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Wolfensberger Thomas J - - 2010
Blood-retinal barrier breakdown with macular edema is caused by many diseases, which modulate--via different growth factors--the integrity of the tight junctions. Starling's law predicts furthermore that macular edema will develop if the hydrostatic pressure gradient between capillary and retinal tissue is increased, for example in the presence of elevated blood ...
Huesa Carmen - - 2010
Bone responds to changes in its mechanical environment, but the mechanisms by which it does so are poorly understood. One hypothesis of mechanosensing in bone states that osteocytes can sense the flow of fluid through the canalicular system. To study this in vitro a number of fluid flow devices have ...
Sabourin Justin L - - 2009
We have compared the combustion of the monopropellant nitromethane with that of nitromethane containing colloidal particles of functionalized graphene sheets or metal hydroxides. The linear steady-state burning rates of the monopropellant and colloidal suspensions were determined at room temperature, under a range of pressures (3.35-14.4 MPa) using argon as a ...
Yamada Kunio - - 2009
Petal growth associated with flower opening depends on cell expansion. To understand the role of soluble carbohydrates in petal cell expansion during flower opening, changes in soluble carbohydrate concentrations in vacuole, cytoplasm and apoplast of petal cells during flower opening in rose (Rosa hybrida L.) were investigated. We determined the ...
Ohno Masae - - 2009
To apply accurate and uniform osmotic pressures to liposomes, they can be formed using the spontaneous transfer method in solutions with different osmolarities. The majority of liposomes unexpectedly opened large holes (several micrometers in diameter) in response to the osmotic pressure regardless of its strength, that is, the difference between ...
Cartotto Robert - - 2009
Increased capillary permeability and reduced plasma colloid osmotic pressure following burn injury result in hypovolemia and development of edema in the burn and nonburn tissues. Replenishment of the intravascular deficit with crystalloid fluid has been the mainstay of resuscitation for the better part of four decades. A progressive but as ...
Derichard A - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Off-line calculation of the pulse pressure variation (PPV(ref)) has repeatedly been shown to be a reliable predictor of fluid responsiveness in mechanically ventilated patients. This study was designed to assess the ability of two algorithms for automated calculation of PPV (PPV(auto)) (Intellivue MP 70) and stroke volume variation (SVV(auto)) ...
Yeo Seung-Gu - - 2009
PURPOSE: To investigate tumor interstitial fluid pressure as a prognostic factor for recurrence-free survival in patients with cervical cancer following radiation therapy. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Tumor interstitial fluid pressure was measured in 55 cervical cancer patients who received radiation therapy between August 1998 and September 2002. Interstitial fluid pressure measurements were ...
Cowin Stephen C - - 2009
The governing equations for the theory of poroelastic materials with hierarchical pore space architecture and compressible constituents undergoing small deformations are developed. These equations are applied to the problem of determining the exchange of pore fluid between the vascular porosity (PV) and the lacunar-canalicular porosity (PLC) in bone tissue due ...
Wills Peter R - - 2009
A procedure is described for the direct analysis of osmotic pressure data for reversibly dimerizing proteins that makes allowance for effects of thermodynamic nonideality on the statistical-mechanical basis of the potential-of-mean-force between molecules. Detailed consideration is also given to calculation of the magnitudes of the required virial coefficients. After illustration ...
Yamada Kunio - - 2009
Petal growth associated with flower opening depends on cell expansion. To understand the role of soluble carbohydrates in petal cell expansion during flower opening, changes in soluble carbohydrate concentrations in vacuole, cytoplasm and apoplast of petal cells during flower opening in rose (Rosa hybrida L.) were investigated. We determined the ...
Aghamohammadzadeh Soheil - - 2009
Key features of clathrin-mediated endocytosis have been conserved across evolution. However, endocytosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is completely dependent on a functional actin cytoskeleton, whereas actin appears to be less critical in mammalian cell endocytosis. We reveal that the fundamental requirement for actin in the early stages of yeast endocytosis is ...
