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John S G - - 2008
Conventional low biocompatibility peritoneal dialysis (PD) fluid composition has been driven by manufacturing expediency and cost limitations. PD is associated with significant acute changes in cardiovascular functional parameters, at least in part influenced by fluid composition. Short-term control of blood pressure (BP) is under control of the baroreflex arc. The ...
Bell Andrew - - 2008
Almost universally, the effective stimulus for mammalian 9+0 primary cilia has been taken to be bending. In this article I point out that in several physiological contexts there is great advantage in detecting pressure differences across the cell wall, i.e. axially directed forces pushing fluid to and fro through the ...
Wright Bonnie D - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To determine how a combination of anesthetic drugs; including pre-medication, induction agents and inhalational agents; affect colloid osmotic pressure (COP) in the presence and absence of isotonic fluid administration. Secondarily, to determine if changes in total plasma protein (TPP) correlate with COP in anesthetized patients. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, randomized ...
Errico Jason A - - 2008
Objective-To compare isolated limb retrograde venous injection (ILRVI) and isolated limb infusion (ILI) for delivery of amikacin to the synovial fluid of the distal interphalangeal and metacarpophalangeal joints and to evaluate the efficacy of use of an Esmarch tourniquet in standing horses. Animals-6 healthy adult horses. Procedures-Horses were randomly assigned ...
Grattoni Alessandro - - 2008
Osmometry is an essential technique for solution analysis and the investigation of chemical and biological phenomena. Commercially available osmometers rely on the measurements of freezing point, vapor pressure, and osmotic pressure of solutions. Although vapor pressure osmometry (VPO) and freezing point osmometry (FPO) can perform rapid and inexpensive measurements, they ...
Espinasse Benjamin - - 2008
A filtration procedure was developed to measure the reversibility of fouling during cross-flow filtration based on the square wave of applied pressure. The principle of this method, the apparatus required, and the associated mathematical relationships are detailed. This method allows for differentiating the reversible accumulation of matter on, and the ...
Cruz Laura N - - 2008
Volume changes of cardiac tissue under hyperosmotic stress in Rana catesbeiana were characterized by the identification of the osmolytes involved and the possible regulatory processes activated by both abrupt and gradual changes in media osmolality (from 220 to 280mosmol/kg H(2)O). Slices of R. catesbeiana cardiac tissue were subjected to hyperosmotic ...
Mohta Medha - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: The objectives were to evaluate haemodynamic, electrolyte and metabolic changes in patients undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy when normal saline was used for irrigation; and to correlate these changes with irrigation time, volume of irrigation fluid absorbed and number of percutaneous interventions. METHODS: Twenty adults undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy were studied. Heart ...
Jain Arsh K - - 2008
Previous studies indicate that fluid loss during dialysis occurs from the leg extracellular fluid (ECF) maintaining the central blood volume (CBV). Our goal was to determine change in ECF and intracellular fluid (ICF) volumes for the segments of the body throughout the inter-dialytic period. Six conventional and five daily subjects ...
Miserocchi G - - 2008
We discuss the translocation of inhaled asbestos fibers based on pulmonary and pleuro-pulmonary interstitial fluid dynamics. Fibers can pass the alveolar barrier and reach the lung interstitium via the paracellular route down a mass water flow due to combined osmotic (active Na+ absorption) and hydraulic (interstitial pressure is subatmospheric) pressure ...
Lin Judy L JL Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, - - 2008
The delicate mesothelial surfaces of the pleural space and other serosal cavities slide relative to each, lubricated by pleural fluid. In the absence of breathing motion, differences between lung and chest wall shape could eventually cause the lungs and chest wall to come into contact. Whether sliding motion keeps lungs ...
Dongaonkar R M - - 2008
Under physiological conditions, interstitial fluid volume is tightly regulated by balancing microvascular filtration and lymphatic return to the central venous circulation. Even though microvascular filtration and lymphatic return are governed by conservation of mass, their interaction can result in exceedingly complex behavior. Without making simplifying assumptions, investigators must solve the ...
Baldwin I - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: Extended intermittent dialytic techniques are increasingly being reported in the treatment of ARF in the ICU but few randomized controlled trials exist. We compared one such technique to a technique of continuous renal replacement therapy with regard to fluid removal and hemodynamics. METHODS: Sixteen critically ill patients with ARF ...
