determining equations of state of colloids covered by polymer films. We describe here the case of silica particles covered by 6 or 7 layers of polyelectrolyte multilayers. The establishment of a pressure-distance curve allows the interpretation of colloidal interactions over ...
Wood Janet M - - 2006
Osmosensors are proteins that sense environmental osmotic pressure. They mediate or direct osmoregulatory responses that allow cells to survive osmotic changes and extremes. Bacterial osmosensing transporters sense high external osmotic pressure and respond by mediating organic osmolyte uptake, hence cellular rehydration. Detailed studies of osmosensing transporters OpuA, BetP, and ProP ...
Saar Galit - - 2007
One of the functions of articular cartilage is to withstand recurrent pressure applied in everyday life. In previous studies, osmotic pressure has been used to mimic the effects of mechanical pressure. In the present study, the response of the collagen network of intact and proteoglycans (PG)-depleted cartilage to mechanical and ...
Chiu Kuo-Liang - - 2006
INTRODUCTION: Fluid displacement into nuchal and peripharyngeal soft tissues while recumbent may contribute to narrowing and increased airflow resistance of the pharynx (Rph), and predispose to pharyngeal collapse in patients at risk for obstructive sleep apnea. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether displacement of fluid from the lower body to the neck ...
Nolte Marc - - 2006
Freestanding ultrathin polyelectrolyte-multilayer membranes, transferred to topographically structured polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), are used as mechanical sensors. Due to the membranes' semipermeability, high-molecular-weight molecules can be either entrapped inside them or excluded, thus generating an osmotic pressure. This leads to a deformation. We investigate the deformation as a function of the osmotic ...
Caracciolo Sergio - - 2006
We determine the second, third, and fourth virial coefficients appearing in the density expansion of the osmotic pressure Pi of a monodisperse polymer solution in good-solvent conditions. Using the expected large-concentration behavior, we extrapolate the low-density expansion outside the dilute regime, obtaining the osmotic pressure for any concentration in the ...
Higham Timothy E - - 2006
Suction feeding fish rapidly expand their oral cavity, resulting in a flow of water directed towards the mouth that is accompanied by a drop in pressure inside the buccal cavity. Pressure inside the mouth and fluid speed external to the mouth are understood to be mechanically linked but the relationship ...
Wognum Silvia - - 2006
STUDY DESIGN: An experimental hydrogel model and a numerical mixture model were used to investigate why the disc herniates while osmotic pressure is decreasing. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of decreasing osmotic pressure on the opening of cracks in the disc. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: In the degeneration process, the ...
Clarke Hannah G - - 2006
During mammalian follicle development, a fluid-filled antrum develops in the avascular centre of the follicle. We investigated the hypothesis that follicular fluid contains osmotically-active molecules, sufficiently large so as to not freely escape the follicular fluid. Such molecules could generate an osmotic differential and thus recruit fluid from the surrounding ...
Summers Richard L - - 2007
Circulatory adaptations resulting in postflight orthostasis have frequently been observed in response to space travel. It has been postulated that a decrement in left ventricular mass (LVM) found after microgravity exposure may be the central component in this cardiovascular deconditioning. However, a physiologic mechanism responsible for these changes in the ...
Durairaj Lakshmi - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Xylitol is a 5-carbon sugar that can lower the airway surface salt concentration, thus enhancing innate immunity. We tested the safety and tolerability of aerosolized iso-osmotic xylitol in subjects with cystic fibrosis. METHODS: In this pilot study, 6 subjects with cystic fibrosis and an FEV1>60% predicted underwent a baseline ...
Lu Y - - 2006
In soft tissues, large molecules such as proteoglycans trapped in the extracellular matrix (ECM) generate high levels of osmotic pressure to counter-balance external pressures. The semi-permeable matrix and fixed negative charges on these molecules serve to promote the swelling of tissues when there is an imbalance of molecular concentrations. Structural ...