Tokuda Shinsaku - - 2009
The effect of hydrostatic pressure on the paracellular ion conductance (Gp) composed of the Na(+) conductance (G(Na)) and the Cl(-) conductance (G(Cl)) has been Investigated. Gp, G(Na) and G(Cl) were time-dependently increased after applying an osmotic gradient generated by NaCl with basolateral hypotonicity. Hydrostatic pressure (1-4cm H2O) applied from the ...
Qu Lei - - 2009
Synaptic vesicle (SV) size is one parameter that controls the amount of neurotransmitter released from individual SVs and, therefore, is fundamental to our understanding of synaptic function. The recently discovered variability of mean SV size among excitatory hippocampal synapses -- if actively regulated -- is a potential mechanism for the ...
Jin Judy - - 2009
INTRODUCTION: Seroma formation is one of the most common post operative complications related to abdominal wall hernia repairs with mesh. We hypothesized that the different biomaterials used to construct commonly used prosthetic mesh may influence permeability to fluid and affect seroma formation rates. METHODS: We designed an in vitro study ...
Ateshian Gerard A GA Departments of Mechanical Engineering and Biomedical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA. - - 2009
Over the last two decades, considerable progress has been reported in the field of cartilage mechanics that impacts our understanding of the role of interstitial fluid pressurization on cartilage lubrication. Theoretical and experimental studies have demonstrated that the interstitial fluid of cartilage pressurizes considerably under loading, potentially supporting most of ...
Furuse Mikio - - 2009
In morphogenetic events during developmental processes, the hydrostatic pressure caused by fluid accumulation is thought to be an important factor determining the shape of epithelial structures. Recent studies using loss of function of claudins have demonstrated that tight junctions, by their control of fluid accumulation, have crucial roles in morphogenesis. ...
Liang Shuang - - 2009
Driving pressure and recovery are two primary design variables of a reverse osmosis process that largely determine the total cost of seawater and brackish water desalination. A two-step optimization procedure was developed in this paper to determine the values of driving pressure and recovery that minimize the total cost of ...
Ben-Yaakov Dan - - 2009
The forces between charged macromolecules, usually given in terms of osmotic pressure, are highly affected by the intervening ionic solution. While in most theoretical studies the solution is treated as a homogeneous structureless dielectric medium, recent experimental studies concluded that, for a bathing solution composed of two solvents (binary mixture), ...
van der Heijden Melanie - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To compare crystalloid and colloid fluids in their effect on pulmonary edema in hypovolemic septic and nonseptic patients with or at risk for acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome. We hypothesized that 1) crystalloid loading results in more edema formation than colloid loading and 2) the differences among the ...
Wang Tzu-Yu - - 2009
The effects of macromolecular architecture on the osmotic pressure pi and virial coefficients (B(2) and B(3)) of star and comb polymers in good solvents are studied by dissipative particle dynamics simulations for both dilute and semiconcentrated regimes. The dependence of the osmotic pressure on polymer concentration is directly calculated by ...
McGee Maria P - - 2009
Water transfer across the extracellular matrix (ECM) involves interstitial osmotic forces in as yet unclear ways. In particular, the traditional values of Starling forces cannot adequately explain fluid transfer rates. Here, we reassess these forces by analyzing fluid transfer in live pig and human dermal explants. Pressure potentials were controlled ...
Deboeuf Angélique - - 2009
The normal stress exerted by particles in a sheared suspension is measured by analogy with a method used to measure osmotic pressure in solutions. Particles in a liquid are confined by a fine screen to a gap between two vertical concentric cylinders, the inner of which rotates. Pressure in the ...
Gauthé Béatrice L L E - - 2009
In this paper, we report on a novel osmotic cell, developed to simultaneously subject a sample to osmotic stress and measure structural changes by small angle x-ray diffraction. The osmotic cell offers many advantages over more conventional methods of osmotically stressing soft materials to measure their structural response. In particular, ...
Wu Jianguang - - 2009
Cells have to undergo many changes in osmotic pressure during their long-term preservation, and will have injuries before they return to their normal states. Mechanics of a cell with deformation, either small or large, is usually used to describe the change of the cell quantitatively. However, there are few reports ...