Bi Yueqi - - 2007
A controlled porosity osmotic pump system with biphasic release of theophylline was developed for the nocturnal therapy of asthma. The developed system was composed of a tablet-in-tablet (TNT) core and a controlled porosity coating membrane. Release pattern of the developed system was influenced by amount of pore former (18.2-45.5%, w/w ...
Hong Junghwa - - 2008
Cortical bone is a composite material consisting of a porous elastic solid and viscous fluid. It is well known that the intraosseous fluid circulates as a result of a bone fluid pressure gradient in the porous space of the cortical bone. When a time-dependent mechanical load is applied to the ...
Haupt Ulrich - - 2008
The case of intra- and retroperitoneal irrigation solution after hip arthroscopy of a 15-year-old girl is presented. She underwent hip arthroscopy for intra-articular adhesiolysis after previous surgical dislocation of the hip for the treatment of femoroacetabular impingement. Arthroscopy was performed in the lateral decubitus position without traction to debride the ...
Mittermayr Markus - - 2007
BACKGROUND: To explore whether disturbed fibrin polymerization is the main problem underlying dilutional coagulopathy and can be reversed by fibrinogen administration, we conducted a prospective study using modified thrombelastography (ROTEM). METHODS: Sixty-six orthopedic patients randomly received modified gelatin solution, hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4, or exclusively Ringer lactate solution. ROTEM analysis was ...
Schroeder Yvonne - - 2007
Because extrafibrillar water content dictates extrafibrillar osmolarity, we aimed to determine the influence of intra- and extrafibrillar fluid exchange on intradiscal pressures and stresses. As experimental results showed that extrafibrillar osmolarity affects intervertebral disc cell gene expression and crack propagation, quantification of the effects of changes in intra- and extrafibrillar ...
Chen Xiaoming X Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, 212 MAE-A, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, - - 2007
Infusion-based techniques are promising drug delivery methods for treating diseases of the nervous system. Direct infusion into tissue parenchyma circumvents the blood-brain barrier, localizes delivery, and facilitates transport of macromolecular agents. Computational models that predict interstitial flow and solute transport may aid in protocol design and optimization. We have developed ...
Demyttenaere Sebastian V - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Although aggressive fluid hydration prevents a decrease in renal cortical perfusion (RCP) during laparoscopic donor nephrectomy, excess fluid is deleterious. We assessed whether goal-directed fluid administration, based on hemodynamic measures, would maintain RCP during pneumoperitoneum with less fluid loading. METHODS: In a pilot study of 7 pigs, goal-directed fluid ...
Stoner Michael J - - 2007
STUDY OBJECTIVE: The 2002 American College of Critical Care Medicine (ACCM) guidelines for the resuscitation of pediatric septic shock suggest that 20 mL/kg of bolus intravenous fluid be given within 5 minutes. Of 3 commonly used, inexpensive methods of fluid delivery, we hypothesized that only use of a manual push-pull ...
Hamada Yoshinobu - - 2007
Correlation between phase behaviors of a Lennard-Jones fluid in and outside a pore is examined over wide thermodynamic conditions by grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations. A pressure tensor component of the confined fluid, a variable controllable in simulation but usually uncontrollable in experiment, is related with the pressure of a ...
Puibasset Joël - - 2007
The thermodynamic pressure or grand potential density is calculated by isobaric-isothermal Monte Carlo algorithm for simple Lennard-Jones fluid confined in cylindrical pores presenting chemical heterogeneities along their axis. Heuristic arguments and simulation results show that the thermodynamic pressure of the confined fluid contains two contributions. The first term is the ...
Takaba Hiromitsu - - 2007
An extended nonequilibrium molecular dynamics technique has been developed to investigate the transport properties of pressure-driven fluid flow in thin nanoporous membranes. Our simulation technique allows the simulation of the pressure-driven permeation of liquids through membranes while keeping a constant driving pressure using fluctuating walls. The flow of argon in ...
Kotzampassi Katerina - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether the increase of the retroperitoneal compartment pressure, as in the case of peripancreatic fluid accumulation in severe acute pancreatitis, simulated by infusing a colloid fluid into the retroperitoneum, has any effect on pancreatic tissue blood flow. METHODS: Six male anesthetized swine were subjected to a transcutaneous ...