Chellam Shankararaman - - 2006
New blocking law models for dead-end constant flux microfiltration of colloids forming cakes that compressed in a linear and power law manner were derived. Constant pressure and constant flux experiments were performed using bacteria, colloidal silica, and treated natural waters to validate these new models and quantitatively verify blocking law ...
Farman Gerrie P - - 2006
Changes in interfilament lattice spacing have been proposed as the mechanism underlying myofilament length-dependent activation. Much of the evidence to support this theory has come from experiments in which high-molecular-weight compounds, such as dextran, were used to osmotically shrink the myofilament lattice. However, whether interfilament spacing directly affects myofilament calcium ...
Jacob Matthias - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Fluid extravasation may lead to myocardial edema and consequent reduction in ventricular function. Albumin is presumed to interact with the endothelial glycocalyx. The authors' objective was to compare the impact of different resuscitation fluids (human albumin, hydroxyethyl starch, saline) on vascular integrity. METHODS: In an isolated perfused heart model ...
Verheij Joanne - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To study the effects on volume expansion and myocardial function of colloids or crystalloids in the treatment of hypovolaemic hypotension after cardiac and major vascular surgery. DESIGN AND SETTING: A single-centre, single-blinded, randomized clinical trial at the intensive care unit of a university hospital. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients (n=67) ...
Stachowska-Pietka J - - 2006
The process of water reabsorption from the peritoneal cavity into the surrounding tissue substantially decreases the net ultrafiltration in patients on peritoneal dialysis. The goal of this study was to propose a mathematical model based on data from clinical studies and animal experiments to describe the changes in absorption rate, ...
Stevens H Y - - 2006
Interstitial fluid flow (IFF) is important in a number of processes, including stimulation of cells and nutrient and waste transport. In bone, it arises from the vascular pressure gradient between the medullary cavity and the lymphatic drainage at the periosteal surface and is enhanced by mechanical loading events. However, little ...
Bisson M A - - 2006
We review electrophysiological measures of turgor regulation in some siphonous green algae, primarily the giant-celled marine algae, Valonia and Ventricaria, with particular comparison to the well studied charophyte algae Chara and Lamprothamnium. The siphonous green algae have a less negative plasma membrane potential, and are unlikely to have a proton-based ...
Unger Juliane K - - 2006
Both fluid management and renal replacement therapies play a fundamental role in the treatment of critically ill patients. In a recent in vitro study, we have shown specific interactions of different colloids and the hemocompatibility of hemofilters. The present study was performed to compare the five most common fluids for ...
Kagi Hiroyuki - - 2006
A near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic method is proposed to achieve the simultaneous determination of salinity and internal pressure of fluid inclusions in natural minerals. A combination band between the anti-symmetric stretching and bending vibrations of molecular water at approximately 5180 cm-1 was observed for standard salt solutions and natural minerals containing ...
Kalelkar Chirag - - 2006
We present results from a systematic direct-numerical simulation study of pressure fluctuations in an unforced, incompressible, homogeneous, and isotropic three-dimensional turbulent fluid. At cascade completion, isosurfaces of low pressure are found to be organized as slender filaments, whereas the predominant isostructures appear sheetlike. We exhibit several results, including plots of ...
Cheng Chang-Jing - - 2006
Experimental investigations on the hydrophobic modification of SPG membranes and the preparation of monodisperse W/O (water-in-oil) emulsions using the modified membranes were carried out. Effects of the osmotic pressure of disperse phase, the average pore size of membranes, emulsifier concentrations in continuous phase and the transmembrane pressure on the average ...
Bletsa Athanasia - - 2006
The dental pulp consists of loose connective tissue encased in rigid dentinal walls. Because of its topography the tissue has low interstitial compliance and limited capacity to expand during fluid volume changes. Due to limitations regarding access to interstitial fluid, basic knowledge on transcapillary fluid transport parameters is lacking for ...