Natsume Osamu - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the pathophysiology of nocturnal polyuria associated with aging. METHODS: Fifty patients (mean age 67.7 years, range 50-87) with nocturia were recruited for this prospective study. Patients were classified into nocturnal polyuria (NP) and non-nocturnal polyuria (non-NP) groups based on records of their frequency-volume charts. A hypertonic saline ...
Sugiura T - - 2009
To determine the frequency and clinical correlates of asymptomatic pericardial effusion (PE) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), echocardiography and electrocardiography were performed in 50 consecutive patients with SLE. Among 50 patients with SLE, 12 patients (24%) had PE and 17 patients (34%) had hypoalbuminaemia. Patients with PE had ...
Wierzcholski Krzysztof Ch - - 2009
The present paper deals with the calculations of the pressure distributions, carrying capacities and friction forces derivations in a super- thin layer of biological synovial fluid inside the slide biobearing gap limited by a spherical, conical, cylindrical, parabolic, hyperbolic bone heads. There are also described unsteady and random flow conditions ...
Schortgen Frédérique - - 2009
Fluid resuscitation is widely used, and many patients are therefore exposed to plasma volume expanders. Among these, colloids, particularly hydroxyethyl starches, have been shown in recent experiments and clinical studies to induce acute kidney injury. The mechanisms of colloid-induced acute kidney injury remain incompletely elucidated. The risks associated with colloid ...
Tsekov Roumen - - 2008
We study theoretically the osmotic equilibria for a shell immersed in a suspension of polyions (e.g., colloids, polyelectrolytes, etc.). The shell is treated as impermeable for polyions, but allowing free diffusion of counterions that permeate inside the shell. From the solution of linearized Poisson-Boltzmann equation, we obtain the distribution of ...
Lunt Sarah Jane - - 2008
Interstitial fluid pressure is elevated in virtually all solid malignant tumors as a result of abnormalities of the vasculature and interstitium. High interstitial fluid pressure is an independent predictor of disease recurrence in cervical cancer patients treated with radiotherapy, has been implicated as an important factor that impairs the delivery ...
Jørgensen C C - - 2009
BACKGROUND: An individualized fluid optimization strategy, based on maximization of cardiac stroke volume (SV) with colloid boluses (goal-directed therapy), improves outcome after surgery. Oesophageal Doppler (OD) is used for SV maximization in most randomized studies, but evidence-based guidelines for the SV maximization procedure are lacking and variation in SV may ...
Nathan Saminathan S - - 2008
We have previously shown that osteosarcomas (OS) have states of increased interstitial fluid pressure (IFP), which correlate with increased proliferation and chemosensitivity. In this study, we hypothesized that constitutively raised IFP in OS regulates angiogenesis. Sixteen patients with the clinical diagnosis of OS underwent blood flow and IFP readings by ...
Jiang Jason J School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 311 Ferst Drive, Atlanta, GA 30332-0100, - - 2009
This study tested the hypothesis that hollow microneedles can infuse solutions containing soluble molecules, nanoparticles, and microparticles into sclera in a minimally invasive manner. Individual hollow microneedles were inserted into, but not across, human cadaver sclera and aqueous solutions containing sulforhodamine or fluorescently tagged nanoparticles or microparticles were infused into ...
Chappell Daniel - - 2008
Replacement of assumed preoperative deficits, in addition to generous substitution of an unsubstantiated increased insensible perspiration and third space loss, plays an important role in current perioperative fluid regimens. The consequence is a positive fluid balance and weight gain of up to 10 kg, which may be related to severe ...
Westhoff M - - 2008
Seasonal variations in osmolality and components of xylem sap in tall birch trees were determined using several techniques. Xylem sap was extracted from branch and trunk sections of 58 trees using the very rapid gas bubble-based jet-discharge method. The 5-cm long wood pieces were taken at short intervals over the ...
Choi Chul-Hee - - 2008
The cochlear amplifier is required for the exquisite sensitivity of mammalian hearing. Outer hair cells underlie the cochlear amplifier and they are unique in that they maintain an intracellular turgor pressure. Changing the turgor pressure of an isolated outer hair cells through osmotic challenge modulates its ability to produce electromotile ...