Acharya Seetharama A - - 2007
TetraPEGylated canine Hb, [SP (succinimidophenyl)-PEG5K]4-canine-Hb, with PEGylation at its four reactive cysteine residues (a111 and b93) has been prepared and characterized. The hydrodynamic volume and the molecular radius of (SP-PEG5K)4-canine-Hb are intermediate to those of di- and hexaPEGylated human Hb as expected. However, the COP (colloidal osmotic pressure) of tetraPEGylated ...
Speziale S - - 2008
Starling's seminal work on the absorption of fluids from connective tissue spaces (and Starling's hypothesis that the energy for transcapillary flow lies in the difference between hydrostatic and osmotic pressures across the capillary wall) has long formed the basis of much of experimental physiology. Related recent experimental evidence points to ...
Aletti Federico - - 2007
Interstitial fluid balance is severely altered in microgravity, but the mechanisms underlying the fluid shift from lower to upper body are still partially unclear. A lumped parameter model of the arterial tree with active and non linear modulation of peripheral resistances and capillary fluid exchange was adopted to simulate the ...
Bramley Helen - - 2007
Hydrostatic pressure relaxations with the root pressure probe are commonly used for measuring the hydraulic conductivity (Lp(r)) of roots. We compared the Lp(r) of roots from species with different root hydraulic properties (Lupinus angustifolius L. 'Merrit', Lupinus luteus L. 'Wodjil', Triticum aestivum L. 'Kulin' and Zea mays L. 'Pacific DK ...
Shaw Scott P - - 2007
Pericardial effusion is the abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pericardial space. As the fluid volume and intrapericardial pressure increase, cardiac tamponade can develop. The most common causes of pericardial effusion include cardiac hemangiosarcoma, idiopathic pericardial effusion, and chemodectoma. Understanding the underlying cause is important in providing treatment recommendations and ...
Darling A L - - 2007
Manipulation of interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) has a clinical potential when used in conjunction with near-infrared spectroscopy for the detection of breast cancer. In order to better interpret how the applied pressure alters the vascular space and interstitial water volumes in breast tissue, a study on tissue-mimicking, gelatin phantoms was ...
Atzberger Paul J - - 2007
The basic ingredient of osmotic pressure is a solvent fluid with a soluble molecular species which is restricted to a chamber by a boundary which is permeable to the solvent fluid but impermeable to the solute molecules. For macroscopic systems at equilibrium, the osmotic pressure is given by the classical ...
de Boer Dolf - - 2007
The mechanisms for stress-induced changes in hematocrit and blood viscosity are unclear. Twenty-two males completed experimental (30 min baseline, 10 min mental stress, 30 min recovery) and no-stress control conditions (70 min). Hemostatic and hemodynamic activity were measured throughout. Hematocrit, colloid osmotic pressure, and blood viscosity displayed parallel patterns: a ...
Morgan T J - - 2007
Fluids balanced to avoid acid-base disturbances may be preferable to saline, which causes metabolic acidosis in high volume. We evaluated acid-base and bio-energetic effects of haemodilution with a crystalloid balanced on physical chemical principles, versus crystalloids causing metabolic acidosis or metabolic alkalosis. Anaesthetised, mechanically ventilated Sprague-Dawley rats (n=32, allocated to ...
Zonia Laura - - 2007
H(2)O is one of the most essential molecules for cellular life. Cell volume, osmolality and hydrostatic pressure are tightly controlled by multiple signaling cascades and they drive crucial cellular functions ranging from exocytosis and growth to apoptosis. Ion fluxes and cell shape restructuring induce asymmetries in osmotic potential across the ...
Charoenlarp Panta - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between pain intensity and the rate of fluid flow through dentine in human subjects. DESIGN: The experiments were carried out on 16 premolars in 13 human subjects (aged 15-25 years). Dentine was exposed at the tip of the buccal cusp, etched with acid and covered ...
Tatara Tsuneo - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Surgical injury causes acute sequestration of interstitial fluid in injured tissue. Fluid sequestration treated with IV fluid administration can lead to postoperative complications related to excessive intravascular volume. Quantitative prediction of interstitial fluid sequestration may foster a better understanding of the relationship between fluid administered and the resulting balance ...