Stöhr M - - 2006
The invasion and subsequent flow of a nonwetting fluid (NWF) in a three-dimensional, unconsolidated porous medium saturated with a wetting fluid of higher density and viscosity have been studied experimentally using a light-transmission technique. Distinct dynamic regimes have been found for different relative magnitudes of viscous, capillary, and gravity forces. ...
Firouzi Mahnaz - - 2006
The results of extensive nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of flow and transport of a pure fluid, as well as a binary fluid mixture, through a porous material composed of a macropore, a mesopore, and a nanopore, in the presence of an external pressure gradient, are reported. We find that under ...
Du Botao - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To examine the correlation between the pulsatility and resistance indices (PI and RI) of the intraovarian artery on the day of follicle aspiration and the oocyte quality, intrafollicular oxidative stress, and luteinization. Pulsatility index and RI on the day of hCG administration also were measured. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: ...
Akçayöz Murat - - 2006
INTRODUCTION: We compare the absorption of irrigant fluid during gyrus plasmakinetic transurethral prostatectomy (PK-TURP) and transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). PATIENTS AND METHODS: 42 patients with clinical benign prostatic hyperplasia were randomly assigned to undergo PK-TURP or TURP. In the PK-TURP group 0.9% NaCl was used as an irrigation ...
Martinez Gustavo Adolfo - - 2006
The present paper shows the design a development and on-line measure system for blood urea concentration during dialysis treatment, using non-invasive technical by employ the optical sensing in the visible range. Previous results obtained in Military Hospital Centre in Mexico DF., displayed experimental evidence of a clear correlation between blood ...
De Backer Daniel - - 2006
Predicting fluid responsiveness has become a topic of major interest. Measurements of intravascular pressures and volumes often fail to predict the response to fluids, even though very low values are usually associated with a positive response to fluids. Dynamic indices reflecting respiratory-induced variations in stroke volume have been developed; however, ...
Binder Karl-Andree - - 2006
Exposure of the giant marine alga Valonia utricularis to acute hypo-osmotic shocks induces a transient increase in turgor pressure and subsequent back-regulation. Separate recording of the electrical properties of tonoplast and plasmalemma together with turgor pressure was performed by using a vacuolar perfusion assembly. Hypo-osmotic turgor pressure regulation was inhibited ...
Kastening Boris - - 2006
The fluctuation pressure that an infinitely extended fluid membrane exerts on two enclosing parallel hard walls is computed. Variational perturbation theory is used to extract the hard-wall limit from a perturbative expansion through six loops obtained with a smooth wall potential. Our result alpha=0.0821 +/- 0.0005 for the constant conventionally ...
Glass Catherine A - - 2006
Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO) is a common solvent for pharmacological agents. It is a small, lipophilic molecule thought to be relatively highly permeable through the cell membrane. While measuring the effect of low concentrations of DMSO (0.05-0.5% v/v) on capillary hydraulic conductivity as a vehicle control for pharmacological agents, the authors ...
Yang Huiping - - 2006
In this study, refrigerated storage and cryopreservation of sperm from the green swordtail Xiphophorus helleri were investigated. Previous cryopreservation research in this species utilized motile sperm because unlike in most fish species, Xiphophorus sperm can remain continuously motile after collection for a week with refrigerated storage. However, this species reproduces ...
Polderman Kees H - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Mounting evidence suggests that mild to moderate hypothermia can mitigate neurologic and myocardial injury. The speed of induction appears to be a key factor in determining its efficacy. However, even when the fastest currently available cooling techniques are used, reaching target temperatures takes at least 2 hrs and usually ...
Verheij J - - 2006
BACKGROUND: The optimal type of fluid for treating hypovolaemia without evoking pulmonary oedema is still unclear, particularly in the presence of pulmonary vascular injury, as may occur after cardiac and major vascular surgery. METHODS: In a single-centre, prospective, single-blinded clinical trial 67 mechanically ventilated patients were randomly assigned to receive ...
Berggreen Ellen - - 2006
The submandibular gland transports fluid at a high rate through the interstitial space during salivation, but the exact level of all forces governing transcapillary fluid transport has not been established. In this study, our aim was to measure the relation between interstitial fluid volume (V(i)) and interstitial fluid pressure (P(if)) ...