Günther Gerrit - - 2008
By means of in situ small-angle x-ray diffraction experiments and semi-grand-canonical ensemble Monte Carlo simulations we demonstrate that sorption and condensation of a fluid confined within nanopores is capable of deforming the pore walls. At low pressures the pore is widened due to a repulsive interaction caused by collisions of ...
Bayne Aaron - - 2008
PURPOSE: Abdominoscrotal hydrocele is a poorly understood entity and multiple theories attempt to explain its occurrence. To our knowledge the factors contributing to the formation of abdominoscrotal hydrocele are unknown, as are its cellular, biochemical and hydrostatic properties. We prospectively evaluated abdominoscrotal hydrocele at surgery to define its cause and ...
Lu Yiling - - 2008
The Movement of the interstitial fluid in extracellular matrices not only affects the mechanical properties of soft tissues, but also facilitates the transport of nutrients and the removal of waste products. In this study, we aim to quantify interstitial fluid movement and fluid-matrix interaction in a new loading configuration-confined tissue ...
Cirelli Damián - - 2008
Two theories have been proposed to explain how high positive pressures are developed in sugar maple stems when temperatures fluctuate around freezing. The Milburn-O'Malley theory proposes that pressure development is purely physical and does not require living cells or sucrose. The osmotic theory invokes the involvement of living cells and ...
Osthaus Wilhelm Alexander - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Evidence-based guidelines on optimal perioperative fluid management in infants have not been established. Recent randomized trials in major abdominal surgery in adults suggest that large volumes of fluid may increase morbidity and hospital stay. Our own clinical experience in infants undergoing laparoscopic surgery is different. So the aim of ...
Patterson Stephen M - - 2008
The goal of this study was to assess the possible attenuating effects of oral fluid loading on hematological and hemodynamic factors during acute psychological stress in two separate experiments: Experiment 1 assessed the effects of hypotonic fluid loading (water) and Experiment 2 assessed the effects of isotonic fluid loading (Gatorade). ...
Hassid Yaron - - 2008
Solid tumors often develop high interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) as a result of increased water leakage and impaired lymphatic drainage, as well as changes in the extracellular matrix composition and elasticity. This high fluid pressure forms a barrier to drug delivery and hence, resistance to therapy. We have developed techniques ...
Hochberg Irit - - 2008
Alveolar fluid clearance (AFC) is important in keeping the airspaces free of edema. This process is accomplished via passive and active transport of Na(+) across the alveolo-capillary barrier mostly by apical Na(+) channels and basolateral Na,K-ATPases, respectively. Patterns of alveolar fluid clearance were found to be decreased in acutely elevated ...
Man Weining - - 2008
Useful films can be formed by drying colloidal dispersions, but the negative capillary pressure generated often promotes cracks. Complex lateral flows during drying compromised previous measurements of the pressure required for cracking. Here we report data for the onset of cracking, and the additional cracks that appear at higher pressures, ...
Caon Martin - - 2008
Nurses are routinely involved in the collecting and testing of urine and plasma, dialysis, the administration of intravenous fluids and the treatment of osmolar disorders, all of which require an understanding of solution concentration. This article discusses the various ways in which the concentration of solutions are stated, how they ...
Li Jing - - 2008
The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of osmotic pressure on myocardial contractility and the possible mechanism. Electrical stimulation was used to excite papillary muscles of the left ventricle of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. The contractilities of myocardium in hyposmotic, isosmotic, and hyperosmotic perfusates were recorded. The ...
Paniagua R - - 2008
The use of icodextrin as an osmotic agent in solutions for peritoneal dialysis (PD) has important cardiovascular effects related with better control of extracellular volume. Among them, reduction of arterial pressure and an improvement in echocardiographic parameters stand out. In diabetic patients, icodextrin has additional potential advantages related with better ...
Lu Chunmeng - - 2008
In this paper, we describe an interstitial bonding technique for packaging of microfluidic chips. The cover plate is first placed on top of the microfluidic chip, followed by dispensing the UV-curable resin into the resin-loading reservoirs. With the interstitial space between the cover plate and the microfluidic chip connecting to ...
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