Monnet Xavier - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Fluid responsiveness requires the accurate measurement of cardiac output that can be approached by aortic blood flow (ABF) as measured by esophageal Doppler monitoring (EDM). EDM devices may either include an echo-determination of aortic diameter or estimate aortic diameter from nomograms and thus consider it as constant. However, it ...
Morris Robert H - - 2007
This paper presents and demonstrates a method for using magnetic resonance imaging to measure local pressure of a fluid saturating a porous medium. The method is tested both in a static system of packed silica gel and in saturated sintered glass cylinders experiencing fluid flow. The fluid used contains 3% ...
Stachowska-Pietka Joanna - - 2007
The present article provides a theoretical description of the changes of interstitial hydrostatic pressure, tissue hydration, and protein distribution in the tissue during a peritoneal dwell with isotonic fluid. The mathematical model is based on the concept of uniformly distributed capillary and lymphatic systems within a deformable, porous tissue. Protein ...
Kaehler G F B A - - 2007
BACKGROUND/AIM: Numerous new techniques have recently been reported and described for the endoscopic mucosal resection of large superficial lesions of the gastrointestinal tract. We present here for the first time the application of a water jet dissector for mucosa elevation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In an ex vivo study, the effectiveness ...
de Boer Dolf - - 2007
Hemoconcentration to mental stress has been implicated in acute cardiovascular events. Participants were exposed to a 30-min baseline, a 4-min stress task, and a 40-min recovery; they also undertook a 74-min no-stress control session. Hemodynamic activity was recorded and blood sampled regularly and analyzed for hematocrit, colloid osmotic pressure, and ...
Waniewski Jacek - - 2007
We investigated a distributed model for the transport of fluid and glucose that allows for the description of hydrostatic pressure, interstitial fluid void volume, and glucose profiles in the tissue. Computer simulations for conditions mimicking the initial minutes of a peritoneal dialysis dwell with 3.86% glucose demonstrated that the rate ...
Martínez Chávez G A GA Servicio de Nefrología Hospital Central Militar, - - 2007
The present paper shows the design and development the on-line measure of urea in blood during paired filtration dialysis (PFD), using non-invasive technical by employ the optical sensing in the visible range. We design and used a simple prototype for measurement the Nitrogen Ureic in Blood (BUN) by employ the ...
Thomas J Matthew - - 2007
The effects of acoustic wave propagation on the transport of colloids in saturated porous media were investigated by injecting Uranine (conservative tracer) as well as blue and red polystyrene microspheres (colloids of different diameters; 0.10 and 0.028 mum, respectively) into a column packed with glass beads. Experiments were conducted by ...
Van Thienen T G - - 2007
Insight in the osmotic behavior of degrading hydrogels is of great importance in the design of biodegradable hydrogels for biomedical applications. This study compares the degradation behavior of PEG-HEMA (hydroxyethylmethacrylated polyethylene glycol) and dex-HEMA (hydroxyethylmethacrylated dextran) hydrogels. The degradation of PEG-HEMA gels takes several months to over a year, while ...
Jin Ren-Cun - - 2007
The effect of osmotic pressure on nitrification was studied in a lab-scale internal-loop airlift-nitrifying reactor. The reactor slowly adapted to the escalating osmotic pressure during 270 days operation. The conditions were reversed to the initial stage upon full inhibition of the process. Keeping influent ammonium concentration constant at 420 mg ...
Kasschau Margaret R - - 2007
Coelomocytes, the immunodefense cells of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris, are exposed to changing osmotic pressures as the worm's coelomic fluid responds to fluctuating wet-dry conditions of the surrounding soil. Using light and fluorescence microscopy combined with actin and tubulin disrupting drugs, we determined the effects of changing osmotic pressure on ...
Jacob Matthias - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To test the role of an oncotic pressure gradient across the endothelial glycocalyx with respect to extravasation of fluid and colloids and development of tissue edema in a whole organ setting. METHODS: We measured filtration in the intact coronary system of isolated guinea pig hearts, comparing colloid-free perfusion and ...
Marucci Mariagrazia - - 2007
The aim of this study was to develop a simple experimental methodology and to develop a mechanistic model to characterize the release mechanism from pellets developing cracks during the release process with special focus on osmotic effects. The release of remoxipride from pellets coated with an ethyl cellulose film was ...
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