Vrancken Sabine L - - 2005
In this retrospective study, we compared the effects of colloid versus crystalloid fluid replacement on the clinical signs of capillary leakage syndrome in 30 neonates with pulmonary hypertension due to meconium aspiration syndrome on venoarterial membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO). Before 2000, 15 neonates received volume replacement with a pasteurized plasma protein ...
Yin De-Wei - - 2005
The volumetric properties of highly-charged defect-free polyelectrolyte networks with tetrafunctional crosslinks are studied through molecular dynamics simulations in the canonical ensemble. The network backbone monomers, which are monovalent, and the counterions, which are mono-, di-, or trivalent, are modeled explicitly in the simulations, but the solvent is treated implicitly as ...
Deinert M R - - 2005
Defining a relation for equilibrium pressure in a porous medium has been difficult to do in terms of readily measurable parameters. We present a simplified analysis of this problem using the first law of thermodynamics combined with a fractal description of a porous system. The results show that the variation ...
Lu Y - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Hyaluronan (HA) in synovial fluid is vital to fluid retention in joint cavities. This study aims to evaluate a HA concentration polarization hypothesis and to examine, quantitatively, the agreement between theoretical predictions and experimental results. METHODS: A non-steady-state model was developed for HA ultrafiltration and concentration polarization on the ...
Haas David M - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To review the literature and evaluate the role of the amniotic fluid index (AFI) on the success of an external cephalic version (ECV). STUDY DESIGN: A computerized search of MEDLINE and Cochrane databases were conducted using 'breech', 'version', 'external cephalic version', 'amniotic fluid', and 'amniotic fluid index'. References from ...
Calosi Piero - - 2005
We investigated the effect of hyposmotic stress upon osmotic capacity (OC), heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) of an Atlantic population of the sandhopper Talitrus saltator. Strictly consecutive monitoring of cardiac activity and measurement of OC was achieved by employing a non-invasive infrared technique to monitor heart activity ...
van der Veen Albert J - - 2005
STUDY DESIGN: An in vitro mechanical study on porcine motion segments. OBJECTIVES: To test the validity of in vitro studies of the flow-related mechanics of the intervertebral disc and, in particular, to investigate whether fluid flows back into the disc during unloading after a loading cycle. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: ...
Wibberley Christopher A J - - 2005
An earthquake occurs when a fault weakens during the early portion of its slip at a faster rate than the release of tectonic stress driving the fault motion. This slip weakening occurs over a critical distance, D(c). Understanding the controls on D(c) in nature is severely limited, however, because the ...
Lew Roger R - - 2005
Mass flow of cytoplasm in Neurospora crassa trunk hyphae was directly confirmed by injecting oil droplets into the hyphae. The droplets move in a manner similar to cytoplasmic particles and vacuoles within the hyphae. The direction of mass flow is towards the growing hyphal tips at the colony edge. Based ...
Huang Yuesheng - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To explore a suitable formula of delayed rapid fluid resuscitation for patients with burn shock. METHODS: Twenty patients with burns over 40% of total body surface area (TBSA) admitted 4-8 h after injury were studied. Plasma was used as colloid in 9 cases in the infused patients (the plasma ...
Farstad Marit - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass is associated with increased fluid extravasation. This study aimed to compare whether iso-oncotic priming solutions, in contrast to crystalloids, could reduce the cold-induced fluid extravasation during cardiopulmonary bypass in piglets. METHODS: Three groups were studied: the control group (CT group; n = 10), the albumin group ...
Bathe Mark - - 2005
The osmotic pressure of chondroitin sulfate (CS) solution in contact with an aqueous 1:1 salt reservoir of fixed ionic strength is studied using a recently developed coarse-grained molecular model. The effects of sulfation type (4- vs. 6-sulfation), sulfation pattern (statistical distribution of sulfate groups along a chain), ionic strength, CS ...
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